PostgreSQL 并行计算解说 之23 - parallel append merge-阿里云开发者社区

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PostgreSQL 并行计算解说 之23 - parallel append merge

简介: 标签 PostgreSQL , cpu 并行 , smp 并行 , 并行计算 , gpu 并行 , 并行过程支持 背景 PostgreSQL 11 优化器已经支持了非常多场合的并行。简单估计,已支持27余种场景的并行计算。 parallel seq scan

标签

PostgreSQL , cpu 并行 , smp 并行 , 并行计算 , gpu 并行 , 并行过程支持


背景

PostgreSQL 11 优化器已经支持了非常多场合的并行。简单估计,已支持27余种场景的并行计算。

parallel seq scan                                              
                                              
parallel index scan                                              
                                              
parallel index only scan                                              
                                              
parallel bitmap scan                                              
                                              
parallel filter                                              
                                          
parallel hash agg                                          
                                          
parallel group agg                                          
                                              
parallel cte                                              
                                              
parallel subquery                                              
                                              
parallel create table                                              
                                              
parallel create index                                              
                                              
parallel select into                                              
                                              
parallel CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW                                              
                                              
parallel 排序 : gather merge                                               
                                              
parallel nestloop join                                              
                                              
parallel hash join                                              
                                              
parallel merge join                                              
                                              
parallel 自定义并行聚合                                              
                                              
parallel 自定义并行UDF                                              
                                              
parallel append             
    
parallel append merge         
                                              
parallel union                                              
                                              
parallel fdw table scan                                              
                                              
parallel partition join                                              
                                              
parallel partition agg                                              
                                              
parallel gather                                      
                              
parallel gather merge                              
                                              
parallel rc 并行                                              
                                              
parallel rr 并行                                              
                                              
parallel GPU 并行                                              
                                              
parallel unlogged table            
          
lead parallel        

接下来进行一一介绍。

关键知识请先自行了解:

1、优化器自动并行度算法 CBO

《PostgreSQL 9.6 并行计算 优化器算法浅析》

《PostgreSQL 11 并行计算算法,参数,强制并行度设置》

parallel append merge

多段并行执行并且排序

例如分区表的操作,当一个QUERY涉及多个分区时,每个分区的执行部分为一个独立段,多个分区可以并行执行,优化器支持结果并行 append。

如果多段执行的结果需要排序,那么优化器可以在每个段内返回有序结果,可以使用归并排序(类似merge sort, gather merge)(parallel append merge)。

parallel append与gather merge同时出现,说明使用了MergeAppend。

src/backend/executor/nodeMergeAppend.c

/* INTERFACE ROUTINES  
 *              ExecInitMergeAppend             - initialize the MergeAppend node  
 *              ExecMergeAppend                 - retrieve the next tuple from the node  
 *              ExecEndMergeAppend              - shut down the MergeAppend node  
 *              ExecReScanMergeAppend   - rescan the MergeAppend node  
 *  
 *       NOTES  
 *              A MergeAppend node contains a list of one or more subplans.  
 *              These are each expected to deliver tuples that are sorted according  
 *              to a common sort key.  The MergeAppend node merges these streams  
 *              to produce output sorted the same way.  
 *  
 *              MergeAppend nodes don't make use of their left and right  
 *              subtrees, rather they maintain a list of subplans so  
 *              a typical MergeAppend node looks like this in the plan tree:  
 *  
 *                                 ...  
 *                                 /  
 *                              MergeAppend---+------+------+--- nil  
 *                              /       \                 |              |              |  
 *                        nil   nil              ...    ...    ...  
 *                                                               subplans  
 */  

数据量:10亿

场景数据量关闭并行开启并行并行度开启并行性能提升倍数
parallel append merge10亿99.4 秒5.87 秒2416.93 倍

由于parallel append可能与SCAN parallel重复使用,为了避免重复,可以将分区表的parallel_workers设置为0,同时使用hit强制设置主表的parallel,这样就可以达到设定parallel append并行度的目的。

https://www.openscg.com/bigsql/docs/hintplan/

git clone https://github.com/ossc-db/pg_hint_plan  
cd pg_hint_plan/  
git checkout PG11  
USE_PGXS=1 make  
USE_PGXS=1 make install  
  
vi $PGDATA/postgresql.conf  
shared_preload_libraries = 'pg_hint_plan'  
  
pg_ctl restart -m fast  

例子,24个分区的HASH分区表。

CREATE unlogged TABLE ccc (        
    order_id     bigint not null,        
    cust_id      bigint not null,        
    status       text        
) PARTITION BY HASH (cust_id);        
      
do language plpgsql $$      
declare      
begin      
  for i in 0..23 loop      
    execute format('CREATE unlogged TABLE %s%s PARTITION OF %s FOR VALUES WITH (MODULUS %s, REMAINDER %s)', 'ccc', i, 'ccc', 24, i);       
    execute format('alter table %s%s set(parallel_workers =0)', 'ccc',i);      
  end loop;      
end;      
$$;      
      
postgres=# \d ccc      
            Unlogged table "public.ccc"      
  Column  |  Type  | Collation | Nullable | Default       
----------+--------+-----------+----------+---------      
 order_id | bigint |           | not null |       
 cust_id  | bigint |           | not null |       
 status   | text   |           |          |       
Partition key: HASH (cust_id)      
Number of partitions: 24 (Use \d+ to list them.)      

写入10亿数据

insert into ccc select i, random()*960 from generate_series(1,1000000000) t(i);      
vacuum (analyze,verbose) ccc;      
postgres=# show max_worker_processes ;        
 max_worker_processes         
----------------------        
 128        
(1 row)        
postgres=# set min_parallel_table_scan_size =0;        
postgres=# set min_parallel_index_scan_size =0;        
postgres=# set parallel_tuple_cost =0;        
postgres=# set parallel_setup_cost =0;        
postgres=# set max_parallel_workers=128;        
postgres=# set max_parallel_workers_per_gather =24;        
postgres=# set enable_parallel_hash =on;        
postgres=# set enable_parallel_append =on;        
postgres=# set enable_partitionwise_aggregate =off;        
postgres=# set work_mem ='128MB';        

1、关闭并行,耗时: 99.4 秒。

postgres=# set max_parallel_workers_per_gather =0;        
postgres=# set enable_parallel_append =off;        
        
        
postgres=# explain select * from ccc order by order_id limit 10;     
                                     QUERY PLAN                                       
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Limit  (cost=42015064.65..42015064.67 rows=10 width=48)  
   ->  Sort  (cost=42015064.65..44515064.93 rows=1000000114 width=48)  
         Sort Key: ccc0.order_id  
         ->  Append  (cost=0.00..20405421.71 rows=1000000114 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc0  (cost=0.00..641839.96 rows=41663296 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc1  (cost=0.00..625842.88 rows=40624888 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc2  (cost=0.00..722107.36 rows=46873636 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc3  (cost=0.00..545575.32 rows=35414332 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc4  (cost=0.00..657705.92 rows=42693192 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc5  (cost=0.00..609836.16 rows=39585616 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc6  (cost=0.00..625934.32 rows=40630732 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc7  (cost=0.00..673876.80 rows=43742880 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc8  (cost=0.00..601729.04 rows=39059604 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc9  (cost=0.00..609919.96 rows=39591296 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc10  (cost=0.00..674124.76 rows=43758976 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc11  (cost=0.00..529544.24 rows=34373924 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc12  (cost=0.00..818443.04 rows=53127004 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc13  (cost=0.00..674104.80 rows=43757680 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc14  (cost=0.00..786195.28 rows=51033728 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc15  (cost=0.00..609709.04 rows=39577604 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc16  (cost=0.00..633745.96 rows=41137896 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc17  (cost=0.00..673951.76 rows=43747376 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc18  (cost=0.00..802394.72 rows=52085272 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc19  (cost=0.00..529621.20 rows=34378920 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc20  (cost=0.00..642042.32 rows=41676432 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc21  (cost=0.00..401251.50 rows=26046150 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc22  (cost=0.00..673891.04 rows=43743804 width=48)  
               ->  Seq Scan on ccc23  (cost=0.00..642033.76 rows=41675876 width=48)  
(28 rows)   
        
postgres=# select * from ccc order by order_id limit 10;     
 order_id | cust_id | status   
----------+---------+--------  
        1 |     649 |   
        2 |     226 |   
        3 |     816 |   
        4 |     844 |   
        5 |     827 |   
        6 |     456 |   
        7 |     810 |   
        8 |     365 |   
        9 |      49 |   
       10 |      75 |   
(10 rows)  
  
Time: 99416.529 ms (01:39.417)  

2、开启并行,耗时: 5.87 秒。

postgres=# set max_parallel_workers_per_gather =24;        
postgres=# set enable_parallel_append =on;       
postgres=# set client_min_messages =debug;  
postgres=# set pg_hint_plan.debug_print =on;  
postgres=# set pg_hint_plan.enable_hint=on;  
postgres=# set pg_hint_plan.message_level =debug;  
        
postgres=# explain /*+ Parallel(ccc 24 hard) */ select * from ccc order by order_id limit 10;   
DEBUG:  pg_hint_plan:  
used hint:  
Parallel(ccc 24 hard)  
not used hint:  
duplication hint:  
error hint:  
  
                                        QUERY PLAN                                          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Limit  (cost=4321929.13..4321929.39 rows=10 width=48)  
   ->  Gather Merge  (cost=4321929.13..128274490.70 rows=4800000504 width=48)  
         Workers Planned: 24  
         ->  Sort  (cost=4321928.55..4821928.60 rows=200000021 width=48)  
               Sort Key: ccc12.order_id  
               ->  Parallel Append  (cost=0.00..0.00 rows=200000021 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc12  (cost=0.00..818443.04 rows=53127004 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc18  (cost=0.00..802394.72 rows=52085272 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc14  (cost=0.00..786195.28 rows=51033728 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc2  (cost=0.00..722107.36 rows=46873636 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc10  (cost=0.00..674124.76 rows=43758976 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc13  (cost=0.00..674104.80 rows=43757680 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc17  (cost=0.00..673951.76 rows=43747376 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc22  (cost=0.00..673891.04 rows=43743804 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc7  (cost=0.00..673876.80 rows=43742880 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc4  (cost=0.00..657705.92 rows=42693192 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc20  (cost=0.00..642042.32 rows=41676432 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc23  (cost=0.00..642033.76 rows=41675876 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc0  (cost=0.00..641839.96 rows=41663296 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc16  (cost=0.00..633745.96 rows=41137896 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc6  (cost=0.00..625934.32 rows=40630732 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc1  (cost=0.00..625842.88 rows=40624888 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc9  (cost=0.00..609919.96 rows=39591296 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc5  (cost=0.00..609836.16 rows=39585616 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc15  (cost=0.00..609709.04 rows=39577604 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc8  (cost=0.00..601729.04 rows=39059604 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc3  (cost=0.00..545575.32 rows=35414332 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc19  (cost=0.00..529621.20 rows=34378920 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc11  (cost=0.00..529544.24 rows=34373924 width=48)  
                     ->  Seq Scan on ccc21  (cost=0.00..401251.50 rows=26046150 width=48)  
(30 rows)  
    
postgres=# /*+ Parallel(ccc 24 hard) */ select * from ccc order by order_id limit 10;   
DEBUG:  pg_hint_plan:  
used hint:  
Parallel(ccc 24 hard)  
not used hint:  
duplication hint:  
error hint:  
  
 order_id | cust_id | status   
----------+---------+--------  
        1 |     649 |   
        2 |     226 |   
        3 |     816 |   
        4 |     844 |   
        5 |     827 |   
        6 |     456 |   
        7 |     810 |   
        8 |     365 |   
        9 |      49 |   
       10 |      75 |   
(10 rows)  
  
Time: 5868.558 ms (00:05.869)  

由于parallel append可能与SCAN parallel重复使用,为了避免重复,可以将分区表的parallel_workers设置为0,同时使用hit强制设置主表的parallel,这样就可以达到设定parallel append并行度的目的。

期待将来的PG版本在parallel append的并行度上有更好的控制参数。或者有更好的避免与SCAN parallel重复使用的情况。

其他知识

1、优化器自动并行度算法 CBO

《PostgreSQL 9.6 并行计算 优化器算法浅析》

《PostgreSQL 11 并行计算算法,参数,强制并行度设置》

2、function, op 识别是否支持parallel

postgres=# select proparallel,proname from pg_proc;                                              
 proparallel |                   proname                                                                  
-------------+----------------------------------------------                                              
 s           | boolin                                              
 s           | boolout                                              
 s           | byteain                                              
 s           | byteaout                                              

3、subquery mapreduce unlogged table

对于一些情况,如果期望简化优化器对非常非常复杂的SQL并行优化的负担,可以自己将SQL拆成几段,中间结果使用unlogged table保存,类似mapreduce的思想。unlogged table同样支持parallel 计算。

4、vacuum,垃圾回收并行。

5、dblink 异步调用并行

《PostgreSQL VOPS 向量计算 + DBLINK异步并行 - 单实例 10亿 聚合计算跑进2秒》

《PostgreSQL 相似搜索分布式架构设计与实践 - dblink异步调用与多机并行(远程 游标+记录 UDF实例)》

《PostgreSQL dblink异步调用实现 并行hash分片JOIN - 含数据交、并、差 提速案例 - 含dblink VS pg 11 parallel hash join VS pg 11 智能分区JOIN》

暂时不允许并行的场景(将来PG会继续扩大支持范围):

1、修改行,锁行,除了create table as , select into, create mview这几个可以使用并行。

2、query 会被中断时,例如cursor , loop in PL/SQL ,因为涉及到中间处理,所以不建议开启并行。

3、paralle unsafe udf ,这种UDF不会并行

4、嵌套并行(udf (内部query并行)),外部调用这个UDF的SQL不会并行。(主要是防止large parallel workers )

5、SSI 隔离级别

参考

https://www.postgresql.org/docs/11/parallel-plans.html

《PostgreSQL 11 并行计算算法,参数,强制并行度设置》

《PostgreSQL 11 preview - 并行计算 增强 汇总》

《PostgreSQL 10 自定义并行计算聚合函数的原理与实践 - (含array_agg合并多个数组为单个一元数组的例子)》

《PostgreSQL 9.6 并行计算 优化器算法浅析》

 

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