# 一天学会PostgreSQL应用开发与管理 - 7 函数、存储过程和触发器

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## 第五章：函数、存储过程和触发器

https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/functions.html

### 1. 运算符与函数

#### 逻辑运算

and, or, not

a b a AND b a OR b
TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE
TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE
TRUE NULL NULL TRUE
FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
FALSE NULL FALSE NULL
NULL NULL NULL NULL
a NOT a
TRUE FALSE
FALSE TRUE
NULL NULL

#### 比较运算

a BETWEEN x AND y
a >= x AND a <= y

a NOT BETWEEN x AND y
a < x OR a > y


Operator Description
< less than

| greater than
<=| less than or equal to
=| greater than or equal to
=| equal
<> or !=| not equal

Predicate Description
a BETWEEN x AND y between
a NOT BETWEEN x AND y not between
a BETWEEN SYMMETRIC x AND y between, after sorting the comparison values
a NOT BETWEEN SYMMETRIC x AND y not between, after sorting the comparison values
a IS DISTINCT FROM b not equal, treating null like an ordinary value
a IS NOT DISTINCT FROM b equal, treating null like an ordinary value
expression IS NULL is null
expression IS NOT NULL is not null
expression ISNULL is null (nonstandard syntax)
expression NOTNULL is not null (nonstandard syntax)
boolean_expression IS TRUE is true
boolean_expression IS NOT TRUE is false or unknown
boolean_expression IS FALSE is false
boolean_expression IS NOT FALSE is true or unknown
boolean_expression IS UNKNOWN is unknown
boolean_expression IS NOT UNKNOWN is true or false

Function Description Example Example Result
num_nonnulls(VARIADIC "any") returns the number of non-null arguments num_nonnulls(1, NULL, 2) 2
num_nulls(VARIADIC "any") returns the number of null arguments num_nulls(1, NULL, 2) 1

#### 字符串

format(formatstr text [, formatarg "any" [, ...] ])


%[position][flags][width]type

type:

s formats the argument value as a simple string. A null value is treated as an empty string.

I treats the argument value as an SQL identifier, double-quoting it if necessary. It is an error for the value to be null (equivalent to quote_ident).

L quotes the argument value as an SQL literal. A null value is displayed as the string NULL, without quotes (equivalent to quote_nullable).


SELECT format('Hello %s', 'World');
Result: Hello World

SELECT format('Testing %s, %s, %s, %%', 'one', 'two', 'three');
Result: Testing one, two, three, %

SELECT format('INSERT INTO %I VALUES(%L)', 'Foo bar', E'O\'Reilly');
Result: INSERT INTO "Foo bar" VALUES('O''Reilly')

SELECT format('INSERT INTO %I VALUES(%L)', 'locations', E'C:\\Program Files');
Result: INSERT INTO locations VALUES(E'C:\\Program Files')


#### bit

INT与BIT的转换 , 例子

44::bit(10)                    0000101100
44::bit(3)                     100
cast(-44 as bit(12))           111111010100
'1110'::bit(4)::integer        14


#### 规则表达式

'abc' ~ 'abc'    true
'abc' ~ '^a'     true
'abc' ~ '(b|d)'  true
'abc' ~ '^(b|c)' false


SELECT SUBSTRING('XY1234Z', 'Y*([0-9]{1,3})');
Result: 123


一个或多个空格隔开
SELECT foo FROM regexp_split_to_table('the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog', E'\\s+') AS foo;
foo
-------
the
quick
brown
fox
jumps
over
the
lazy
dog
(9 rows)

0个或多个空格隔开
SELECT foo FROM regexp_split_to_table('the quick brown fox', E'\\s*') AS foo;
foo
-----
t
h
e
q
u
i
c
k
b
r
o
w
n
f
o
x
(16 rows)


SELECT regexp_split_to_array('the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog', E'\\s+');
regexp_split_to_array
-----------------------------------------------
{the,quick,brown,fox,jumps,over,the,lazy,dog}
(1 row)


to_char例子

#### 时间

SELECT TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40' AT TIME ZONE 'MST';
Result: 2001-02-16 19:38:40-08

SELECT TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE '2001-02-16 20:38:40-05' AT TIME ZONE 'MST';
Result: 2001-02-16 18:38:40


事务时间
transaction_timestamp()
now()

statement_timestamp()
clock_timestamp()
timeofday()


CURRENT_DATE

CURRENT_TIME
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
CURRENT_TIME(precision)
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(precision)

LOCALTIME
LOCALTIMESTAMP
LOCALTIME(precision)
LOCALTIMESTAMP(precision)


pg_sleep(seconds)
pg_sleep_for(interval)
pg_sleep_until(timestamp with time zone)


SELECT pg_sleep(1.5);
SELECT pg_sleep_for('5 minutes');
SELECT pg_sleep_until('tomorrow 03:00');


#### 枚举

CREATE TYPE rainbow AS ENUM ('red', 'orange', 'yellow', 'green', 'blue', 'purple');


#### XML

https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/functions-xml.html

json\jsonb 通用操作符

jsonb 操作符

JSON值处理函数

#### 序列

SELECT setval('foo', 42);           Next nextval will return 43
SELECT setval('foo', 42, true);     Same as above
SELECT setval('foo', 42, false);    Next nextval will return 42


#### 条件表达式

CASE表达式 1

CASE WHEN condition THEN result
[WHEN ...]
[ELSE result]
END


SELECT * FROM test;

a
---
1
2
3

SELECT a,
CASE WHEN a=1 THEN 'one'
WHEN a=2 THEN 'two'
ELSE 'other'
END
FROM test;

a | case
---+-------
1 | one
2 | two
3 | other


CASE表达式 2

CASE expression
WHEN value THEN result
[WHEN ...]
[ELSE result]
END


SELECT a,
CASE a WHEN 1 THEN 'one'
WHEN 2 THEN 'two'
ELSE 'other'
END
FROM test;

a | case
---+-------
1 | one
2 | two
3 | other

SELECT ... WHERE CASE WHEN x <> 0 THEN y/x > 1.5 ELSE false END;  -- 不符合条件的then不会被执行，所以这里不会报除以0的错误


COALESCE表达式

COALESCE(value [, ...])


SELECT COALESCE(description, short_description, '(none)') ...


NULLIF表达式

v1,v2相等时返回NULL, 否则返回v1。

NULLIF(value1, value2)


GREATEST and LEAST表达式

返回最大值
GREATEST(value [, ...])

LEAST(value [, ...])


#### 子查询表达式

exists表达式

EXISTS (subquery)


SELECT col1
FROM tab1
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM tab2 WHERE col2 = tab1.col2);


in表达式

expression IN (subquery)

row_constructor IN (subquery)


not in表达式

expression NOT IN (subquery)

row_constructor NOT IN (subquery)


any, some表达式(一个意思)

expression operator ANY (subquery)
expression operator SOME (subquery)

row_constructor operator ANY (subquery)
row_constructor operator SOME (subquery)


all表达式

expression operator ALL (subquery)

row_constructor operator ALL (subquery)


OP单行子查询表达式

row_constructor operator (subquery)


#### 行与数组表达式

in表达式

expression IN (value [, ...])

expression = value1
OR
expression = value2
OR
...


not in表达式

expression NOT IN (value [, ...])

expression <> value1
AND
expression <> value2
AND
...


any, some(array)表达式

expression operator ANY (array expression)
expression operator SOME (array expression)


all(array)表达式

expression operator ALL (array expression)


row_constructor operator row_constructor

operator is =, <>, <, <=, > or >=

row_constructor IS DISTINCT FROM row_constructor

row_constructor IS NOT DISTINCT FROM row_constructor


record operator record


#### 返回集合的函数

SELECT * FROM generate_series(2,4);
generate_series
-----------------
2
3
4
(3 rows)

SELECT * FROM generate_series('2008-03-01 00:00'::timestamp,
'2008-03-04 12:00', '10 hours');
generate_series
---------------------
2008-03-01 00:00:00
2008-03-01 10:00:00
2008-03-01 20:00:00
2008-03-02 06:00:00
2008-03-02 16:00:00
2008-03-03 02:00:00
2008-03-03 12:00:00
2008-03-03 22:00:00
2008-03-04 08:00:00
(9 rows)

-- basic usage
SELECT generate_subscripts('{NULL,1,NULL,2}'::int[], 1) AS s;
s
---
1
2
3
4
(4 rows)

-- set returning function WITH ORDINALITY
SELECT * FROM pg_ls_dir('.') WITH ORDINALITY AS t(ls,n);
ls        | n
-----------------+----
pg_serial       |  1
pg_twophase     |  2
postmaster.opts |  3
pg_notify       |  4
postgresql.conf |  5
pg_tblspc       |  6
logfile         |  7
base            |  8
postmaster.pid  |  9
pg_ident.conf   | 10
global          | 11
pg_clog         | 12
pg_snapshots    | 13
pg_multixact    | 14
PG_VERSION      | 15
pg_xlog         | 16
pg_hba.conf     | 17
pg_stat_tmp     | 18
pg_subtrans     | 19
(19 rows)


#### 系统信息函数

https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/functions-info.html

### 2. 过程语言

PostgreSQL支持多种过程语言，包括plpgsql, sql, c, python, perl, java等等。

#### 语法

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] FUNCTION
name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [ { DEFAULT | = } default_expr ] [, ...] ] )
[ RETURNS rettype
| RETURNS TABLE ( column_name column_type [, ...] ) ]
{ LANGUAGE lang_name
| TRANSFORM { FOR TYPE type_name } [, ... ]
| WINDOW
| IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE | [ NOT ] LEAKPROOF
| CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT
| [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER
| PARALLEL { UNSAFE | RESTRICTED | SAFE }
| COST execution_cost
| ROWS result_rows
| SET configuration_parameter { TO value | = value | FROM CURRENT }
| AS 'definition'
} ...
[ WITH ( attribute [, ...] ) ]


plpgsql支持任意参数、任意返回值、返回多行、返回数组、复合类型等。

#### plpgsql函数内部结构

[ <<label>> ]
[ DECLARE
declarations ]
BEGIN
statements
END [ label ];


CREATE FUNCTION somefunc() RETURNS integer AS $$<< outerblock >> DECLARE quantity integer := 30; BEGIN RAISE NOTICE 'Quantity here is %', quantity; -- Prints 30 quantity := 50; -- -- Create a subblock -- DECLARE quantity integer := 80; BEGIN RAISE NOTICE 'Quantity here is %', quantity; -- Prints 80 RAISE NOTICE 'Outer quantity here is %', outerblock.quantity; -- Prints 50 END; RAISE NOTICE 'Quantity here is %', quantity; -- Prints 50 RETURN quantity; END;$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;


name [ CONSTANT ] type [ COLLATE collation_name ] [ NOT NULL ] [ { DEFAULT | := | = } expression ];


DECLARE

user_id integer;
quantity numeric(5);
url varchar;
myrow tablename%ROWTYPE;
myfield tablename.columnname%TYPE;
arow RECORD;

quantity integer DEFAULT 32;
url varchar := 'http://mysite.com';
user_id CONSTANT integer := 10;


CREATE FUNCTION instr(varchar, integer) RETURNS integer AS $$DECLARE v_string ALIAS FOR 1; index ALIAS FOR 2; BEGIN -- some computations using v_string and index here END;$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

CREATE FUNCTION concat_selected_fields(in_t sometablename) RETURNS text AS $$BEGIN RETURN in_t.f1 || in_t.f3 || in_t.f5 || in_t.f7; END;$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;


variable { := | = } expression;


PERFORM query;


PERFORM select 1 from tbl where xxx limit 1;
if found then
xxx
else
xxx
end if;


SELECT select_expressions INTO [STRICT] target FROM ...;
INSERT ... RETURNING expressions INTO [STRICT] target;
UPDATE ... RETURNING expressions INTO [STRICT] target;
DELETE ... RETURNING expressions INTO [STRICT] target;


If STRICT is not specified in the INTO clause, then target will be set to the first row returned by the query, or to nulls if the query returned no rows.

SELECT * INTO myrec FROM emp WHERE empname = myname;
END IF;


If the STRICT option is specified, the query must return exactly one row or a run-time error will be reported,

either NO_DATA_FOUND (no rows) or TOO_MANY_ROWS (more than one row).

BEGIN
SELECT * INTO STRICT myrec FROM emp WHERE empname = myname;
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
WHEN TOO_MANY_ROWS THEN
RAISE EXCEPTION 'employee % not unique', myname;
END;


EXECUTE command-string [ INTO [STRICT] target ] [ USING expression [, ... ] ];


EXECUTE 'SELECT count(*) FROM mytable WHERE inserted_by = $1 AND inserted <=$2'
INTO c
USING checked_user, checked_date;

EXECUTE 'SELECT count(*) FROM '
|| quote_ident(tabname)
|| ' WHERE inserted_by = $1 AND inserted <=$2'
INTO c
USING checked_user, checked_date;

EXECUTE format('SELECT count(*) FROM %I '
'WHERE inserted_by = $1 AND inserted <=$2', tabname)
INTO c
USING checked_user, checked_date;

EXECUTE format('UPDATE tbl SET %I = %L '
'WHERE key = %L', colname, newvalue, keyvalue);


GET [ CURRENT ] DIAGNOSTICS variable { = | := } item [ , ... ];

GET DIAGNOSTICS integer_var = ROW_COUNT;


FOUND变量取值原理

A SELECT INTO statement sets FOUND true if a row is assigned, false if no row is returned.

A PERFORM statement sets FOUND true if it produces (and discards) one or more rows, false if no row is produced.

UPDATE, INSERT, and DELETE statements set FOUND true if at least one row is affected, false if no row is affected.

A FETCH statement sets FOUND true if it returns a row, false if no row is returned.

A MOVE statement sets FOUND true if it successfully repositions the cursor, false otherwise.

A FOR or FOREACH statement sets FOUND true if it iterates one or more times, else false.
FOUND is set this way when the loop exits; inside the execution of the loop, FOUND is not modified by the loop statement,
although it might be changed by the execution of other statements within the loop body.

RETURN QUERY and RETURN QUERY EXECUTE statements set FOUND true if the query returns at least one row, false if no row is returned.

Other PL/pgSQL statements do not change the state of FOUND.
Note in particular that EXECUTE changes the output of GET DIAGNOSTICS, but does not change FOUND.

FOUND is a local variable within each PL/pgSQL function; any changes to it affect only the current function.


NULL; 忽略执行，什么也不干

BEGIN
y := x / 0;
EXCEPTION
WHEN division_by_zero THEN
NULL;  -- ignore the error
END;

BEGIN
y := x / 0;
EXCEPTION
WHEN division_by_zero THEN  -- ignore the error
END;


#### 控制结构

RETURN expression;

-- functions returning a scalar type
RETURN 1 + 2;
RETURN scalar_var;

-- functions returning a composite type
RETURN composite_type_var;
RETURN (1, 2, 'three'::text);  -- must cast columns to correct types


RETURN NEXT expression;
RETURN QUERY query;
RETURN QUERY EXECUTE command-string [ USING expression [, ... ] ];

CREATE TABLE foo (fooid INT, foosubid INT, fooname TEXT);
INSERT INTO foo VALUES (1, 2, 'three');
INSERT INTO foo VALUES (4, 5, 'six');

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_all_foo() RETURNS SETOF foo AS
$BODY$
DECLARE
r foo%rowtype;
BEGIN
FOR r IN
SELECT * FROM foo WHERE fooid > 0
LOOP
-- can do some processing here
RETURN NEXT r; -- return current row of SELECT
END LOOP;
RETURN;
END
$BODY$
LANGUAGE plpgsql;

SELECT * FROM get_all_foo();


IF and CASE statements let you execute alternative commands based on certain conditions. PL/pgSQL has three forms of IF:

IF ... THEN ... END IF

IF ... THEN ... ELSE ... END IF

IF ... THEN ... ELSIF ... THEN ... ELSE ... END IF

and two forms of CASE:

CASE ... WHEN ... THEN ... ELSE ... END CASE

CASE WHEN ... THEN ... ELSE ... END CASE


[ <<label>> ]
LOOP
statements
END LOOP [ label ];

EXIT [ label ] [ WHEN boolean-expression ];


LOOP
-- some computations
IF count > 0 THEN
EXIT;  -- exit loop
END IF;
END LOOP;

LOOP
-- some computations
EXIT WHEN count > 0;  -- same result as previous example
END LOOP;

<<ablock>>
BEGIN
-- some computations
IF stocks > 100000 THEN
EXIT ablock;  -- causes exit from the BEGIN block
END IF;
-- computations here will be skipped when stocks > 100000
END;


for 循环

[ <<label>> ]
FOR target IN EXECUTE text_expression [ USING expression [, ... ] ] LOOP
statements
END LOOP [ label ];


[ <<label>> ]
FOREACH target [ SLICE number ] IN ARRAY expression LOOP
statements
END LOOP [ label ];


CREATE FUNCTION sum(int[]) RETURNS int8 AS $$DECLARE s int8 := 0; x int; BEGIN FOREACH x IN ARRAY 1 LOOP s := s + x; END LOOP; RETURN s; END;$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;


[ <<label>> ]
[ DECLARE
declarations ]
BEGIN
statements
EXCEPTION
WHEN condition [ OR condition ... ] THEN
handler_statements
[ WHEN condition [ OR condition ... ] THEN
handler_statements
... ]
END;


WHEN division_by_zero THEN ...
WHEN SQLSTATE '22012' THEN ...

INSERT INTO mytab(firstname, lastname) VALUES('Tom', 'Jones');
BEGIN
UPDATE mytab SET firstname = 'Joe' WHERE lastname = 'Jones';
x := x + 1;
y := x / 0;
EXCEPTION
WHEN division_by_zero THEN
RAISE NOTICE 'caught division_by_zero';
RETURN x;
END;

CREATE TABLE db (a INT PRIMARY KEY, b TEXT);

CREATE FUNCTION merge_db(key INT, data TEXT) RETURNS VOID AS
$$BEGIN LOOP -- first try to update the key UPDATE db SET b = data WHERE a = key; IF found THEN RETURN; END IF; -- not there, so try to insert the key -- if someone else inserts the same key concurrently, -- we could get a unique-key failure BEGIN INSERT INTO db(a,b) VALUES (key, data); RETURN; EXCEPTION WHEN unique_violation THEN -- Do nothing, and loop to try the UPDATE again. END; END LOOP; END;$$
LANGUAGE plpgsql;

SELECT merge_db(1, 'david');
SELECT merge_db(1, 'dennis');


GET STACKED DIAGNOSTICS variable { = | := } item [ , ... ];


DECLARE
text_var1 text;
text_var2 text;
text_var3 text;
BEGIN
-- some processing which might cause an exception
...
EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN
GET STACKED DIAGNOSTICS text_var1 = MESSAGE_TEXT,
text_var2 = PG_EXCEPTION_DETAIL,
text_var3 = PG_EXCEPTION_HINT;
END;


CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION outer_func() RETURNS integer AS $$BEGIN RETURN inner_func(); END;$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION inner_func() RETURNS integer AS $$DECLARE stack text; BEGIN GET DIAGNOSTICS stack = PG_CONTEXT; RAISE NOTICE E'--- Call Stack ---\n%', stack; RETURN 1; END;$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

SELECT outer_func();

NOTICE:  --- Call Stack ---
PL/pgSQL function inner_func() line 5 at GET DIAGNOSTICS
PL/pgSQL function outer_func() line 3 at RETURN
CONTEXT:  PL/pgSQL function outer_func() line 3 at RETURN
outer_func
------------
1
(1 row)


#### 游标

name [ [ NO ] SCROLL ] CURSOR [ ( arguments ) ] FOR query;


DECLARE
curs1 refcursor;
curs2 CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM tenk1;
curs3 CURSOR (key integer) FOR SELECT * FROM tenk1 WHERE unique1 = key;


OPEN unbound_cursorvar [ [ NO ] SCROLL ] FOR query;

OPEN curs1 FOR SELECT * FROM foo WHERE key = mykey;


OPEN unbound_cursorvar [ [ NO ] SCROLL ] FOR EXECUTE query_string
[ USING expression [, ... ] ];

OPEN curs1 FOR EXECUTE format('SELECT * FROM %I WHERE col1 = $1',tabname) USING keyvalue;  打开bound游标 OPEN bound_cursorvar [ ( [ argument_name := ] argument_value [, ...] ) ]; 例子 OPEN curs2; OPEN curs3(42); OPEN curs3(key := 42); DECLARE key integer; curs4 CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM tenk1 WHERE unique1 = key; BEGIN key := 42; OPEN curs4;  使用游标 获取数据 FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor INTO target; 例子 FETCH curs1 INTO rowvar; FETCH curs2 INTO foo, bar, baz; FETCH LAST FROM curs3 INTO x, y; FETCH RELATIVE -2 FROM curs4 INTO x;  移动游标位置 MOVE [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor; 例子 MOVE curs1; MOVE LAST FROM curs3; MOVE RELATIVE -2 FROM curs4; MOVE FORWARD 2 FROM curs4;  更新、删除游标当前记录 UPDATE table SET ... WHERE CURRENT OF cursor; DELETE FROM table WHERE CURRENT OF cursor; 例子 UPDATE foo SET dataval = myval WHERE CURRENT OF curs1;  关闭游标 CLOSE cursor; 例子 CLOSE curs1;  返回游标 CREATE TABLE test (col text); INSERT INTO test VALUES ('123'); CREATE FUNCTION reffunc(refcursor) RETURNS refcursor AS ' BEGIN OPEN$1 FOR SELECT col FROM test;
RETURN $1; END; ' LANGUAGE plpgsql; BEGIN; SELECT reffunc('funccursor'); FETCH ALL IN funccursor; COMMIT; CREATE FUNCTION reffunc2() RETURNS refcursor AS ' DECLARE ref refcursor; BEGIN OPEN ref FOR SELECT col FROM test; RETURN ref; END; ' LANGUAGE plpgsql; -- need to be in a transaction to use cursors. BEGIN; SELECT reffunc2(); reffunc2 -------------------- <unnamed cursor 1> (1 row) FETCH ALL IN "<unnamed cursor 1>"; COMMIT; CREATE FUNCTION myfunc(refcursor, refcursor) RETURNS SETOF refcursor AS $$BEGIN OPEN 1 FOR SELECT * FROM table_1; RETURN NEXT 1; OPEN 2 FOR SELECT * FROM table_2; RETURN NEXT 2; END;$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql; -- need to be in a transaction to use cursors. BEGIN; SELECT * FROM myfunc('a', 'b'); FETCH ALL FROM a; FETCH ALL FROM b; COMMIT;  for游标循环 [ <<label>> ] FOR recordvar IN bound_cursorvar [ ( [ argument_name := ] argument_value [, ...] ) ] LOOP statements END LOOP [ label ];  #### 异常消息处理 抛出异常 RAISE [ level ] 'format' [, expression [, ... ]] [ USING option = expression [, ... ] ]; RAISE [ level ] condition_name [ USING option = expression [, ... ] ]; RAISE [ level ] SQLSTATE 'sqlstate' [ USING option = expression [, ... ] ]; RAISE [ level ] USING option = expression [, ... ]; RAISE ;  option取值范围 MESSAGE Sets the error message text. This option can't be used in the form of RAISE that includes a format string before USING. DETAIL Supplies an error detail message. HINT Supplies a hint message. ERRCODE Specifies the error code (SQLSTATE) to report, either by condition name, as shown in Appendix A, or directly as a five-character SQLSTATE code. COLUMN CONSTRAINT DATATYPE TABLE SCHEMA Supplies the name of a related object.  例子 RAISE EXCEPTION 'Nonexistent ID --> %', user_id USING HINT = 'Please check your user ID'; RAISE 'Duplicate user ID: %', user_id USING ERRCODE = 'unique_violation'; RAISE 'Duplicate user ID: %', user_id USING ERRCODE = '23505'; RAISE division_by_zero; RAISE SQLSTATE '22012'; RAISE unique_violation USING MESSAGE = 'Duplicate user ID: ' || user_id;  断言 ASSERT condition [ , message ];  #### plpgsql触发器函数 参考触发器部分 ### 3. 解析一个存储过程 #### 检查存储过程(函数)内容 postgres=# create or replace function f() returns void as $$declare begin raise notice 'this is a test'; end;$$ language plpgsql; CREATE FUNCTION postgres=# select * from pg_get_functiondef('f'::regproc); pg_get_functiondef --------------------------------------- CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.f()+ RETURNS void + LANGUAGE plpgsql + AS$function$+ declare + begin + raise notice 'this is a test'; + end; +$function$+ (1 row)  #### 调试plpgsql存储过程，输出每一次调用的QUERY详细执行计划 1. LOAD 'auto_explain' ; 只在当前SESSION生效，不需要重启数据库, 需要超级用户权限。 普通用户不允许加载auto_explain模块. (普通用户只允许加载$libdir/plugins目录下的模块,但是auto_explain即使拷贝到这个目录也不行)

load 'auto_explain';
set client_min_messages='log';
set auto_explain.log_min_duration = 0;
set auto_explain.log_analyze = true;
set auto_explain.log_verbose = true;
set auto_explain.log_buffers = true;
set auto_explain.log_nested_statements = true;

postgres=# do language plpgsql $$declare begin perform 1 from pg_class where oid=1; end;$$;

LOG:  duration: 0.008 ms  plan:
Query Text: SELECT 1 from pg_class where oid=1
Index Only Scan using pg_class_oid_index on pg_catalog.pg_class  (cost=0.27..1.29 rows=1 width=4) (actual time=0.006..0.006 rows=0 loops=1)
Output: 1
Index Cond: (pg_class.oid = '1'::oid)
Heap Fetches: 0
Buffers: shared hit=2
DO


#### 调试plpgsql函数

https://git.postgresql.org/gitweb/?p=pldebugger.git;a=summary

shared_preload_libraries = '$libdir/plugin_debugger'  重启数据库 创建extension CREATE EXTENSION pldbgapi;  调试函数 ### 4. SQL 函数 sql函数支持的语法较少 例子 postgres=# create or replace function f1(int,int) returns int as $$select 1+2;$$ language sql strict; CREATE FUNCTION postgres=# select f1(1,2); f1 ---- 3 (1 row)  ### 5. 触发器 #### 触发器函数 PostgreSQL 触发器支持行级、语句级触发器。支持insert,update,delete,truncate触发。 语法 postgres=# \h create trigger Command: CREATE TRIGGER Description: define a new trigger Syntax: CREATE [ CONSTRAINT ] TRIGGER name { BEFORE | AFTER | INSTEAD OF } { event [ OR ... ] } ON table_name [ FROM referenced_table_name ] [ NOT DEFERRABLE | [ DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY IMMEDIATE | INITIALLY DEFERRED ] ] [ FOR [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ] [ WHEN ( condition ) ] EXECUTE PROCEDURE function_name ( arguments ) where event can be one of: INSERT UPDATE [ OF column_name [, ... ] ] DELETE TRUNCATE  触发器分类 When Event Row-level Statement-level BEFORE INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE Tables Tables and views TRUNCATE Tables - AFTER INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE Tables Tables and views TRUNCATE Tables - INSTEAD OF INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE Views TRUNCATE 同一个表或视图上可以创建多个触发器, 调用的顺序和触发器的类型有关. 表上各种触发器的调用先后顺序如下 : 1. before for each statement 2. before for each row 3. after for each row 4. after for each statement  视图上各种触发器的调用先后顺序如下 : 1. before for each statement 2. instead for each row 3. after for each statement  同类触发器如果有多个, 调用顺序则和触发器的名字有关, 按照名字的排序进行调用. 首先需要编写触发器函数，支持plpgsql, plpython, C等函数编写的触发器函数。然后创建触发器。 plpgsql支持的触发器函数变量 NEW Data type RECORD; variable holding the new database row for INSERT/UPDATE operations in row-level triggers. This variable is NULL in statement-level triggers and for DELETE operations. OLD Data type RECORD; variable holding the old database row for UPDATE/DELETE operations in row-level triggers. This variable is NULL in statement-level triggers and for INSERT operations. TG_NAME Data type name; variable that contains the name of the trigger actually fired. TG_WHEN Data type text; a string of BEFORE, AFTER, or INSTEAD OF, depending on the trigger's definition. TG_LEVEL Data type text; a string of either ROW or STATEMENT depending on the trigger's definition. TG_OP Data type text; a string of INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or TRUNCATE telling for which operation the trigger was fired. TG_RELID Data type oid; the object ID of the table that caused the trigger invocation. TG_RELNAME Data type name; the name of the table that caused the trigger invocation. This is now deprecated, and could disappear in a future release. Use TG_TABLE_NAME instead. TG_TABLE_NAME Data type name; the name of the table that caused the trigger invocation. TG_TABLE_SCHEMA Data type name; the name of the schema of the table that caused the trigger invocation. TG_NARGS Data type integer; the number of arguments given to the trigger procedure in the CREATE TRIGGER statement. TG_ARGV[] Data type array of text; the arguments from the CREATE TRIGGER statement. The index counts from 0. Invalid indexes (less than 0 or greater than or equal to tg_nargs) result in a null value. A trigger function must return either NULL or a record/row value having exactly the structure of the table the trigger was fired for.  以plpgsql为例，触发器函数范例。 使用hstore 和触发器跟踪敏感数据的DML。 创建需要被跟踪的测试表 CREATE TABLE test (id int primary key, info text, crt_time timestamp(0));  创建hstore extension; CREATE EXTENSION hstore;  创建通用的存储跟踪记录的记录表 CREATE TABLE table_change_rec ( id serial8 primary key, relid oid, table_schema text, table_name text, when_tg text, level text, op text, old_rec hstore, new_rec hstore, crt_time timestamp without time zone DEFAULT now(), username text, client_addr inet, client_port int );  创建通用的触发器函数 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION dml_trace() RETURNS trigger LANGUAGE plpgsql AS$BODY$DECLARE v_new_rec hstore; v_old_rec hstore; v_username text := session_user; v_client_addr inet := inet_client_addr(); v_client_port int := inet_client_port(); BEGIN case TG_OP when 'DELETE' then v_old_rec := hstore(OLD.*); insert into table_change_rec (relid, table_schema, table_name, when_tg, level, op, old_rec, username, client_addr, client_port) values (tg_relid, tg_table_schema, tg_table_name, tg_when, tg_level, tg_op, v_old_rec, v_username, v_client_addr, v_client_port); when 'INSERT' then v_new_rec := hstore(NEW.*); insert into table_change_rec (relid, table_schema, table_name, when_tg, level, op, new_rec, username, client_addr, client_port) values (tg_relid, tg_table_schema, tg_table_name, tg_when, tg_level, tg_op, v_new_rec, v_username, v_client_addr, v_client_port); when 'UPDATE' then v_old_rec := hstore(OLD.*); v_new_rec := hstore(NEW.*); insert into table_change_rec (relid, table_schema, table_name, when_tg, level, op, old_rec, new_rec, username, client_addr, client_port) values (tg_relid, tg_table_schema, tg_table_name, tg_when, tg_level, tg_op, v_old_rec, v_new_rec, v_username, v_client_addr, v_client_port); else return null; end case; RETURN null; END;$BODY\$ strict;


CREATE TRIGGER tg AFTER DELETE or INSERT or UPDATE ON test FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE dml_trace();


postgres=# insert into test values (1, 'digoal', now());
INSERT 0 1
postgres=# select * from test;
id |  info  |      crt_time
----+--------+---------------------
1 | digoal | 2012-06-25 10:54:43
(1 row)

postgres=# select * from table_change_rec;
id | relid | table_schema | table_name | when_tg | level |   op   | old_rec |                            new_rec
----+-------+--------------+------------+---------+-------+--------+---------+------------------------------------------------------
----------+----------------------------+----------
4 | 23731 | public       | test       | AFTER   | ROW   | INSERT |         | "id"=>"1", "info"=>"digoal", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25
10:54:43" | 2012-06-25 10:54:42.839553 | postgres
(1 row)

postgres=# update test set info='DIGOAL' where id=1;
UPDATE 1
postgres=# select * from test;
id |  info  |      crt_time
----+--------+---------------------
1 | DIGOAL | 2012-06-25 10:54:43
(1 row)

postgres=# select * from table_change_rec;
id | relid | table_schema | table_name | when_tg | level |   op   |                            old_rec
|                            new_rec                             |          crt_time          | username
----+-------+--------------+------------+---------+-------+--------+----------------------------------------------------------------
+----------------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------+----------
4 | 23731 | public       | test       | AFTER   | ROW   | INSERT |
| "id"=>"1", "info"=>"digoal", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25 10:54:43" | 2012-06-25 10:54:42.839553 | postgres
5 | 23731 | public       | test       | AFTER   | ROW   | UPDATE | "id"=>"1", "info"=>"digoal", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25 10:54:43"
| "id"=>"1", "info"=>"DIGOAL", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25 10:54:43" | 2012-06-25 10:55:41.006069 | postgres
(2 rows)

postgres=# delete from test where id=1;
DELETE 1
postgres=# select * from test;
id | info | crt_time
----+------+----------
(0 rows)

postgres=# select * from table_change_rec;
id | relid | table_schema | table_name | when_tg | level |   op   |                            old_rec
|                            new_rec                             |          crt_time          | username
----+-------+--------------+------------+---------+-------+--------+----------------------------------------------------------------
+----------------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------+----------
4 | 23731 | public       | test       | AFTER   | ROW   | INSERT |
| "id"=>"1", "info"=>"digoal", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25 10:54:43" | 2012-06-25 10:54:42.839553 | postgres
5 | 23731 | public       | test       | AFTER   | ROW   | UPDATE | "id"=>"1", "info"=>"digoal", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25 10:54:43"
| "id"=>"1", "info"=>"DIGOAL", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25 10:54:43" | 2012-06-25 10:55:41.006069 | postgres
6 | 23731 | public       | test       | AFTER   | ROW   | DELETE | "id"=>"1", "info"=>"DIGOAL", "crt_time"=>"2012-06-25 10:54:43"
|                                                                | 2012-06-25 10:56:00.862319 | postgres
(3 rows)


postgres=# select id,(each(old_rec)).* from table_change_rec;
id |   key    |        value
----+----------+---------------------
5 | id       | 1
5 | info     | digoal
5 | crt_time | 2012-06-25 10:54:43
6 | id       | 1
6 | info     | DIGOAL
6 | crt_time | 2012-06-25 10:54:43
(6 rows)

postgres=# select id,(each(new_rec)).* from table_change_rec;
id |   key    |        value
----+----------+---------------------
4 | id       | 1
4 | info     | digoal
4 | crt_time | 2012-06-25 10:54:43
5 | id       | 1
5 | info     | DIGOAL
5 | crt_time | 2012-06-25 10:54:43
(6 rows)


#### 事件触发器函数

postgres=# \h create event
Command:     CREATE EVENT TRIGGER
Description: define a new event trigger
Syntax:
CREATE EVENT TRIGGER name
ON event
[ WHEN filter_variable IN (filter_value [, ... ]) [ AND ... ] ]
EXECUTE PROCEDURE function_name()


CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION abort()
RETURNS event_trigger
LANGUAGE plpgsql
AS $$BEGIN if current_user = 'postgres' then RAISE EXCEPTION 'event:%, command:%', tg_event, tg_tag; end if; END;$$;


digoal=# create event trigger a on ddl_command_start when TAG IN ('CREATE TABLE', 'DROP TABLE') execute procedure abort();
CREATE EVENT TRIGGER
digoal=# select * from pg_event_trigger ;
evtname |     evtevent      | evtowner | evtfoid | evtenabled |            evttags
---------+-------------------+----------+---------+------------+-------------------------------
a       | ddl_command_start |       10 |   16683 | O          | {"CREATE TABLE","DROP TABLE"}
(1 row)


digoal=# \c digoal postgres
You are now connected to database "digoal" as user "postgres".


digoal=# create table new(id int);
ERROR:  event:ddl_command_start, command:CREATE TABLE
digoal=# \d new
Did not find any relation named "new".
digoal=# \dt
List of relations
Schema |  Name   | Type  |  Owner
--------+---------+-------+----------
public | digoal  | table | postgres
public | digoal1 | table | postgres
public | test    | table | postgres
(3 rows)


digoal=# drop table digoal;
ERROR:  event:ddl_command_start, command:DROP TABLE
digoal=# \d digoal
Table "public.digoal"
Column |  Type   | Modifiers
--------+---------+-----------
id     | integer |


digoal=# \c digoal digoal
You are now connected to database "digoal" as user "digoal".
digoal=> create table tbl(id int);
CREATE TABLE
digoal=> drop table tbl;
DROP TABLE


postgres=# create schema recyclebin;
postgres=# create table recyclebin.trace(id serial8 primary key,type_name text,nsp_name text,obj_name text,tg_tag text,new_nsp_name text,new_obj_name text,crt_time timestamp);
CREATE TABLE


CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test_event_trigger_for_drops()
RETURNS event_trigger LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $$DECLARE obj record; v_type_name text[] := '{}'::text[]; v_nsp_name text[] := '{}'::text[]; v_obj_name text[] := '{}'::text[]; v_tg_tag text := TG_TAG; v_crt_time timestamp := now(); i int := 1; v_new_nsp_name text := 'recyclebin'; v_new_obj_name text; have_table boolean := false; x text; tt text := ''; v_sql text[]; v_sqlend text := ''; v_cname text; BEGIN FOR obj IN SELECT * FROM pg_event_trigger_dropped_objects() LOOP RAISE NOTICE '% dropped object: % %.% %', v_tg_tag, obj.object_type, obj.schema_name, obj.object_name, obj.object_identity; v_type_name := array_append(v_type_name, obj.object_type); v_nsp_name := array_append(v_nsp_name, obj.schema_name); v_obj_name := array_append(v_obj_name, obj.object_name); if (obj.object_type = 'table') then have_table := true; end if; END LOOP; if ( have_table = true ) then RAISE NOTICE 'Move table to recycle bin'; RAISE exception 'Found table in drop list.'; end if; EXCEPTION WHEN others then raise notice 'begin: '; raise notice '-----------------------------------------------------------'; FOREACH x in ARRAY v_obj_name LOOP if v_type_name[i] = 'table' then v_new_obj_name := 'md5'||md5(random()::text||clock_timestamp()::text); v_sql[1] := 'alter table '||v_nsp_name[i]||'.'||x||' set schema '||v_new_nsp_name||';'; v_sql[2] := 'alter table '||v_new_nsp_name||'.'||x||' rename to '||v_new_obj_name||';'; v_sql[3] := 'insert into recyclebin.trace(type_name,nsp_name,obj_name,tg_tag,new_nsp_name,new_obj_name,crt_time) values ('||quote_nullable(v_type_name[i])||','||quote_nullable(v_nsp_name[i])||','||quote_nullable(v_obj_name[i])||','||quote_nullable(v_tg_tag)||','||quote_nullable(v_new_nsp_name)||','||quote_nullable(v_new_obj_name)||','||quote_nullable(v_crt_time)||');'; v_sqlend := v_sqlend||v_sql[1]||v_sql[2]||v_sql[3]; end if; i := i+1; END LOOP; v_cname := 'myconn'; if (dblink_get_connections() @> array[v_cname] is not true) then perform dblink_connect(v_cname, 'dbname='||current_database()); else perform dblink_disconnect(v_cname); perform dblink_connect(v_cname, 'dbname='||current_database()); end if; perform dblink_send_query(v_cname, v_sqlend); perform dblink_disconnect(v_cname); raise notice 'BEGIN; % COMMIT;', v_sqlend; raise notice '-----------------------------------------------------------'; raise exception 'Good Luck.'; END;$$;


CREATE EVENT TRIGGER test_event_trigger_for_drops
ON sql_drop
EXECUTE PROCEDURE test_event_trigger_for_drops();


postgres=# create table test(id int);
CREATE TABLE
postgres=# create table test1(id int) inherits(test);
NOTICE:  merging column "id" with inherited definition
CREATE TABLE
postgres=# create table test2(id int) inherits(test);
NOTICE:  merging column "id" with inherited definition
CREATE TABLE
postgres=# create table test3(id int) inherits(test);
NOTICE:  merging column "id" with inherited definition
CREATE TABLE


postgres=# drop table test cascade;
NOTICE:  drop cascades to 3 other objects
DETAIL:  drop cascades to table test1
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: table public.test public.test
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public.test public.test
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public._test public.test[]
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: table public.test1 public.test1
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public.test1 public.test1
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public._test1 public.test1[]
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: table public.test2 public.test2
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public.test2 public.test2
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public._test2 public.test2[]
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: table public.test3 public.test3
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public.test3 public.test3
NOTICE:  DROP TABLE dropped object: type public._test3 public.test3[]
NOTICE:  Move table to recycle bin
NOTICE:  begin:
NOTICE:  -----------------------------------------------------------
NOTICE:  BEGIN; alter table public.test set schema recyclebin;alter table recyclebin.test rename to md584b8a4bd192773d3bfe554016b4f4b46;insert into recyclebin.trace(type_name,nsp_name,obj_name,tg_tag,new_nsp_name,new_obj_name,crt_time)
values ('table','public','test','DROP TABLE','recyclebin','md584b8a4bd192773d3bfe554016b4f4b46','2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347');alter table public.test1 set schema recyclebin;alter table recyclebin.test1 rename to md59e63afc3c45a334f054e1a04711c1b9b;insert into recyclebin.trace(type_name,nsp_name,obj_name,tg_tag,new_nsp_name,new_obj_name,crt_time)
values ('table','public','test1','DROP TABLE','recyclebin','md59e63afc3c45a334f054e1a04711c1b9b','2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347');alter table public.test2 set schema recyclebin;alter table recyclebin.test2 rename to md599fc68c328a54d5a4ded5cb98b5468eb;insert into recyclebin.trace(type_name,nsp_name,obj_name,tg_tag,new_nsp_name,new_obj_name,crt_time)
values ('table','public','test2','DROP TABLE','recyclebin','md599fc68c328a54d5a4ded5cb98b5468eb','2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347');alter table public.test3 set schema recyclebin;alter table recyclebin.test3 rename to md5de3d73b4c8d0afe47cbcd61ba9a8f7e1;insert into recyclebin.trace(type_name,nsp_name,obj_name,tg_tag,new_nsp_name,new_obj_name,crt_time)
values ('table','public','test3','DROP TABLE','recyclebin','md5de3d73b4c8d0afe47cbcd61ba9a8f7e1','2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347'); COMMIT;
NOTICE:  -----------------------------------------------------------
ERROR:  Good Luck.
CONTEXT:  PL/pgSQL function test_event_trigger_for_drops() line 66 at RAISE


postgres=# \dt
No relations found.

postgres=# select * from recyclebin.trace;
id | type_name |  nsp_name  | obj_name |   tg_tag   | new_nsp_name |            new_obj_name             |          crt_time
----+-----------+------------+----------+------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+----------------------------
1 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md56015e0b40b55526be0bc35591f749438 | 2016-12-24 11:12:39.535339
2 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md5697b9f6a4ddca7c5d3a5e555bc13524e | 2016-12-24 11:17:56.478331
3 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md56e003aa8d4580d773dfb9ed218095350 | 2016-12-24 11:18:26.072341
4 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md5987a31420a41c0335096e13bf3104bee | 2016-12-24 11:24:28.805337
7 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md5ab75b9adad19028dc139c9594c1ad283 | 2016-12-24 11:30:57.128355
9 | table     | recyclebin | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md556dc1d9f932e19958780ec9088015531 | 2016-12-24 11:42:34.987422
10 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md5dfe0ecb69b7f0c559b5512ac2cc3ac5f | 2016-12-24 11:43:00.849329
11 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md5be413eefcb0a06359a813ea235aec991 | 2016-12-24 11:51:46.498338
12 | table     | public     | test1    | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md5c703b51dfd054b08b092df4e4ad24074 | 2016-12-24 11:51:46.498338
13 | table     | public     | test2    | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md50b59927a9a61e0324d4434a246da79b6 | 2016-12-24 11:51:46.498338
14 | table     | public     | test     | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md584b8a4bd192773d3bfe554016b4f4b46 | 2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347
15 | table     | public     | test1    | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md59e63afc3c45a334f054e1a04711c1b9b | 2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347
16 | table     | public     | test2    | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md599fc68c328a54d5a4ded5cb98b5468eb | 2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347
17 | table     | public     | test3    | DROP TABLE | recyclebin   | md5de3d73b4c8d0afe47cbcd61ba9a8f7e1 | 2016-12-24 11:58:23.497347
(14 rows)


digoal=# select * from pg_event_trigger ;


### 6. 类型转换

CAST ( expression AS type )
expression::type


postgres=# select cast('2017-01-01' as date);
date
------------
2017-01-01
(1 row)

postgres=# select '2017-01-01'::date;
date
------------
2017-01-01
(1 row)


postgres=# \h create cast
Command:     CREATE CAST
Description: define a new cast
Syntax:
CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITH FUNCTION function_name (argument_type [, ...])
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITHOUT FUNCTION
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITH INOUT
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]


postgres=# select '12.1a.1'::text::numeric;
ERROR:  invalid input syntax for type numeric: "12.1a.1"

postgres=# create or replace function text_to_numeric(text) returns numeric as $$select to_number(1,'9999999999999999999999999.99999999999999');$$ language sql strict;
CREATE FUNCTION
postgres=# select text_to_numeric('12.1a.1');
text_to_numeric
-----------------
12.11
(1 row)

postgres=# create cast (text as numeric) with function text_to_numeric(text) ;
CREATE CAST

postgres=# select '12.1a.1'::text::numeric;
numeric
---------
12.11
(1 row)  

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