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PostgreSQL 11 参数模板

简介: 标签 PostgreSQL , 参数 , 模板 , postgresql.conf , pg_hba.conf , postgresql.auto.conf 背景 系统参数模板 《PostgreSQL on Linux 最佳部署手册 - 珍藏级》 《PostgreSQL 10 + PostGIS + Sharding(pg_pathman) + MySQL(fdw外部表) on ECS 部署指南(适合新用户) - 珍藏级》 PostgreSQL 11 postgresql.conf 参数模板 内有注释,建议找到对应文章查看详细背景和原理介绍。

标签

PostgreSQL , 参数 , 模板 , postgresql.conf , pg_hba.conf , postgresql.auto.conf


背景

系统参数模板

《PostgreSQL on Linux 最佳部署手册 - 珍藏级》

《PostgreSQL 10 + PostGIS + Sharding(pg_pathman) + MySQL(fdw外部表) on ECS 部署指南(适合新用户) - 珍藏级》

PostgreSQL 11 postgresql.conf 参数模板

内有注释,建议找到对应文章查看详细背景和原理介绍。

# -----------------------------    
# PostgreSQL configuration file    
# -----------------------------    
#    
# This file consists of lines of the form:    
#    
#   name = value    
#    
# (The "=" is optional.)  Whitespace may be used.  Comments are introduced with    
# "#" anywhere on a line.  The complete list of parameter names and allowed    
# values can be found in the PostgreSQL documentation.    
#    
# The commented-out settings shown in this file represent the default values.    
# Re-commenting a setting is NOT sufficient to revert it to the default value;    
# you need to reload the server.    
#    
# This file is read on server startup and when the server receives a SIGHUP    
# signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have to SIGHUP the    
# server for the changes to take effect, run "pg_ctl reload", or execute    
# "SELECT pg_reload_conf()".  Some parameters, which are marked below,    
# require a server shutdown and restart to take effect.    
#    
# Any parameter can also be given as a command-line option to the server, e.g.,    
# "postgres -c log_connections=on".  Some parameters can be changed at run time    
# with the "SET" SQL command.    
#    
# Memory units:  kB = kilobytes        Time units:  ms  = milliseconds    
#                MB = megabytes                     s   = seconds    
#                GB = gigabytes                     min = minutes    
#                TB = terabytes                     h   = hours    
#                                                   d   = days    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# FILE LOCATIONS    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# The default values of these variables are driven from the -D command-line    
# option or PGDATA environment variable, represented here as ConfigDir.    
    
#data_directory = 'ConfigDir'           # use data in another directory    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#hba_file = 'ConfigDir/pg_hba.conf'     # host-based authentication file    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#ident_file = 'ConfigDir/pg_ident.conf' # ident configuration file    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# If external_pid_file is not explicitly set, no extra PID file is written.    
#external_pid_file = ''                 # write an extra PID file    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# CONNECTIONS AND AUTHENTICATION    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Connection Settings -    
    
# 监听  
listen_addresses = '0.0.0.0'            # what IP address(es) to listen on;    
                                        # comma-separated list of addresses;    
                                        # defaults to 'localhost'; use '*' for all    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
# 根据业务需求设定监听端口    
port = 1921                             # (change requires restart)    
    
# 比较安全的值:建议不要大于 200 * 四分之一物理内存(GB), 例如四分之一物理内存为16G,则建议不要超过3200.        
# (假设平均一个连接耗费5MB。  实际上syscache很大、SQL 使用到WORK_MEM,未使用hugepage并且访问到大量shared buffer page时,可能消耗更多内存)     
# 如果业务有更多并发连接,可以使用连接池,例如pgbouncer  
# [《PostgreSQL relcache在长连接应用中的内存霸占"坑"》](201607/20160709_01.md)     
# max_connections 公式:物理内存(GB)*1000*(1/4)/5   
max_connections = 2000                  # (change requires restart)    
# 为超级用户保留多少个连接  
superuser_reserved_connections = 10      # (change requires restart)    
    
# $PGDATA, /tmp中 创建unix socket监听    
unix_socket_directories = '., /tmp'        # comma-separated list of directories    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#unix_socket_group = ''                 # (change requires restart)    
    
# 除了OWNER和超级用户,其他用户无法从/tmp unix socket连接该实例    
unix_socket_permissions = 0700          # begin with 0 to use octal notation       
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#bonjour = off                          # advertise server via Bonjour    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#bonjour_name = ''                      # defaults to the computer name    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# - TCP Keepalives -    
# see "man 7 tcp" for details    
    
# 如果你连接数据库空闲一段时间会端口,可能是网络中存在会话超时的设备,建议可以设置一下这个心跳时间,TCP心跳间隔会缩短到60秒。    
tcp_keepalives_idle = 60                # TCP_KEEPIDLE, in seconds;    
                                        # 0 selects the system default    
tcp_keepalives_interval = 10            # TCP_KEEPINTVL, in seconds;    
                                        # 0 selects the system default    
tcp_keepalives_count = 10               # TCP_KEEPCNT;    
                                        # 0 selects the system default    
    
# - Authentication -    
    
#authentication_timeout = 1min          # 1s-600s    
    
# md5 or scram-sha-256   # 如果用户密码的MD5会泄露,建议使用scram-sha-256,但是相互不兼容,请注意。     
# [《PostgreSQL 10.0 preview 安全增强 - SASL认证方法 之 scram-sha-256 安全认证机制》](201703/20170309_01.md)      
password_encryption = md5              # md5 or scram-sha-256    
#db_user_namespace = off    
    
# GSSAPI using Kerberos     
#krb_server_keyfile = ''    
#krb_caseins_users = off    
    
# - SSL -    
    
#ssl = off    
#ssl_ca_file = ''    
#ssl_cert_file = 'server.crt'    
#ssl_crl_file = ''    
#ssl_key_file = 'server.key'    
#ssl_ciphers = 'HIGH:MEDIUM:+3DES:!aNULL' # allowed SSL ciphers    
#ssl_prefer_server_ciphers = on    
#ssl_ecdh_curve = 'prime256v1'    
#ssl_dh_params_file = ''    
#ssl_passphrase_command = ''    
#ssl_passphrase_command_supports_reload = off    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# RESOURCE USAGE (except WAL)    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Memory -    
    
# 1/4 主机内存  
# shared_buffers 公式: IF use hugepage: 主机内存*(1/4) ELSE: min(32GB, 主机内存*(1/4))  
# [《PostgreSQL Huge Page 使用建议 - 大内存主机、实例注意》](201803/20180325_02.md)    
shared_buffers = 24GB                   # min 128kB    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
  
# 建议shared buffer设置超过32GB时 使用大页,页大小 /proc/meminfo Hugepagesize      
huge_pages = try                # on, off, or try    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#temp_buffers = 8MB                     # min 800kB    
    
# 如果用户需要使用两阶段提交,需要设置为大于0,建议与max_connections一样大    
# max_prepared_transactions 公式: max_prepared_transactions=max_connections  
max_prepared_transactions = 2000        # zero disables the feature    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
# Caution: it is not advisable to set max_prepared_transactions nonzero unless    
# you actively intend to use prepared transactions.    
    
# 可以在会话中设置,如果有大量JOIN,聚合操作,并且期望使用hash agg或hash join。   (排序,HASH都会用到work_mem)  
# 可以设大一些,但是不建议大于    四分之一内存除以最大连接数  .     
# (一条QUERY中可以使用多倍WORK_MEM,与执行计划中的NODE有关)      
# work_mem 公式: max(min(物理内存/4096, 64MB), 4MB)    
work_mem = 8MB                          # min 64kB     
  
# 创建索引时使用的内存空间。  
# maintenance_work_mem 公式: min( 8G, (主机内存*1/8)/max_parallel_maintenance_workers )      
maintenance_work_mem = 2GB              # min 1MB    
  
# 在对一张表进行垃圾回收时,用于缓存垃圾版本的ctid,  
# 如果autovacuum work mem填满了,则VACUUM需要进入索引垃圾回收阶段,扫描索引(因此为了避免索引被多次扫描,需要缓存住一张表的所有垃圾TUPLE的CTID)。  
# 一张表(细到单个最底层分区)垃圾回收结束后释放。  
# [《PostgreSQL 垃圾回收参数优化之 - maintenance_work_mem , autovacuum_work_mem》](201902/20190226_01.md)    
# autovacuum_work_mem 公式: min( 8G, (主机内存*1/8)/autovacuum_max_workers )      
autovacuum_work_mem = 1GB               # min 1MB, or -1 to use maintenance_work_mem    
  
  
#max_stack_depth = 2MB                  # min 100kB    
dynamic_shared_memory_type = posix      # the default is the first option    
                                        # supported by the operating system:    
                                        #   posix    
                                        #   sysv    
                                        #   windows    
                                        #   mmap    
                                        # use none to disable dynamic shared memory    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# - Disk -    
    
# 如果需要限制临时文件使用量,可以设置。    
# 例如, 防止有异常的递归调用,无限使用临时文件。    
#temp_file_limit = -1                   # limits per-process temp file space    
                                        # in kB, or -1 for no limit    
    
# - Kernel Resources -    
    
## 如果你的数据库有非常多小文件(比如有几十万以上的表,还有索引等,并且每张表都会被访问到时),    
# 建议FD可以设多一些,避免进程需要打开关闭文件。    
## 但是不要大于前面章节系统设置的ulimit -n(open files)    
# max_files_per_process=655360    
    
#max_files_per_process = 1000           # min 25    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# - Cost-Based Vacuum Delay -    
    
# 如果你的系统IO非常好,则可以关闭vacuum delay   , 避免因为垃圾回收任务周期长导致的膨胀。    
vacuum_cost_delay = 0                   # 0-100 milliseconds    
#vacuum_cost_page_hit = 1               # 0-10000 credits    
#vacuum_cost_page_miss = 10             # 0-10000 credits    
#vacuum_cost_page_dirty = 20            # 0-10000 credits    
    
# io很好,CPU核数很多的机器,设大一些。如果设置了vacuum_cost_delay = 0 ,则这个不需要配置    
vacuum_cost_limit = 10000                # 1-10000 credits    
    
# - Background Writer -    
    
bgwriter_delay = 10ms                   # 10-10000ms between rounds    
bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 1000            # max buffers written/round, 0 disables    
bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 10.0          # 0-10.0 multiplier on buffers scanned/round    
bgwriter_flush_after = 512kB            # measured in pages, 0 disables    
    
# - Asynchronous Behavior -    
    
effective_io_concurrency = 0            # 1-1000; 0 disables prefetching    
    
# wal sender, user 动态fork的process, parallel worker等都算作 worker process, 所以你需要设置足够大.     
max_worker_processes = 256              # (change requires restart)    
    
#  如果需要使用并行创建索引,设置为大于1 ,不建议超过 主机cores-4    
# max_parallel_maintenance_workers 公式: min( max(2, CPU核数/2) , 16 )   
max_parallel_maintenance_workers = 6    # taken from max_parallel_workers    
    
#  如果需要使用并行查询,设置为大于1 ,不建议超过 主机cores-4    
# max_parallel_workers_per_gather 公式: min( max(2, CPU核数-4) , 24 )   
max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 0     # taken from max_parallel_workers    
  
# leader 是否与work process一起参与并行计算,如果ON,则并行度会默认+1。    
parallel_leader_participation = on    
    
#  如果需要使用并行查询,设置为大于1 ,不建议超过 主机cores-2    
#  必须小于 max_worker_processes     
# max_parallel_workers 公式: max(2, CPU核数-4)  
max_parallel_workers = 32               # maximum number of max_worker_processes that    
                                        # can be used in parallel operations    
  
# 是否启用snapshot too old技术,避免长事务导致的膨胀  
# 会导致性能一定的下降,约8%  
old_snapshot_threshold = 6h            # 1min-60d; -1 disables; 0 is immediate    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#backend_flush_after = 256               # measured in pages, 0 disables    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# WRITE-AHEAD LOG    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Settings -    
    
# 需要流复制物理备库、归档、时间点恢复时,设置为replica,需要逻辑订阅或逻辑备库则设置为logical    
wal_level = replica  # minimal, replica, or logical    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#fsync = on                             # flush data to disk for crash safety    
                                        # (turning this off can cause    
                                        # unrecoverable data corruption)    
    
# 如果双节点,设置为ON,如果是多副本,同步模式,建议设置为remote_write。     
# 如果磁盘性能很差,并且是OLTP业务。可以考虑设置为off降低COMMIT的RT,提高吞吐(设置为OFF时,可能丢失部分XLOG RECORD)    
synchronous_commit = off                # synchronization level;    
                                        # off, local, remote_write, remote_apply, or on    
    
# 建议使用pg_test_fsync测试后,决定用哪个最快。通常LINUX下open_datasync比较快。    
#wal_sync_method = fsync                # the default is the first option    
                                        # supported by the operating system:    
                                        #   open_datasync    
                                        #   fdatasync (default on Linux)    
                                        #   fsync    
                                        #   fsync_writethrough    
                                        #   open_sync    
    
# 如果文件系统支持COW例如ZFS,则建议设置为OFF。   
# 如果文件系统可以保证datafile block size的原子写,在文件系统与IO系统对齐后也可以设置为OFF。    
# 如果底层存储能保证IO的原子写,也可以设置为OFF。    
full_page_writes = on                  # recover from partial page writes    
    
# 当写FULL PAGE WRITE的io是瓶颈时建议开启    
wal_compression = on                  # enable compression of full-page writes    
  
# 如果要使用pg_rewind,flashback 时间线,需要打开这个功能  
# [《PostgreSQL pg_rewind,时间线修复,脑裂修复,flashback - 从库开启读写后,回退为只读从库。异步主从发生角色切换后,主库rewind为新主库的从库》](201901/20190128_02.md)    
#wal_log_hints = off                    # also do full page writes of non-critical updates    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
# 建议 min( WAL segment size(默认16MB) , shared_buffers/32 )     
wal_buffers = 16MB                       # min 32kB, -1 sets based on shared_buffers    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# 如果设置了synchronous_commit = off,建议设置wal_writer_delay    
wal_writer_delay = 10ms         # 1-10000 milliseconds    
wal_writer_flush_after = 1MB            # measured in pages, 0 disables    
    
# 如果synchronous_commit=on, 并且已知业务系统为高并发,对数据库有写操作的小事务,则可以设置commit_delay来实现分组提交,合并WAL FSYNCIO 。    
# 分组提交  
#commit_delay = 10                       # range 0-100000, in microseconds    
# 同时处于提交状态的事务数超过commit_siblings时,使用分组提交    
#commit_siblings = 5                    # range 1-1000    
    
# - Checkpoints -    
    
#  不建议频繁做检查点,否则XLOG会产生很多的FULL PAGE WRITE(when full_page_writes=on)。    
checkpoint_timeout = 30min              # range 30s-1d    
    
# 建议等于SHARED BUFFER,或2倍。    
# 同时需要考虑崩溃恢复时间, 越大,检查点可能拉越长导致崩溃恢复耗时越长。但是越小,开启FPW时,WAL日志写入量又越大。 建议采用COW文件系统,关闭FPW。    
# max_wal_size 公式: shared_buffers*2  
max_wal_size = 48GB    
  
# 建议是SHARED BUFFER的2分之一    
# min_wal_size 公式: shared_buffers/2  
min_wal_size = 12GB    
    
# 硬盘好(nvme ssd)的情况下,值越小可以让检查点快速结束,恢复时也可以快速达到一致状态。否则建议0.5~0.9     
# 如果有hot standby作为HA节点,这个值也可以设置为0.5~0.9   避免写高峰时CHECKPOINT对写带来的冲击。  
checkpoint_completion_target = 0.2      # checkpoint target duration, 0.0 - 1.0    
    
# IO很好的机器,不需要考虑平滑调度, 否则建议128~256kB    
checkpoint_flush_after = 256kB          # measured in pages, 0 disables    
#checkpoint_flush_after = 0             # measured in pages, 0 disables    
#checkpoint_warning = 30s               # 0 disables    
    
# - Archiving -    
    
# 建议默认打开,因为修改它需要重启实例    
# 打开后,一个WAL文件写满后,会在pg_wal/archive_status目录中创建xxxxxx.ready的文件,归档命令archive_command正常结束后,会清除这个状态文件。  
archive_mode = on             # enables archiving; off, on, or always    
                                # (change requires restart)    
    
#  后期再修改,如  'test ! -f /disk1/digoal/arch/%f && cp %p /disk1/digoal/arch/%f'    
archive_command = '/bin/date'           # command to use to archive a logfile segment    
                                # placeholders: %p = path of file to archive    
                                #               %f = file name only    
                                # e.g. 'test ! -f /mnt/server/archivedir/%f && cp %p /mnt/server/archivedir/%f'    
#archive_timeout = 0            # force a logfile segment switch after this    
                                # number of seconds; 0 disables    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# REPLICATION    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Sending Servers -    
    
# Set these on the master and on any standby that will send replication data.    
    
# 同时允许几个流复制协议的连接,根据实际需求设定 ,可以设置一个默认值例如64   
max_wal_senders = 64             # max number of walsender processes    
                                # (change requires restart)    
    
# 根据实际情况设置保留WAL的数量,主要是防止过早的清除WAL,导致备库因为主库的WAL清除而中断。根据实际情况设定。    
#wal_keep_segments = 0          # in logfile segments; 0 disables    
#wal_sender_timeout = 60s       # in milliseconds; 0 disables    
    
    
# 根据实际情况设置需要创建多少replication slot    
# 使用slot,可以保证流复制下游没有接收的WAL会在当前节点永久保留。所以必须留意下游的接收情况,否则可能导致WAL爆仓    
# 建议大于等于max_wal_senders    
# max_replication_slots 公式: max_replication_slots=max_wal_senders  
max_replication_slots = 64     # max number of replication slots    
                                # (change requires restart)    
#track_commit_timestamp = off   # collect timestamp of transaction commit    
                                # (change requires restart)    
    
# - Master Server -    
    
# These settings are ignored on a standby server.    
    
    
# 如果有2个或2个以上的备库,可以考虑使用同步多副本模式。 根据实际情况设置    
# [《PostgreSQL 一主多从(多副本,强同步)简明手册 - 配置、压测、监控、切换、防脑裂、修复、0丢失 - 珍藏级》](201803/20180326_01.md)      
# [《PostgreSQL 双节点流复制如何同时保证可用性、可靠性(rpo,rto) - (半同步,自动降级方法实践)》](201901/20190127_01.md)    
#synchronous_standby_names = '' # standby servers that provide sync rep    
                                # method to choose sync standbys, number of sync standbys,    
                                # and comma-separated list of application_name    
                                # from standby(s); '*' = all    
    
# 注意,当数据库有大量的更新、删除操作时,设置这个值容易导致表膨胀,容易导致VACUUM进程空转,导致IO和CPU飙升。(特别是autovacuum naptime配置很小时)    
#vacuum_defer_cleanup_age = 0   # number of xacts by which cleanup is delayed    
    
# - Standby Servers -    
    
# These settings are ignored on a master server.    
    
hot_standby = on                       # "off" disallows queries during recovery    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
# 当standby的archive replay与standby的用户SQL请求发生冲突时,在打断SQL前,允许用户SQL最长的执行时间. 打断SQL后,需要等STANDBY APPLY所有archive restore command 的WAL文件,APPLY才允许被继续打断。    
max_standby_archive_delay = 120s        # max delay before canceling queries    
                                        # when reading WAL from archive;    
                                        # -1 allows indefinite delay    
max_standby_streaming_delay = 120s      # max delay before canceling queries    
                                        # when reading streaming WAL;    
                                        # -1 allows indefinite delay    
wal_receiver_status_interval = 1s     # send replies at least this often    
                                        # 0 disables    
    
# 建议关闭,以免备库长事务导致 主库无法回收垃圾而膨胀。    
[《PostgreSQL物理"备库"的哪些操作或配置,可能影响"主库"的性能、垃圾回收、IO波动》](201704/20170410_03.md)      
hot_standby_feedback = off             # send info from standby to prevent    
                                        # query conflicts    
#wal_receiver_timeout = 60s             # time that receiver waits for    
                                        # communication from master    
                                        # in milliseconds; 0 disables    
#wal_retrieve_retry_interval = 5s       # time to wait before retrying to    
                                        # retrieve WAL after a failed attempt    
    
# - Subscribers -    
  
# 逻辑复制订阅端节点设置:    
# These settings are ignored on a publisher.    
    
# [《PostgreSQL 10.0 preview 逻辑订阅 - 原理与最佳实践》](201702/20170227_01.md)      
# These settings are ignored on a publisher.     
# 必须小于  max_worker_processes    
  
# 包括 apply workers and table synchronization workers  
# max_logical_replication_workers 公式: max_logical_replication_workers=max_wal_senders  
max_logical_replication_workers = 64    # taken from max_worker_processes    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
  
# Maximum number of synchronization workers per subscription. This parameter controls the amount of parallelism of the initial data copy during the subscription initialization or when new tables are added.  
# max_sync_workers_per_subscription 公式: min ( 32 , max(2, CPU核数-4) )    
max_sync_workers_per_subscription = 8  # taken from max_logical_replication_workers    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# QUERY TUNING    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Planner Method Configuration -    
    
#enable_bitmapscan = on    
#enable_hashagg = on    
#enable_hashjoin = on    
#enable_indexscan = on    
#enable_indexonlyscan = on    
#enable_material = on    
#enable_mergejoin = on    
#enable_nestloop = on    
#enable_parallel_append = on    
#enable_seqscan = on    
#enable_sort = on    
#enable_tidscan = on    
  
# OLAP业务,建议设置为ON  (enable_partitionwise_join, enable_partitionwise_aggregate)  
# [《PostgreSQL 并行计算解说 汇总》](201903/20190319_01.md)    
enable_partitionwise_join = on    
enable_partitionwise_aggregate = on    
  
#enable_parallel_hash = on    
#enable_partition_pruning = on    
    
# - Planner Cost Constants -    
    
#seq_page_cost = 1.0                    # measured on an arbitrary scale    
# 离散IO很好的机器(例如ssd, nvme ssd),不需要考虑离散和顺序扫描的成本差异     
random_page_cost = 1.1                 # same scale as above    
  
#cpu_tuple_cost = 0.01                  # same scale as above    
#cpu_index_tuple_cost = 0.005           # same scale as above    
#cpu_operator_cost = 0.0025             # same scale as above    
#parallel_tuple_cost = 0.1              # same scale as above    
#parallel_setup_cost = 1000.0   # same scale as above    
    
#jit_above_cost = 100000                # perform JIT compilation if available    
                                        # and query more expensive, -1 disables    
#jit_optimize_above_cost = 500000       # optimize JITed functions if query is    
                                        # more expensive, -1 disables    
#jit_inline_above_cost = 500000         # attempt to inline operators and    
                                        # functions if query is more expensive,    
                                        # -1 disables    
    
#min_parallel_table_scan_size = 8MB    
#min_parallel_index_scan_size = 512kB    
    
# 扣掉会话连接RSS,shared buffer, autovacuum worker, 剩下的都是OS可用的CACHE。    
# effective_cache_size 公式: 主机内存/2     
effective_cache_size = 80GB     
    
# - Genetic Query Optimizer -    
    
#geqo = on    
#geqo_threshold = 12    
#geqo_effort = 5                        # range 1-10    
#geqo_pool_size = 0                     # selects default based on effort    
#geqo_generations = 0                   # selects default based on effort    
#geqo_selection_bias = 2.0              # range 1.5-2.0    
#geqo_seed = 0.0                        # range 0.0-1.0    
    
# - Other Planner Options -    
    
#default_statistics_target = 100        # range 1-10000    
#constraint_exclusion = partition       # on, off, or partition    
#cursor_tuple_fraction = 0.1            # range 0.0-1.0    
#from_collapse_limit = 8    
#join_collapse_limit = 8                # 1 disables collapsing of explicit    
                                        # JOIN clauses    
#force_parallel_mode = off    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# REPORTING AND LOGGING    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Where to Log -    
    
log_destination = 'csvlog'              # Valid values are combinations of    
                                        # stderr, csvlog, syslog, and eventlog,    
                                        # depending on platform.  csvlog    
                                        # requires logging_collector to be on.    
    
# This is used when logging to stderr:    
logging_collector = on                  # Enable capturing of stderr and csvlog    
                                        # into log files. Required to be on for    
                                        # csvlogs.    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# These are only used if logging_collector is on:    
log_directory = 'log'                   # directory where log files are written,    
                                        # can be absolute or relative to PGDATA    
  
# 时间格式 http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/strftime.html   
# 设置参考 https://www.postgresql.org/docs/11/runtime-config-logging.html#RUNTIME-CONFIG-LOGGING-WHERE   
# 日志保留一周例子,每天一个文件  
log_filename = 'postgresql-%a.log'      # log file name pattern,    
                                        # can include strftime() escapes    
  
# 日志保留一个月例子,每天一个文件  
# log_filename = 'postgresql-%d.log'    # log file name pattern,    
                                        # can include strftime() escapes    
  
#log_file_mode = 0600                   # creation mode for log files,    
                                        # begin with 0 to use octal notation    
log_truncate_on_rotation = on           # If on, an existing log file with the    
                                        # same name as the new log file will be    
                                        # truncated rather than appended to.    
                                        # But such truncation only occurs on    
                                        # time-driven rotation, not on restarts    
                                        # or size-driven rotation.  Default is    
                                        # off, meaning append to existing files    
                                        # in all cases.    
log_rotation_age = 1d                   # Automatic rotation of logfiles will    
                                        # happen after that time.  0 disables.    
  
  
# 单个日志文件最大多大时,被截断,可以设置一个上限防止日志无限制增长  
log_rotation_size = 1GB   
# log_rotation_size = 0                   # Automatic rotation of logfiles will    
                                        # happen after that much log output.    
                                        # 0 disables.    
    
# These are relevant when logging to syslog:    
#syslog_facility = 'LOCAL0'    
#syslog_ident = 'postgres'    
#syslog_sequence_numbers = on    
#syslog_split_messages = on    
    
# This is only relevant when logging to eventlog (win32):    
# (change requires restart)    
#event_source = 'PostgreSQL'    
    
# - When to Log -    
    
#client_min_messages = notice           # values in order of decreasing detail:    
                                        #   debug5    
                                        #   debug4    
                                        #   debug3    
                                        #   debug2    
                                        #   debug1    
                                        #   log    
                                        #   notice    
                                        #   warning    
                                        #   error    
    
#log_min_messages = warning             # values in order of decreasing detail:    
                                        #   debug5    
                                        #   debug4    
                                        #   debug3    
                                        #   debug2    
                                        #   debug1    
                                        #   info    
                                        #   notice    
                                        #   warning    
                                        #   error    
                                        #   log    
                                        #   fatal    
                                        #   panic    
    
#log_min_error_statement = error        # values in order of decreasing detail:    
                                        #   debug5    
                                        #   debug4    
                                        #   debug3    
                                        #   debug2    
                                        #   debug1    
                                        #   info    
                                        #   notice    
                                        #   warning    
                                        #   error    
                                        #   log    
                                        #   fatal    
                                        #   panic (effectively off)    
    
# 根据实际情况设定,例如业务上认为5秒以上是慢SQL,那么就设置为5秒。    
log_min_duration_statement = 5s        # -1 is disabled, 0 logs all statements    
                                        # and their durations, > 0 logs only    
                                        # statements running at least this number    
                                        # of milliseconds    
    
    
# - What to Log -    
    
#debug_print_parse = off    
#debug_print_rewritten = off    
#debug_print_plan = off    
#debug_pretty_print = on    
  
# 记录检查点的详细统计信息  
log_checkpoints = on     
    
# 如果业务是短连接,建议设置为OFF,否则建议设置为ON    
log_connections = off    
    
# 如果业务是短连接,建议设置为OFF,否则建议设置为ON    
log_disconnections = off    
  
#log_duration = off    
  
# 记录错误代码的代码位置,是什么代码输出的日志,更好的跟踪问题  
log_error_verbosity = verbose    # terse, default, or verbose messages    
#log_hostname = off    
#log_line_prefix = '%m [%p] '            # special values:    
                                        #   %a = application name    
                                        #   %u = user name    
                                        #   %d = database name    
                                        #   %r = remote host and port    
                                        #   %h = remote host    
                                        #   %p = process ID    
                                        #   %t = timestamp without milliseconds    
                                        #   %m = timestamp with milliseconds    
                                        #   %n = timestamp with milliseconds (as a Unix epoch)    
                                        #   %i = command tag    
                                        #   %e = SQL state    
                                        #   %c = session ID    
                                        #   %l = session line number    
                                        #   %s = session start timestamp    
                                        #   %v = virtual transaction ID    
                                        #   %x = transaction ID (0 if none)    
                                        #   %q = stop here in non-session    
                                        #        processes    
                                        #   %% = '%'    
                                        # e.g. '<%u%%%d> '    
  
# 是否打印锁等待事件  
log_lock_waits = on                   # log lock waits >= deadlock_timeout    
    
# 如果需要审计SQL,则可以设置为all    
log_statement = 'ddl'                 # none, ddl, mod, all    
  
#log_replication_commands = off    
  
# 当使用的临时文件超过多大时,打印到日志中,跟踪大SQL。  
log_temp_files = 256MB                    # log temporary files equal or larger    
                                        # than the specified size in kilobytes;    
                                        # -1 disables, 0 logs all temp files    
log_timezone = 'PRC'      
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# PROCESS TITLE    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
#cluster_name = ''                      # added to process titles if nonempty    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#update_process_title = on    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# STATISTICS    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Query and Index Statistics Collector -    
    
#track_activities = on    
#track_counts = on    
    
# 跟踪IO耗时会带来一定的性能影响,默认是关闭的    
# 如果需要统计IO的时间开销,设置为ON    
# 建议用pg_test_timing测试一下获取时间的开销,如果开销很大,建议关闭这个时间跟踪。    
track_io_timing = on   
  
# 是否需要跟踪函数被调用的次数,耗时  
track_functions = pl                  # none, pl, all    
  
# 单条被跟踪的QUERY最多能存储多少字节,如果有超长SQL,则日志中被截断。 根据需要设置  
#track_activity_query_size = 1024       # (change requires restart)    
  
  
# 相对路径($PGDATA)或绝对路径。用于存储统计信息的临时目录。可以设置为ram based directory,提高性能  
# Pointing this at a RAM-based file system will decrease physical I/O requirements and can lead to improved performance.  
#stats_temp_directory = 'pg_stat_tmp'    
    
    
# - Monitoring -    
    
#log_parser_stats = off    
#log_planner_stats = off    
#log_executor_stats = off    
#log_statement_stats = off    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# AUTOVACUUM    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# 打开自动垃圾回收  
autovacuum = on                         # Enable autovacuum subprocess?  'on'    
                                        # requires track_counts to also be on.    
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0 # -1 disables, 0 logs all actions and    
                                        # their durations, > 0 logs only    
                                        # actions running at least this number    
                                        # of milliseconds.    
    
# CPU核多,并且IO好的情况下,可多点,但是注意最多可能消耗这么多内存:     
# autovacuum_max_workers * autovacuum mem(autovacuum_work_mem),    
# 会消耗较多内存,所以内存也要有基础。         
# 当DELETE\UPDATE非常频繁时,建议设置多一点,防止膨胀严重      
  
# autovacuum_max_workers 公式: max(min( 8 , CPU核数/2 ) , 5)   
autovacuum_max_workers = 8              # max number of autovacuum subprocesses    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# 建议不要太高频率,否则会因为vacuum产生较多的XLOG。或者在某些垃圾回收不掉的情况下(例如长事务、feed back on,等),导致一直触发vacuum,CPU和IO都会升高    
[《PostgreSQL垃圾回收代码分析 - why postgresql cann't reclaim tuple is HEAPTUPLE_RECENTLY_DEAD》](201505/20150503_01.md)      
[《PostgreSQL物理"备库"的哪些操作或配置,可能影响"主库"的性能、垃圾回收、IO波动》](201704/20170410_03.md)      
#autovacuum_naptime = 1min              # time between autovacuum runs    
#autovacuum_vacuum_threshold = 50       # min number of row updates before    
                                        # vacuum    
#autovacuum_analyze_threshold = 50      # min number of row updates before    
                                        # analyze    
autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.02   # fraction of table size before vacuum    
autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.01  # fraction of table size before analyze    
    
# 除了设置较大的FREEZE值。    
# 还是需要注意FREEZE风暴  [《PostgreSQL Freeze 风暴预测续 - 珍藏级SQL》](201804/20180411_01.md)      
# 表级定制freeze    
[《PostgreSQL 10 CLogControlLock 等待事件分析与优化 - hint bit, freeze, autovacuum, 风暴》](201903/20190319_02.md)    
autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 1200000000  # maximum XID age before forced vacuum    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 1250000000        # maximum multixact age    
                                        # before forced vacuum    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
    
# 如果数据库UPDATE非常频繁,建议设置为0。并且建议使用SSD    
autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 0ms      # default vacuum cost delay for    
                                        # autovacuum, in milliseconds;    
                                        # -1 means use vacuum_cost_delay    
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_limit = -1      # default vacuum cost limit for    
                                        # autovacuum, -1 means use    
                                        # vacuum_cost_limit    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# CLIENT CONNECTION DEFAULTS    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Statement Behavior -    
    
#search_path = '"$user", public'        # schema names    
#row_security = on    
#default_tablespace = ''                # a tablespace name, '' uses the default    
  
# 临时表的表空间,可以设置多个,轮询使用。  
# 临时表的表空间,建议为SSD目录。速度快。  
#temp_tablespaces = ''                  # a list of tablespace names, '' uses    
                                        # only default tablespace    
#check_function_bodies = on    
#default_transaction_isolation = 'read committed'    
#default_transaction_read_only = off    
#default_transaction_deferrable = off    
#session_replication_role = 'origin'    
    
# 可以用来防止雪崩,但是不建议全局设置    
#statement_timeout = 0                  # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled    
    
# 执行DDL时,建议加上超时    
# 可以用来防止雪崩  
#lock_timeout = 0                       # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled    
    
# 空闲中事务自动清理,根据业务实际情况设置    
idle_in_transaction_session_timeout = '6h'        # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled    
    
  
#[《PostgreSQL 10 CLogControlLock 等待事件分析与优化 - hint bit, freeze, autovacuum, 风暴》](201903/20190319_02.md)    
#vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000    
vacuum_freeze_table_age = 200000000    
#vacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age = 5000000    
vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 200000000    
  
# [《PostgreSQL 11 内核优化 - 降低vacuum cleanup阶段index scan概率 ( vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor , skip index vacuum cleanup stage)》](201902/20190201_03.md)    
#vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor = 0.1        # fraction of total number of tuples    
                                                # before index cleanup, 0 always performs    
                                                # index cleanup    
#bytea_output = 'hex'                   # hex, escape    
#xmlbinary = 'base64'    
#xmloption = 'content'    
    
# 限制GIN扫描的返回结果集大小,在想限制超多匹配的返回时可以设置    
#gin_fuzzy_search_limit = 0    
    
# GIN索引pending list的大小    
#gin_pending_list_limit = 4MB    
    
# - Locale and Formatting -    
    
datestyle = 'iso, mdy'    
#intervalstyle = 'postgres'    
timezone = 'PRC'    
#timezone_abbreviations = 'Default'     # Select the set of available time zone    
                                        # abbreviations.  Currently, there are    
                                        #   Default    
                                        #   Australia (historical usage)    
                                        #   India    
                                        # You can create your own file in    
                                        # share/timezonesets/.    
  
# 浮点精度扩展值  
[《PostgreSQL 浮点精度调整(extra_float_digits)》](201510/20151020_01.md)    
#extra_float_digits = 0                 # min -15, max 3    
#client_encoding = sql_ascii            # actually, defaults to database    
                                        # encoding    
    
# These settings are initialized by initdb, but they can be changed.    
lc_messages = 'C'                       # locale for system error message    
                                        # strings    
lc_monetary = 'C'                       # locale for monetary formatting    
lc_numeric = 'C'                        # locale for number formatting    
lc_time = 'C'                           # locale for time formatting    
    
# default configuration for text search    
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'    
    
# - Shared Library Preloading -    
    
# 需要加载什么LIB,预先加载,对于经常访问的库也建议预加载,例如postgis    
#shared_preload_libraries = 'pg_jieba,pipelinedb'        # (change requires restart)    
shared_preload_libraries = 'pg_stat_statements'  
  
#local_preload_libraries = ''    
#session_preload_libraries = ''    
    
# - Other Defaults -    
    
#dynamic_library_path = '$libdir'    
    
# 是否已编译JIT特性,如果已编译,设置为ON  
#jit = off                               # allow JIT compilation    
#jit_provider = 'llvmjit'               # JIT implementation to use    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# LOCK MANAGEMENT    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
deadlock_timeout = 1s    
#max_locks_per_transaction = 64         # min 10    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#max_pred_locks_per_transaction = 64    # min 10    
                                        # (change requires restart)    
#max_pred_locks_per_relation = -2       # negative values mean    
                                        # (max_pred_locks_per_transaction    
                                        #  / -max_pred_locks_per_relation) - 1    
#max_pred_locks_per_page = 2            # min 0    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# VERSION AND PLATFORM COMPATIBILITY    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# - Previous PostgreSQL Versions -    
    
#array_nulls = on    
#backslash_quote = safe_encoding        # on, off, or safe_encoding    
#default_with_oids = off    
    
# [《PostgreSQL 转义、UNICODE、与SQL注入》](201704/20170402_01.md)      
#escape_string_warning = on    
#lo_compat_privileges = off    
#operator_precedence_warning = off    
#quote_all_identifiers = off    
#standard_conforming_strings = on    
#synchronize_seqscans = on    
    
# - Other Platforms and Clients -    
    
# 是否启用 exp = null 自动转换为 exp is null  
# https://www.postgresql.org/docs/11/runtime-config-compatible.html#RUNTIME-CONFIG-COMPATIBLE-CLIENTS  
#transform_null_equals = off    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# ERROR HANDLING    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
#exit_on_error = off                    # terminate session on any error?    
#restart_after_crash = on               # reinitialize after backend crash?    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# CONFIG FILE INCLUDES    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# These options allow settings to be loaded from files other than the    
# default postgresql.conf.    
    
#include_dir = 'conf.d'                 # include files ending in '.conf' from    
                                        # directory 'conf.d'    
#include_if_exists = 'exists.conf'      # include file only if it exists    
#include = 'special.conf'               # include file    
    
    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
# CUSTOMIZED OPTIONS    
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------    
    
# Add settings for extensions here    

小结

1、固定参数

listen_addresses = '*'                          
superuser_reserved_connections = 10        
unix_socket_directories = '., /tmp'          
unix_socket_permissions = 0700            
tcp_keepalives_idle = 60                  
tcp_keepalives_interval = 10              
tcp_keepalives_count = 10                 
password_encryption = md5      # 初始化时指定后,不建议修改。pg_hba.conf 也请使用相应认证方法。 同时需要客户端支持scram-sha-256认证方法             
huge_pages = try                  
dynamic_shared_memory_type = posix        
vacuum_cost_delay = 0                     
vacuum_cost_limit = 10000                  
bgwriter_delay = 10ms                     
bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 1000              
bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 10.0            
bgwriter_flush_after = 512kB              
effective_io_concurrency = 0              
max_worker_processes = 256                
parallel_leader_participation = on            
old_snapshot_threshold = 6h              
wal_level = replica    
synchronous_commit = off                  
full_page_writes = on                    
wal_compression = on                    
wal_buffers = 16MB                         
wal_writer_delay = 10ms           
wal_writer_flush_after = 1MB              
checkpoint_timeout = 30min                
checkpoint_completion_target = 0.2        
checkpoint_flush_after = 256kB            
archive_mode = on               
archive_command = '/bin/date'             
max_wal_senders = 64               
max_replication_slots = 64       
hot_standby = on                         
max_standby_archive_delay = 120s          
max_standby_streaming_delay = 120s        
wal_receiver_status_interval = 1s       
hot_standby_feedback = off               
max_logical_replication_workers = 64      
enable_partitionwise_join = on    
enable_partitionwise_aggregate = on    
random_page_cost = 1.1                   
log_destination = 'csvlog'                
logging_collector = on                    
log_directory = 'log'                     
log_filename = 'postgresql-%a.log'        
log_truncate_on_rotation = on             
log_rotation_age = 1d                     
log_rotation_size = 1GB   
log_min_duration_statement = 5s          
log_checkpoints = on     
log_connections = off    
log_disconnections = off    
log_error_verbosity = verbose      
log_lock_waits = on                     
log_statement = 'ddl'                   
log_temp_files = 256MB                      
track_io_timing = on   
track_functions = pl                    
autovacuum = on                           
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0            
autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.02     
autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.01    
autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 1200000000    
autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 1250000000       
autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 0ms    
idle_in_transaction_session_timeout = '6h'    
vacuum_freeze_table_age = 200000000    
vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 200000000    
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'    
shared_preload_libraries = 'pg_stat_statements'    
deadlock_timeout = 1s    

2、环境参数

log_timezone = 'PRC'      
datestyle = 'iso, mdy'    
timezone = 'PRC'    
lc_messages = 'C'                         
lc_monetary = 'C'                         
lc_numeric = 'C'                          
lc_time = 'C'     

3、动态参数

port = 1921                            # 监听端口                 
max_connections = 2000                 # 物理内存(GB)*1000*(1/4)/5    
shared_buffers = 24GB                  # IF use hugepage: 主机内存*(1/4)   ELSE: min(32GB, 主机内存*(1/4))  
max_prepared_transactions = 2000       # max_prepared_transactions=max_connections   
work_mem = 8MB                         # max(min(物理内存/4096, 64MB), 4MB)             
maintenance_work_mem = 2GB             # min( 8G, (主机内存*1/8)/max_parallel_maintenance_workers )              
autovacuum_work_mem = 1GB              # min( 8G, (主机内存*1/8)/autovacuum_max_workers )     
max_parallel_maintenance_workers = 6   # min( max(2, CPU核数/2) , 16 )   
max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 0    # min( max(2, CPU核数-4) , 24 )   
max_parallel_workers = 32              # max(2, CPU核数-4)  
max_wal_size = 48GB                    # shared_buffers*2  
min_wal_size = 12GB                    # shared_buffers/2  
max_sync_workers_per_subscription = 8  # min ( 32 , max(2, CPU核数-4) )    
effective_cache_size = 80GB            # 主机内存/2    
autovacuum_max_workers = 8             # max(min( 8 , CPU核数/2 ) , 5)   

4、建议只允许用户修改如下配置,以及对应的范围:

enable_partitionwise_join = on      # on, off
enable_partitionwise_aggregate = on  # on, off
jit = on     # on, off
temp_file_limit=-1                # -1,  16MB ~ 1024000MB    
wal_level=replica                 # replica , logical
wal_keep_segments=0         #  0 ~ 1024000
track_commit_timestamp=off        # off, on   
vacuum_defer_cleanup_age=0        #  0 ~ 5000000
log_min_duration_statement=5s      #  -1 , 1s ~ 600s   
log_connections=off       # on, off
log_disconnections=off   # on, off
log_duration=off           # on, off
log_statement='ddl'         # ddl, mod, all
log_temp_files=128MB                     # 0, -1, 16MB ~ 1024MB
default_transaction_deferrable=off          #  on, off   
statement_timeout = 0                           #  0,    3s ~ 600s   
lock_timeout = 0                                    #  0,    3s ~ 600s   
idle_in_transaction_session_timeout = 0          #  0,    3s ~ 3600s   
extra_float_digits = 0              # 0~3, int   
old_snapshot_threshold=-1         # -1, 1min ~ 2880min
archive_timeout = '10min'    # 0,   1min ~ 60min 
autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 0   # 0~50   
autovacuum_vacuum_cost_limit = 10000  # 5000 ~ 10000  

如果加了LOG审计的采样插件,再加上对应参数,允许用户修改,以及允许用户可以修改的范围。
https://www.pgxn.org/dist/pg_sampletolog/

配置例子

64G内存,16核,HUGE PAGE=on,SSD机器

port = 1921                            # 监听端口                 
max_connections = 3200                 # 物理内存(GB)*1000*(1/4)/5    
shared_buffers = 16GB                  # IF use hugepage: 主机内存*(1/4)   ELSE: min(32GB, 主机内存*(1/4))  
max_prepared_transactions = 3200       # max_prepared_transactions=max_connections   
work_mem = 16MB                         # max(min(物理内存/4096, 64MB), 4MB)             
maintenance_work_mem = 1GB             # min( 8G, (主机内存*1/8)/max_parallel_maintenance_workers )              
autovacuum_work_mem = 1GB              # min( 8G, (主机内存*1/8)/autovacuum_max_workers )     
max_parallel_maintenance_workers = 8   # min( max(2, CPU核数/2) , 16 )   
max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 12   # min( max(2, CPU核数-4) , 24 )   
max_parallel_workers = 12              # max(2, CPU核数-4)  
max_wal_size = 32GB                    # shared_buffers*2  
min_wal_size = 8GB                     # shared_buffers/2  
max_sync_workers_per_subscription = 12  # min ( 32 , max(2, CPU核数-4) )    
effective_cache_size = 32GB            # 主机内存/2    
autovacuum_max_workers = 8             # max(min( 8 , CPU核数/2 ) , 5)   

其他参数值请拷贝以上固定参数与环境参数内容。

pg_hba.conf 数据库防火墙配置模板

# TYPE  DATABASE        USER            ADDRESS                 METHOD    
    
# "local" is for Unix domain socket connections only    
local   all             all                                     trust    
# IPv4 local connections:    
host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            trust    
# IPv6 local connections:    
host    all             all             ::1/128                 trust    
# Allow replication connections from localhost, by a user with the    
# replication privilege.    
local   replication     all                                     trust    
host    replication     all             127.0.0.1/32            trust    
host    replication     all             ::1/128                 trust    
    
# 禁止超级用户从远程连接    
host all postgres 0.0.0.0/0 reject    
    
# 应用连接配置:哪个用户,从哪里来,连接什么数据库。规则为使用何种认证方法,或拒绝?    
# TYPE  DATABASE        USER            ADDRESS                 METHOD    
    
# 如果不想挨个配置,可以使用如下配置,允许所有来源,通过任意用户访问任意数据库    
host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5    

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