PostgreSQL 同步流复制原理和代码浅析-阿里云开发者社区

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PostgreSQL 同步流复制原理和代码浅析

简介: 数据库ACID中的持久化如何实现 数据库ACID里面的D,持久化。 指的是对于用户来说提交的事务,数据是可靠的,即使数据库crash了,在硬件完好的情况下,也能恢复回来。PostgreSQL是怎么做到的呢,看一幅图,画得比较丑,凑合看吧。假设一个事务,对数据库做了一些操作,并且产生了一些脏数据,

数据库ACID中的持久化如何实现

数据库ACID里面的D,持久化。 指的是对于用户来说提交的事务,数据是可靠的,即使数据库crash了,在硬件完好的情况下,也能恢复回来。
PostgreSQL是怎么做到的呢,看一幅图,画得比较丑,凑合看吧。
假设一个事务,对数据库做了一些操作,并且产生了一些脏数据,首先这些脏数据会在数据库的shared buffer中。
同时,产生这些脏数据的同时也会产生对应的redo信息,产生的REDO会有对应的LSN号(你可以理解为REDO 的虚拟地址空间的一个唯一的OFFSET,每一笔REDO都有),这个LSN号也会记录到shared buffer中对应的脏页中。
walwriter是负责将wal buffer flush到持久化设备的进程,同时它会更新一个全局变量,记录已经flush的最大的LSN号。
bgwriter是负责将shared buffer的脏页持久化到持久化设备的进程,它在flush时,除了要遵循LRU算法之外,还要通过LSN全局变量的比对,来保证脏页对应的REDO记录已经flush到持久化设备了,如果发现还对应的REDO没有持久化,会触发WAL writer去flush wal buffer。 (即确保日志比脏数据先落盘)
当用户提交事务时,也会产生一笔提交事务的REDO,这笔REDO也携带了LSN号。backend process 同样需要等待对应LSN flush到磁盘后才会返回给用户提交成功的信号。(保证日志先落盘,然后返回给用户)
_

数据库同步复制原理浅析

同步流复制,即保证standby节点和本地节点的日志双双落盘。
1
PostgreSQL使用另一组全局变量,记录同步流复制节点已经接收到的XLOG LSN,以及已经持久化的XLOG LSN。
用户在发起提交请求后,backend process除了要判断本地wal有没有持久化,同时还需要判断同步流复制节点的XLOG有没有接收到或持久化(通过synchronous_commit参数控制)。
如果同步流复制节点的XLOG还没有接收或持久化,backend process会进入等待状态。

数据库同步复制代码浅析

对应的代码和解释如下:
CommitTransaction @ src/backend/access/transam/xact.c
RecordTransactionCommit @ src/backend/access/transam/xact.c

        /*
         * If we didn't create XLOG entries, we're done here; otherwise we
         * should trigger flushing those entries the same as a commit record
         * would.  This will primarily happen for HOT pruning and the like; we
         * want these to be flushed to disk in due time.
         */
        if (!wrote_xlog)  // 没有产生redo的事务,直接返回
            goto cleanup;

    if (wrote_xlog && markXidCommitted)  // 如果产生了redo, 等待同步流复制
        SyncRepWaitForLSN(XactLastRecEnd);

SyncRepWaitForLSN @ src/backend/replication/syncrep.c

/*
 * Wait for synchronous replication, if requested by user.
 *
 * Initially backends start in state SYNC_REP_NOT_WAITING and then
 * change that state to SYNC_REP_WAITING before adding ourselves
 * to the wait queue. During SyncRepWakeQueue() a WALSender changes
 * the state to SYNC_REP_WAIT_COMPLETE once replication is confirmed.
 * This backend then resets its state to SYNC_REP_NOT_WAITING.
 */
void
SyncRepWaitForLSN(XLogRecPtr XactCommitLSN)
{
...
    /*
     * Fast exit if user has not requested sync replication, or there are no
     * sync replication standby names defined. Note that those standbys don't
     * need to be connected.
     */
    if (!SyncRepRequested() || !SyncStandbysDefined())  //  如果不是同步事务或者没有定义同步流复制节点,直接返回
        return;
...
    /*
     * We don't wait for sync rep if WalSndCtl->sync_standbys_defined is not
     * set.  See SyncRepUpdateSyncStandbysDefined.
     *
     * Also check that the standby hasn't already replied. Unlikely race
     * condition but we'll be fetching that cache line anyway so it's likely
     * to be a low cost check.
     */
    if (!WalSndCtl->sync_standbys_defined ||    
        XactCommitLSN <= WalSndCtl->lsn[mode])  //  如果没有定义同步流复制节点,或者判断到commit lsn小于已同步的LSN,说明XLOG已经flush了,直接返回。  
    {
        LWLockRelease(SyncRepLock);
        return;
    }
...

// 进入循环等待状态,说明本地的xlog已经flush了,只是等待同步流复制节点的REDO同步状态。
    /*
     * Wait for specified LSN to be confirmed.
     *
     * Each proc has its own wait latch, so we perform a normal latch
     * check/wait loop here.
     */
    for (;;)  // 进入等待状态,检查latch是否满足释放等待的条件(wal sender会根据REDO的同步情况,实时更新对应的latch)
    {
        int            syncRepState;

        /* Must reset the latch before testing state. */
        ResetLatch(&MyProc->procLatch);

        syncRepState = MyProc->syncRepState;
        if (syncRepState == SYNC_REP_WAITING)
        {
            LWLockAcquire(SyncRepLock, LW_SHARED);
            syncRepState = MyProc->syncRepState;
            LWLockRelease(SyncRepLock);
        }
        if (syncRepState == SYNC_REP_WAIT_COMPLETE)  // 说明XLOG同步完成,退出等待
            break;

//  如果本地进程挂了,输出的消息内容是,本地事务信息已持久化,但是远程也许还没有持久化
        if (ProcDiePending)
        {
            ereport(WARNING,
                    (errcode(ERRCODE_ADMIN_SHUTDOWN),
                     errmsg("canceling the wait for synchronous replication and terminating connection due to administrator command"),
                     errdetail("The transaction has already committed locally, but might not have been replicated to the standby.")));
            whereToSendOutput = DestNone;
            SyncRepCancelWait();
            break;
        }

//  如果用户主动cancel query,输出的消息内容是,本地事务信息已持久化,但是远程也许还没有持久化
        if (QueryCancelPending)
        {
            QueryCancelPending = false;
            ereport(WARNING,
                    (errmsg("canceling wait for synchronous replication due to user request"),
                     errdetail("The transaction has already committed locally, but might not have been replicated to the standby.")));
            SyncRepCancelWait();
            break;
        }

// 如果postgres主进程挂了,进入退出流程。  
        if (!PostmasterIsAlive())
        {
            ProcDiePending = true;
            whereToSendOutput = DestNone;
            SyncRepCancelWait();
            break;
        }

//  等待wal sender来修改对应的latch
        /*
         * Wait on latch.  Any condition that should wake us up will set the
         * latch, so no need for timeout.
         */
        WaitLatch(&MyProc->procLatch, WL_LATCH_SET | WL_POSTMASTER_DEATH, -1);

注意用户进入等待状态后,只有主动cancel , 或者kill(terminate) , 或者主进程die才能退出无限的等待状态。后面会讲到如何将同步级别降级为异步。

前面提到了,用户端需要等待LATCH的释放信号。
那么谁来给它这个信号了,是wal sender进程,源码和解释如下 :
src/backend/replication/walsender.c

StartReplication

WalSndLoop

ProcessRepliesIfAny

ProcessStandbyMessage

ProcessStandbyReplyMessage
    if (!am_cascading_walsender)  // 非级联流复制节点,那么它将调用SyncRepReleaseWaiters修改backend process等待队列中它们对应的 latch。    
        SyncRepReleaseWaiters();

SyncRepReleaseWaiters @ src/backend/replication/syncrep.c

/*
 * Update the LSNs on each queue based upon our latest state. This
 * implements a simple policy of first-valid-standby-releases-waiter.
 *
 * Other policies are possible, which would change what we do here and what
 * perhaps also which information we store as well.
 */
void
SyncRepReleaseWaiters(void)
{
...
      //  释放满足条件的等待队列
    /*
     * Set the lsn first so that when we wake backends they will release up to
     * this location.
     */
    if (walsndctl->lsn[SYNC_REP_WAIT_WRITE] < MyWalSnd->write)
    {
        walsndctl->lsn[SYNC_REP_WAIT_WRITE] = MyWalSnd->write;
        numwrite = SyncRepWakeQueue(false, SYNC_REP_WAIT_WRITE);
    }
    if (walsndctl->lsn[SYNC_REP_WAIT_FLUSH] < MyWalSnd->flush)
    {
        walsndctl->lsn[SYNC_REP_WAIT_FLUSH] = MyWalSnd->flush;
        numflush = SyncRepWakeQueue(false, SYNC_REP_WAIT_FLUSH);
    }
...

SyncRepWakeQueue @ src/backend/replication/syncrep.c

/*
 * Walk the specified queue from head.  Set the state of any backends that
 * need to be woken, remove them from the queue, and then wake them.
 * Pass all = true to wake whole queue; otherwise, just wake up to
 * the walsender's LSN.
 *
 * Must hold SyncRepLock.
 */
static int
SyncRepWakeQueue(bool all, int mode)
{

...
    while (proc)  // 修改对应的backend process 的latch
    {
        /*
         * Assume the queue is ordered by LSN
         */
        if (!all && walsndctl->lsn[mode] < proc->waitLSN)
            return numprocs;

        /*
         * Move to next proc, so we can delete thisproc from the queue.
         * thisproc is valid, proc may be NULL after this.
         */
        thisproc = proc;
        proc = (PGPROC *) SHMQueueNext(&(WalSndCtl->SyncRepQueue[mode]),
                                       &(proc->syncRepLinks),
                                       offsetof(PGPROC, syncRepLinks));

        /*
         * Set state to complete; see SyncRepWaitForLSN() for discussion of
         * the various states.
         */
        thisproc->syncRepState = SYNC_REP_WAIT_COMPLETE;  // 满足条件时,改成SYNC_REP_WAIT_COMPLETE  
....


如何设置事务可靠性级别

PostgreSQL 支持在会话中设置事务的可靠性级别。
off 表示commit 时不需要等待wal 持久化。
local 表示commit 是只需要等待本地数据库的wal 持久化。
remote_write 表示commit 需要等待本地数据库的wal 持久化,同时需要等待sync standby节点wal write buffer完成(不需要持久化)。
on 表示commit 需要等待本地数据库的wal 持久化,同时需要等待sync standby节点wal持久化。
提醒一点, synchronous_commit 的任何一种设置,都不影响wal日志持久化必须先于shared buffer脏数据持久化。 所以不管你怎么设置,都不好影响数据的一致性。

synchronous_commit = off                # synchronization level;
                                        # off, local, remote_write, or on


如何实现同步复制降级

从前面的代码解析可以得知,如果 backend process 进入了等待循环,只接受几种信号降级。 并且降级后会告警,表示本地wal已持久化,但是sync standby节点不确定wal有没有持久化。
如果你只配置了1个standby,并且将它配置为同步流复制节点。一旦出现网络抖动,或者sync standby节点故障,将导致同步事务进入等待状态。
怎么降级呢?
方法1.
修改配置文件并重置

$ vi postgresql.conf  
synchronous_commit = local
$ pg_ctl reload

然后cancel 所有query .

postgres=# select pg_cancel_backend(pid) from pg_stat_activity where pid<>pg_backend_pid();

收到这样的信号,表示事务成功提交,同时表示WAL不知道有没有同步到sync standby。

WARNING:  canceling wait for synchronous replication due to user request
DETAIL:  The transaction has already committed locally, but might not have been replicated to the standby.
COMMIT
postgres=# show synchronous_commit ;
 synchronous_commit 
--------------------
 off
(1 row)

同时它会读到全局变量synchronous_commit 已经是 local了。
这样就完成了降级的动作。

方法2.
方法1的降级需要对已有的正在等待wal sync的pid使用cancel进行处理,有点不人性化。
可以通过修改代码的方式,做到更人性化。
SyncRepWaitForLSN for循环中,加一个判断,如果发现全局变量sync commit变成local, off了,则告警并退出。这样就不需要人为的去cancel query了.

WARNING:  canceling wait for synchronous replication due to user request
DETAIL:  The transaction has already committed locally, but might not have been replicated to the standby.

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