深入理解 Kubernetes Ingress:路由流量、负载均衡和安全性配置

简介: 深入理解 Kubernetes Ingress:路由流量、负载均衡和安全性配置

Kubernetes Ingress 是 Kubernetes 集群中外部流量管理的重要组件。它为用户提供了一种直观而强大的方式,通过定义规则和配置,来控制外部流量的路由和访问。

1. 什么是 Ingress?

在 Kubernetes 中,Ingress 是一种 API 资源,用于定义外部流量如何进入集群内部。它允许我们基于主机名、路径和其他条件,将流量导向不同的后端服务。简而言之,Ingress 是一个灵活的流量管理工具,使得在集群中运行的多个服务可以共享同一 IP 地址和端口


通常情况下pod和service的ip仅仅只能用于集群内部访问,集群外部的请求,通过负载均衡转发到service中的pod上,而且外部访问只能通过NodePort和LoadBalancer来向外暴露端口,所以的话我们访问任何节点都是通过节点ip+暴露端口来访问,这样就意味着,每个节点端口只能使用一次,因为端口不能重复,而实际访问中,都是通过域名来访问服务,所以的话ingress诞生了,它其实也是一个控制器,不过这个控制器比较特殊,相当于网关,在servcie上加了一层,我们先通过ingress然后在访问service,在通过service访问pod中的服务。

2.工作流程

3.安装 ingress-nginx

先通过heml 安装ingress-nginx

3.1安装heml

helm类似于一个包管理工具,主要是为了解决k8s资源编排文件过多难以维护的问题。

使用halm快速部署应用
  1. 搜索应用:helm search repo nginx
  2. 安装应用:helm install nginx_name nginx
  3. 查看已安装应用:helm list
  4. 查看应用状态:helm status nginx
#下载二进制文件
[root@k8s-master helm]# wget https://get.helm.sh/helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz
--2024-01-04 17:06:53--  https://get.helm.sh/helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz
正在解析主机 get.helm.sh (get.helm.sh)... 152.199.39.108, 2606:2800:247:1cb7:261b:1f9c:2074:3c
正在连接 get.helm.sh (get.helm.sh)|152.199.39.108|:443... 已连接。
已发出 HTTP 请求,正在等待回应... 200 OK
长度:12924654 (12M) [application/x-tar]
正在保存至: “helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz”

100%[====================================================================================================================>] 12,924,654  3.87MB/s 用时 3.2s   

2024-01-04 17:06:59 (3.87 MB/s) - 已保存 “helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz” [12924654/12924654])

[root@k8s-master helm]# ls
helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz
#解压
[root@k8s-master helm]# tar -zxvf helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz
linux-amd64/
linux-amd64/README.md
linux-amd64/LICENSE
linux-amd64/helm
[root@k8s-master helm]# ls
helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz  linux-amd64
[root@k8s-master helm]# cd linux-amd64/
[root@k8s-master linux-amd64]# ls
helm  LICENSE  README.md
[root@k8s-master linux-amd64]# cp helm /usr/local/bin/
[root@k8s-master linux-amd64]# cd ~
[root@k8s-master ~]# pwd
/root
# 输入版本号 安装成功
[root@k8s-master ~]# helm version
version.BuildInfo{Version:"v3.2.3", GitCommit:"8f832046e258e2cb800894579b1b3b50c2d83492", GitTreeState:"clean", GoVersion:"go1.13.12"}

3.2添加 helm 仓库

可以从helm仓库下载东西

# 安装 ingress-nginx
[root@k8s-master ~]# helm repo add ingress-nginx https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx
"ingress-nginx" has been added to your repositories
#查看仓库列表
[root@k8s-master ~]# helm repo list
NAME          URL                                       
ingress-nginx https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx
# 搜索 ingress-nginx 这是配置好的软件的安装包
[root@k8s-master ~]# helm search repo ingress-nginx
NAME                        CHART VERSION APP VERSION DESCRIPTION                                       
ingress-nginx/ingress-nginx 4.9.0         1.9.5       Ingress controller for Kubernetes using NGINX a...

3.3下载包

这个是下载最新的版本

[root@k8s-master ~]# helm pull ingress-nginx/ingress-nginx
#Error: Get https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/releases/download/helm-char
#t-4.9.0/ingress-nginx-4.9.0.tgz: unexpected EOF 出现这个问题多下载几次就好了

这个下载了ingress-nginx4.4.2的版本

[root@k8s-master ~]# helm pull ingress-nginx/ingress-nginx --version 4.4.2
[root@k8s-master ~]# ls
aliyun-components.yaml  anaconda-ks.cfg  deployments  ingress-nginx-4.4.2.tgz  k8s  pods
[root@k8s-master ~]# mv ingress-nginx-4.4.2.tgz k8s/helm
[root@k8s-master ~]# cd k8s/helm
[root@k8s-master helm]# ls
helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz  ingress-nginx-4.4.2.tgz  ingress-nginx-4.9.0.tgz  linux-amd64
[root@k8s-master helm]# tar -xf ingress-nginx-4.4.2.tgz
[root@k8s-master helm]# ls
helm-v3.2.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz  ingress-nginx  ingress-nginx-4.4.2.tgz  ingress-nginx-4.9.0.tgz  linux-amd64
[root@k8s-master helm]# cd ingress-nginx
[root@k8s-master ingress-nginx]# ls
CHANGELOG.md  changelog.md.gotmpl  Chart.yaml  ci  OWNERS  README.md  README.md.gotmpl  templates  values.yaml
[root@k8s-master ingress-nginx]# vi values.yaml

3.4 配置参数

## 修改 values.yaml 镜像地址:修改为国内镜像
[root@k8s-master ingress-nginx]# vi values.yaml

#找到这两行修改成这个内容
registry: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com
image: google_containers/nginx-ingress-controller
#这两行内容注释掉
 #digest: sha256:b3aba22b1da80e7acfc52b115cae1d4c687172cbf2b742d5b502419c25ff340e
 #digestChroot: sha256:9a8d7b25a846a6461cd044b9aea9cf6cad972bcf2e64d9fd246c0279979aad2d
#/kube-web 找到这行内容  image: ingress-nginx/kube-webhook-certgen
# 修改成下面的内容
registry: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com
image: google_containers/kube-webhook-certgen
#digest 这个也注释掉
tag:1.5.1   #这个上面那个镜像下面的的版本号一致
#修改部署配置的 kind: DaemonSet  -- Use a `DaemonSet` or `Deployment`找到这行内容下面
kind: Deployment  把这个改为DaemonSet
#往下找nodeSelector  加入ingress: "true"
nodeSelector:
  ingress: "true" # 增加选择器,如果 node 上有 ingress=true 就部署
#dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst 把这个集群优先  改为下面的主机映射
dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet 
hostNetwork: true #使用本地网络
admissionWebhooks.enabled 修改为 false
#直接找LoadBalancer
service 中的 type 由 LoadBalancer 修改为 ClusterIP,如果服务器是云平台才用 LoadBalancer

参数配置起来比较麻烦 直接用编辑器修改在上传

完整版

## nginx configuration
## Ref: https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/blob/main/docs/user-guide/nginx-configuration/index.md
##

## Overrides for generated resource names
# See templates/_helpers.tpl
# nameOverride:
# fullnameOverride:

## Labels to apply to all resources
##
commonLabels: {}
# scmhash: abc123
# myLabel: aakkmd

controller:
  name: controller
  image:
    ## Keep false as default for now!
    chroot: false
    registry: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com
    image: google_containers/nginx-ingress-controller
    ## for backwards compatibility consider setting the full image url via the repository value below
    ## use *either* current default registry/image or repository format or installing chart by providing the values.yaml will fail
    ## repository:
    tag: "v1.5.1"
    #digest: sha256:4ba73c697770664c1e00e9f968de14e08f606ff961c76e5d7033a4a9c593c629
    #digestChroot: sha256:c1c091b88a6c936a83bd7b098662760a87868d12452529bad0d178fb36147345
    pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    # www-data -> uid 101
    runAsUser: 101
    allowPrivilegeEscalation: true

  # -- Use an existing PSP instead of creating one
  existingPsp: ""

  # -- Configures the controller container name
  containerName: controller

  # -- Configures the ports that the nginx-controller listens on
  containerPort:
    http: 80
    https: 443

  # -- Will add custom configuration options to Nginx https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx/user-guide/nginx-configuration/configmap/
  config: {}

  # -- Annotations to be added to the controller config configuration configmap.
  configAnnotations: {}

  # -- Will add custom headers before sending traffic to backends according to https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/tree/main/docs/examples/customization/custom-headers
  proxySetHeaders: {}

  # -- Will add custom headers before sending response traffic to the client according to: https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx/user-guide/nginx-configuration/configmap/#add-headers
  addHeaders: {}

  # -- Optionally customize the pod dnsConfig.
  dnsConfig: {}

  # -- Optionally customize the pod hostname.
  hostname: {}

  # -- Optionally change this to ClusterFirstWithHostNet in case you have 'hostNetwork: true'.
  # By default, while using host network, name resolution uses the host's DNS. If you wish nginx-controller
  # to keep resolving names inside the k8s network, use ClusterFirstWithHostNet.
  dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet

  # -- Bare-metal considerations via the host network https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx/deploy/baremetal/#via-the-host-network
  # Ingress status was blank because there is no Service exposing the NGINX Ingress controller in a configuration using the host network, the default --publish-service flag used in standard cloud setups does not apply
  reportNodeInternalIp: false

  # -- Process Ingress objects without ingressClass annotation/ingressClassName field
  # Overrides value for --watch-ingress-without-class flag of the controller binary
  # Defaults to false
  watchIngressWithoutClass: false

  # -- Process IngressClass per name (additionally as per spec.controller).
  ingressClassByName: false

  # -- This configuration defines if Ingress Controller should allow users to set
  # their own *-snippet annotations, otherwise this is forbidden / dropped
  # when users add those annotations.
  # Global snippets in ConfigMap are still respected
  allowSnippetAnnotations: true

  # -- Required for use with CNI based kubernetes installations (such as ones set up by kubeadm),
  # since CNI and hostport don't mix yet. Can be deprecated once https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/23920
  # is merged
  hostNetwork: true

  ## Use host ports 80 and 443
  ## Disabled by default
  hostPort:
    # -- Enable 'hostPort' or not
    enabled: false
    ports:
      # -- 'hostPort' http port
      http: 80
      # -- 'hostPort' https port
      https: 443

  # -- Election ID to use for status update, by default it uses the controller name combined with a suffix of 'leader'
  electionID: ""

  ## This section refers to the creation of the IngressClass resource
  ## IngressClass resources are supported since k8s >= 1.18 and required since k8s >= 1.19
  ingressClassResource:
    # -- Name of the ingressClass
    name: nginx
    # -- Is this ingressClass enabled or not
    enabled: true
    # -- Is this the default ingressClass for the cluster
    default: false
    # -- Controller-value of the controller that is processing this ingressClass
    controllerValue: "k8s.io/ingress-nginx"

    # -- Parameters is a link to a custom resource containing additional
    # configuration for the controller. This is optional if the controller
    # does not require extra parameters.
    parameters: {}

  # -- For backwards compatibility with ingress.class annotation, use ingressClass.
  # Algorithm is as follows, first ingressClassName is considered, if not present, controller looks for ingress.class annotation
  ingressClass: nginx

  # -- Labels to add to the pod container metadata
  podLabels: {}
  #  key: value

  # -- Security Context policies for controller pods
  podSecurityContext: {}

  # -- See https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/administer-cluster/sysctl-cluster/ for notes on enabling and using sysctls
  sysctls: {}
  # sysctls:
  #   "net.core.somaxconn": "8192"

  # -- Allows customization of the source of the IP address or FQDN to report
  # in the ingress status field. By default, it reads the information provided
  # by the service. If disable, the status field reports the IP address of the
  # node or nodes where an ingress controller pod is running.
  publishService:
    # -- Enable 'publishService' or not
    enabled: true
    # -- Allows overriding of the publish service to bind to
    # Must be <namespace>/<service_name>
    pathOverride: ""

  # Limit the scope of the controller to a specific namespace
  scope:
    # -- Enable 'scope' or not
    enabled: false
    # -- Namespace to limit the controller to; defaults to $(POD_NAMESPACE)
    namespace: ""
    # -- When scope.enabled == false, instead of watching all namespaces, we watching namespaces whose labels
    # only match with namespaceSelector. Format like foo=bar. Defaults to empty, means watching all namespaces.
    namespaceSelector: ""

  # -- Allows customization of the configmap / nginx-configmap namespace; defaults to $(POD_NAMESPACE)
  configMapNamespace: ""

  tcp:
    # -- Allows customization of the tcp-services-configmap; defaults to $(POD_NAMESPACE)
    configMapNamespace: ""
    # -- Annotations to be added to the tcp config configmap
    annotations: {}

  udp:
    # -- Allows customization of the udp-services-configmap; defaults to $(POD_NAMESPACE)
    configMapNamespace: ""
    # -- Annotations to be added to the udp config configmap
    annotations: {}

  # -- Maxmind license key to download GeoLite2 Databases.
  ## https://blog.maxmind.com/2019/12/18/significant-changes-to-accessing-and-using-geolite2-databases
  maxmindLicenseKey: ""

  # -- Additional command line arguments to pass to nginx-ingress-controller
  # E.g. to specify the default SSL certificate you can use
  extraArgs: {}
  ## extraArgs:
  ##   default-ssl-certificate: "<namespace>/<secret_name>"

  # -- Additional environment variables to set
  extraEnvs: []
  # extraEnvs:
  #   - name: FOO
  #     valueFrom:
  #       secretKeyRef:
  #         key: FOO
  #         name: secret-resource

  # -- Use a `DaemonSet` or `Deployment`
  kind: DaemonSet

  # -- Annotations to be added to the controller Deployment or DaemonSet
  ##
  annotations: {}
  #  keel.sh/pollSchedule: "@every 60m"

  # -- Labels to be added to the controller Deployment or DaemonSet and other resources that do not have option to specify labels
  ##
  labels: {}
  #  keel.sh/policy: patch
  #  keel.sh/trigger: poll


  # -- The update strategy to apply to the Deployment or DaemonSet
  ##
  updateStrategy: {}
  #  rollingUpdate:
  #    maxUnavailable: 1
  #  type: RollingUpdate

  # -- `minReadySeconds` to avoid killing pods before we are ready
  ##
  minReadySeconds: 0


  # -- Node tolerations for server scheduling to nodes with taints
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/configuration/assign-pod-node/
  ##
  tolerations: []
  #  - key: "key"
  #    operator: "Equal|Exists"
  #    value: "value"
  #    effect: "NoSchedule|PreferNoSchedule|NoExecute(1.6 only)"

  # -- Affinity and anti-affinity rules for server scheduling to nodes
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/configuration/assign-pod-node/#affinity-and-anti-affinity
  ##
  affinity: {}
    # # An example of preferred pod anti-affinity, weight is in the range 1-100
    # podAntiAffinity:
    #   preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
    #   - weight: 100
    #     podAffinityTerm:
    #       labelSelector:
    #         matchExpressions:
    #         - key: app.kubernetes.io/name
    #           operator: In
    #           values:
    #           - ingress-nginx
    #         - key: app.kubernetes.io/instance
    #           operator: In
    #           values:
    #           - ingress-nginx
    #         - key: app.kubernetes.io/component
    #           operator: In
    #           values:
    #           - controller
    #       topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname

    # # An example of required pod anti-affinity
    # podAntiAffinity:
    #   requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
    #   - labelSelector:
    #       matchExpressions:
    #       - key: app.kubernetes.io/name
    #         operator: In
    #         values:
    #         - ingress-nginx
    #       - key: app.kubernetes.io/instance
    #         operator: In
    #         values:
    #         - ingress-nginx
    #       - key: app.kubernetes.io/component
    #         operator: In
    #         values:
    #         - controller
    #     topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"

  # -- Topology spread constraints rely on node labels to identify the topology domain(s) that each Node is in.
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/workloads/pods/pod-topology-spread-constraints/
  ##
  topologySpreadConstraints: []
    # - maxSkew: 1
    #   topologyKey: topology.kubernetes.io/zone
    #   whenUnsatisfiable: DoNotSchedule
    #   labelSelector:
    #     matchLabels:
    #       app.kubernetes.io/instance: ingress-nginx-internal

  # -- `terminationGracePeriodSeconds` to avoid killing pods before we are ready
  ## wait up to five minutes for the drain of connections
  ##
  terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 300

  # -- Node labels for controller pod assignment
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/node-selection/
  ##
  nodeSelector:
    kubernetes.io/os: linux

  ## Liveness and readiness probe values
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/workloads/pods/pod-lifecycle/#container-probes
  ##
  ## startupProbe:
  ##   httpGet:
  ##     # should match container.healthCheckPath
  ##     path: "/healthz"
  ##     port: 10254
  ##     scheme: HTTP
  ##   initialDelaySeconds: 5
  ##   periodSeconds: 5
  ##   timeoutSeconds: 2
  ##   successThreshold: 1
  ##   failureThreshold: 5
  livenessProbe:
    httpGet:
      # should match container.healthCheckPath
      path: "/healthz"
      port: 10254
      scheme: HTTP
    initialDelaySeconds: 10
    periodSeconds: 10
    timeoutSeconds: 1
    successThreshold: 1
    failureThreshold: 5
  readinessProbe:
    httpGet:
      # should match container.healthCheckPath
      path: "/healthz"
      port: 10254
      scheme: HTTP
    initialDelaySeconds: 10
    periodSeconds: 10
    timeoutSeconds: 1
    successThreshold: 1
    failureThreshold: 3


  # -- Path of the health check endpoint. All requests received on the port defined by
  # the healthz-port parameter are forwarded internally to this path.
  healthCheckPath: "/healthz"

  # -- Address to bind the health check endpoint.
  # It is better to set this option to the internal node address
  # if the ingress nginx controller is running in the `hostNetwork: true` mode.
  healthCheckHost: ""

  # -- Annotations to be added to controller pods
  ##
  podAnnotations: {}

  replicaCount: 1

  # -- Define either 'minAvailable' or 'maxUnavailable', never both.
  minAvailable: 1
  # -- Define either 'minAvailable' or 'maxUnavailable', never both.
  # maxUnavailable: 1

  ## Define requests resources to avoid probe issues due to CPU utilization in busy nodes
  ## ref: https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/issues/4735#issuecomment-551204903
  ## Ideally, there should be no limits.
  ## https://engineering.indeedblog.com/blog/2019/12/cpu-throttling-regression-fix/
  resources:
  ##  limits:
  ##    cpu: 100m
  ##    memory: 90Mi
    requests:
      cpu: 100m
      memory: 90Mi

  # Mutually exclusive with keda autoscaling
  autoscaling:
    apiVersion: autoscaling/v2
    enabled: false
    annotations: {}
    minReplicas: 1
    maxReplicas: 11
    targetCPUUtilizationPercentage: 50
    targetMemoryUtilizationPercentage: 50
    behavior: {}
      # scaleDown:
      #   stabilizationWindowSeconds: 300
      #   policies:
      #   - type: Pods
      #     value: 1
      #     periodSeconds: 180
      # scaleUp:
      #   stabilizationWindowSeconds: 300
      #   policies:
      #   - type: Pods
      #     value: 2
      #     periodSeconds: 60

  autoscalingTemplate: []
  # Custom or additional autoscaling metrics
  # ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/run-application/horizontal-pod-autoscale/#support-for-custom-metrics
  # - type: Pods
  #   pods:
  #     metric:
  #       name: nginx_ingress_controller_nginx_process_requests_total
  #     target:
  #       type: AverageValue
  #       averageValue: 10000m

  # Mutually exclusive with hpa autoscaling
  keda:
    apiVersion: "keda.sh/v1alpha1"
    ## apiVersion changes with keda 1.x vs 2.x
    ## 2.x = keda.sh/v1alpha1
    ## 1.x = keda.k8s.io/v1alpha1
    enabled: false
    minReplicas: 1
    maxReplicas: 11
    pollingInterval: 30
    cooldownPeriod: 300
    restoreToOriginalReplicaCount: false
    scaledObject:
      annotations: {}
      # Custom annotations for ScaledObject resource
      #  annotations:
      # key: value
    triggers: []
 #     - type: prometheus
 #       metadata:
 #         serverAddress: http://<prometheus-host>:9090
 #         metricName: http_requests_total
 #         threshold: '100'
 #         query: sum(rate(http_requests_total{deployment="my-deployment"}[2m]))

    behavior: {}
 #     scaleDown:
 #       stabilizationWindowSeconds: 300
 #       policies:
 #       - type: Pods
 #         value: 1
 #         periodSeconds: 180
 #     scaleUp:
 #       stabilizationWindowSeconds: 300
 #       policies:
 #       - type: Pods
 #         value: 2
 #         periodSeconds: 60

  # -- Enable mimalloc as a drop-in replacement for malloc.
  ## ref: https://github.com/microsoft/mimalloc
  ##
  enableMimalloc: true

  ## Override NGINX template
  customTemplate:
    configMapName: ""
    configMapKey: ""

  service:
    enabled: true

    # -- If enabled is adding an appProtocol option for Kubernetes service. An appProtocol field replacing annotations that were
    # using for setting a backend protocol. Here is an example for AWS: service.beta.kubernetes.io/aws-load-balancer-backend-protocol: http
    # It allows choosing the protocol for each backend specified in the Kubernetes service.
    # See the following GitHub issue for more details about the purpose: https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/40244
    # Will be ignored for Kubernetes versions older than 1.20
    ##
    appProtocol: true

    annotations: {}
    labels: {}
    # clusterIP: ""

    # -- List of IP addresses at which the controller services are available
    ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/services/#external-ips
    ##
    externalIPs: []

    # -- Used by cloud providers to connect the resulting `LoadBalancer` to a pre-existing static IP according to https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/service/#loadbalancer
    loadBalancerIP: ""
    loadBalancerSourceRanges: []

    enableHttp: true
    enableHttps: true

    ## Set external traffic policy to: "Local" to preserve source IP on providers supporting it.
    ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tutorials/services/source-ip/#source-ip-for-services-with-typeloadbalancer
    # externalTrafficPolicy: ""

    ## Must be either "None" or "ClientIP" if set. Kubernetes will default to "None".
    ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/service/#virtual-ips-and-service-proxies
    # sessionAffinity: ""

    ## Specifies the health check node port (numeric port number) for the service. If healthCheckNodePort isn’t specified,
    ## the service controller allocates a port from your cluster’s NodePort range.
    ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/access-application-cluster/create-external-load-balancer/#preserving-the-client-source-ip
    # healthCheckNodePort: 0

    # -- Represents the dual-stack-ness requested or required by this Service. Possible values are
    # SingleStack, PreferDualStack or RequireDualStack.
    # The ipFamilies and clusterIPs fields depend on the value of this field.
    ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/dual-stack/
    ipFamilyPolicy: "SingleStack"

    # -- List of IP families (e.g. IPv4, IPv6) assigned to the service. This field is usually assigned automatically
    # based on cluster configuration and the ipFamilyPolicy field.
    ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/dual-stack/
    ipFamilies:
      - IPv4

    ports:
      http: 80
      https: 443

    targetPorts:
      http: http
      https: https

    type: ClusterIP

    ## type: NodePort
    ## nodePorts:
    ##   http: 32080
    ##   https: 32443
    ##   tcp:
    ##     8080: 32808
    nodePorts:
      http: ""
      https: ""
      tcp: {}
      udp: {}

    external:
      enabled: true

    internal:
      # -- Enables an additional internal load balancer (besides the external one).
      enabled: false
      # -- Annotations are mandatory for the load balancer to come up. Varies with the cloud service.
      annotations: {}

      # loadBalancerIP: ""

      # -- Restrict access For LoadBalancer service. Defaults to 0.0.0.0/0.
      loadBalancerSourceRanges: []

      ## Set external traffic policy to: "Local" to preserve source IP on
      ## providers supporting it
      ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tutorials/services/source-ip/#source-ip-for-services-with-typeloadbalancer
      # externalTrafficPolicy: ""

  # shareProcessNamespace enables process namespace sharing within the pod.
  # This can be used for example to signal log rotation using `kill -USR1` from a sidecar.
  shareProcessNamespace: false

  # -- Additional containers to be added to the controller pod.
  # See https://github.com/lemonldap-ng-controller/lemonldap-ng-controller as example.
  extraContainers: []
  #  - name: my-sidecar
  #    image: nginx:latest
  #  - name: lemonldap-ng-controller
  #    image: lemonldapng/lemonldap-ng-controller:0.2.0
  #    args:
  #      - /lemonldap-ng-controller
  #      - --alsologtostderr
  #      - --configmap=$(POD_NAMESPACE)/lemonldap-ng-configuration
  #    env:
  #      - name: POD_NAME
  #        valueFrom:
  #          fieldRef:
  #            fieldPath: metadata.name
  #      - name: POD_NAMESPACE
  #        valueFrom:
  #          fieldRef:
  #            fieldPath: metadata.namespace
  #    volumeMounts:
  #    - name: copy-portal-skins
  #      mountPath: /srv/var/lib/lemonldap-ng/portal/skins

  # -- Additional volumeMounts to the controller main container.
  extraVolumeMounts: []
  #  - name: copy-portal-skins
  #   mountPath: /var/lib/lemonldap-ng/portal/skins

  # -- Additional volumes to the controller pod.
  extraVolumes: []
  #  - name: copy-portal-skins
  #    emptyDir: {}

  # -- Containers, which are run before the app containers are started.
  extraInitContainers: []
  # - name: init-myservice
  #   image: busybox
  #   command: ['sh', '-c', 'until nslookup myservice; do echo waiting for myservice; sleep 2; done;']

  # -- Modules, which are mounted into the core nginx image. See values.yaml for a sample to add opentelemetry module
  extraModules: []
  #   containerSecurityContext:
  #     allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
  #
  # The image must contain a `/usr/local/bin/init_module.sh` executable, which
  # will be executed as initContainers, to move its config files within the
  # mounted volume.

  opentelemetry:
    enabled: false
    image: registry.k8s.io/ingress-nginx/opentelemetry:v20221114-controller-v1.5.1-6-ga66ee73c5@sha256:41076fd9fb4255677c1a3da1ac3fc41477f06eba3c7ebf37ffc8f734dad51d7c
    containerSecurityContext:
      allowPrivilegeEscalation: false

  admissionWebhooks:
    annotations: {}
    # ignore-check.kube-linter.io/no-read-only-rootfs: "This deployment needs write access to root filesystem".

    ## Additional annotations to the admission webhooks.
    ## These annotations will be added to the ValidatingWebhookConfiguration and
    ## the Jobs Spec of the admission webhooks.
    enabled: false
    # -- Additional environment variables to set
    extraEnvs: []
    # extraEnvs:
    #   - name: FOO
    #     valueFrom:
    #       secretKeyRef:
    #         key: FOO
    #         name: secret-resource
    # -- Admission Webhook failure policy to use
    failurePolicy: Fail
    # timeoutSeconds: 10
    port: 8443
    certificate: "/usr/local/certificates/cert"
    key: "/usr/local/certificates/key"
    namespaceSelector: {}
    objectSelector: {}
    # -- Labels to be added to admission webhooks
    labels: {}

    # -- Use an existing PSP instead of creating one
    existingPsp: ""
    networkPolicyEnabled: false

    service:
      annotations: {}
      # clusterIP: ""
      externalIPs: []
      # loadBalancerIP: ""
      loadBalancerSourceRanges: []
      servicePort: 443
      type: ClusterIP

    createSecretJob:
      securityContext:
        allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
      resources: {}
        # limits:
        #   cpu: 10m
        #   memory: 20Mi
        # requests:
        #   cpu: 10m
        #   memory: 20Mi

    patchWebhookJob:
      securityContext:
        allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
      resources: {}

    patch:
      enabled: true
      image:
        registry: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com
        image: google_containers/kube-webhook-certgen
        ## for backwards compatibility consider setting the full image url via the repository value below
        ## use *either* current default registry/image or repository format or installing chart by providing the values.yaml will fail
        ## repository:
        tag: v1.5.1
        #digest: sha256:39c5b2e3310dc4264d638ad28d9d1d96c4cbb2b2dcfb52368fe4e3c63f61e10f
        pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      # -- Provide a priority class name to the webhook patching job
      ##
      priorityClassName: ""
      podAnnotations: {}
      nodeSelector:
        kubernetes.io/os: linux
      tolerations: []
      # -- Labels to be added to patch job resources
      labels: {}
      securityContext:
        runAsNonRoot: true
        runAsUser: 2000
        fsGroup: 2000

    # Use certmanager to generate webhook certs
    certManager:
      enabled: false
      # self-signed root certificate
      rootCert:
        duration: ""  # default to be 5y
      admissionCert:
        duration: ""  # default to be 1y
      # issuerRef:
      #   name: "issuer"
      #   kind: "ClusterIssuer"

  metrics:
    port: 10254
    portName: metrics
    # if this port is changed, change healthz-port: in extraArgs: accordingly
    enabled: false

    service:
      annotations: {}
      # prometheus.io/scrape: "true"
      # prometheus.io/port: "10254"

      # clusterIP: ""

      # -- List of IP addresses at which the stats-exporter service is available
      ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/services/#external-ips
      ##
      externalIPs: []

      # loadBalancerIP: ""
      loadBalancerSourceRanges: []
      servicePort: 10254
      type: ClusterIP
      # externalTrafficPolicy: ""
      # nodePort: ""

    serviceMonitor:
      enabled: false
      additionalLabels: {}
      ## The label to use to retrieve the job name from.
      ## jobLabel: "app.kubernetes.io/name"
      namespace: ""
      namespaceSelector: {}
      ## Default: scrape .Release.Namespace only
      ## To scrape all, use the following:
      ## namespaceSelector:
      ##   any: true
      scrapeInterval: 30s
      # honorLabels: true
      targetLabels: []
      relabelings: []
      metricRelabelings: []

    prometheusRule:
      enabled: false
      additionalLabels: {}
      # namespace: ""
      rules: []
        # # These are just examples rules, please adapt them to your needs
        # - alert: NGINXConfigFailed
        #   expr: count(nginx_ingress_controller_config_last_reload_successful == 0) > 0
        #   for: 1s
        #   labels:
        #     severity: critical
        #   annotations:
        #     description: bad ingress config - nginx config test failed
        #     summary: uninstall the latest ingress changes to allow config reloads to resume
        # - alert: NGINXCertificateExpiry
        #   expr: (avg(nginx_ingress_controller_ssl_expire_time_seconds) by (host) - time()) < 604800
        #   for: 1s
        #   labels:
        #     severity: critical
        #   annotations:
        #     description: ssl certificate(s) will expire in less then a week
        #     summary: renew expiring certificates to avoid downtime
        # - alert: NGINXTooMany500s
        #   expr: 100 * ( sum( nginx_ingress_controller_requests{status=~"5.+"} ) / sum(nginx_ingress_controller_requests) ) > 5
        #   for: 1m
        #   labels:
        #     severity: warning
        #   annotations:
        #     description: Too many 5XXs
        #     summary: More than 5% of all requests returned 5XX, this requires your attention
        # - alert: NGINXTooMany400s
        #   expr: 100 * ( sum( nginx_ingress_controller_requests{status=~"4.+"} ) / sum(nginx_ingress_controller_requests) ) > 5
        #   for: 1m
        #   labels:
        #     severity: warning
        #   annotations:
        #     description: Too many 4XXs
        #     summary: More than 5% of all requests returned 4XX, this requires your attention

  # -- Improve connection draining when ingress controller pod is deleted using a lifecycle hook:
  # With this new hook, we increased the default terminationGracePeriodSeconds from 30 seconds
  # to 300, allowing the draining of connections up to five minutes.
  # If the active connections end before that, the pod will terminate gracefully at that time.
  # To effectively take advantage of this feature, the Configmap feature
  # worker-shutdown-timeout new value is 240s instead of 10s.
  ##
  lifecycle:
    preStop:
      exec:
        command:
          - /wait-shutdown

  priorityClassName: ""

# -- Rollback limit
##
revisionHistoryLimit: 10

## Default 404 backend
##
defaultBackend:
  ##
  enabled: false

  name: defaultbackend
  image:
    registry: registry.k8s.io
    image: defaultbackend-amd64
    ## for backwards compatibility consider setting the full image url via the repository value below
    ## use *either* current default registry/image or repository format or installing chart by providing the values.yaml will fail
    ## repository:
    tag: "1.5"
    pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    # nobody user -> uid 65534
    runAsUser: 65534
    runAsNonRoot: true
    readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
    allowPrivilegeEscalation: false

  # -- Use an existing PSP instead of creating one
  existingPsp: ""

  extraArgs: {}

  serviceAccount:
    create: true
    name: ""
    automountServiceAccountToken: true
  # -- Additional environment variables to set for defaultBackend pods
  extraEnvs: []

  port: 8080

  ## Readiness and liveness probes for default backend
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/configure-pod-container/configure-liveness-readiness-probes/
  ##
  livenessProbe:
    failureThreshold: 3
    initialDelaySeconds: 30
    periodSeconds: 10
    successThreshold: 1
    timeoutSeconds: 5
  readinessProbe:
    failureThreshold: 6
    initialDelaySeconds: 0
    periodSeconds: 5
    successThreshold: 1
    timeoutSeconds: 5

  # -- Node tolerations for server scheduling to nodes with taints
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/configuration/assign-pod-node/
  ##
  tolerations: []
  #  - key: "key"
  #    operator: "Equal|Exists"
  #    value: "value"
  #    effect: "NoSchedule|PreferNoSchedule|NoExecute(1.6 only)"

  affinity: {}

  # -- Security Context policies for controller pods
  # See https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/administer-cluster/sysctl-cluster/ for
  # notes on enabling and using sysctls
  ##
  podSecurityContext: {}

  # -- Security Context policies for controller main container.
  # See https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/administer-cluster/sysctl-cluster/ for
  # notes on enabling and using sysctls
  ##
  containerSecurityContext: {}

  # -- Labels to add to the pod container metadata
  podLabels: {}
  #  key: value

  # -- Node labels for default backend pod assignment
  ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/node-selection/
  ##
  nodeSelector:
    kubernetes.io/os: linux
    ingress: "true"

  # -- Annotations to be added to default backend pods
  ##
  podAnnotations: {}

  replicaCount: 1

  minAvailable: 1

  resources: {}
  # limits:
  #   cpu: 10m
  #   memory: 20Mi
  # requests:
  #   cpu: 10m
  #   memory: 20Mi

  extraVolumeMounts: []
  ## Additional volumeMounts to the default backend container.
  #  - name: copy-portal-skins
  #   mountPath: /var/lib/lemonldap-ng/portal/skins

  extraVolumes: []
  ## Additional volumes to the default backend pod.
  #  - name: copy-portal-skins
  #    emptyDir: {}

  autoscaling:
    annotations: {}
    enabled: false
    minReplicas: 1
    maxReplicas: 2
    targetCPUUtilizationPercentage: 50
    targetMemoryUtilizationPercentage: 50

  service:
    annotations: {}

    # clusterIP: ""

    # -- List of IP addresses at which the default backend service is available
    ## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/services/#external-ips
    ##
    externalIPs: []

    # loadBalancerIP: ""
    loadBalancerSourceRanges: []
    servicePort: 80
    type: ClusterIP

  priorityClassName: ""
  # -- Labels to be added to the default backend resources
  labels: {}

## Enable RBAC as per https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/blob/main/docs/deploy/rbac.md and https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/issues/266
rbac:
  create: true
  scope: false

## If true, create & use Pod Security Policy resources
## https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/policy/pod-security-policy/
podSecurityPolicy:
  enabled: false

serviceAccount:
  create: true
  name: ""
  automountServiceAccountToken: true
  # -- Annotations for the controller service account
  annotations: {}

# -- Optional array of imagePullSecrets containing private registry credentials
## Ref: https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/configure-pod-container/pull-image-private-registry/
imagePullSecrets: []
# - name: secretName

# -- TCP service key-value pairs
## Ref: https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/blob/main/docs/user-guide/exposing-tcp-udp-services.md
##
tcp: {}
#  8080: "default/example-tcp-svc:9000"

# -- UDP service key-value pairs
## Ref: https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/blob/main/docs/user-guide/exposing-tcp-udp-services.md
##
udp: {}
#  53: "kube-system/kube-dns:53"

# -- Prefix for TCP and UDP ports names in ingress controller service
## Some cloud providers, like Yandex Cloud may have a requirements for a port name regex to support cloud load balancer integration
portNamePrefix: ""

# -- (string) A base64-encoded Diffie-Hellman parameter.
# This can be generated with: `openssl dhparam 4096 2> /dev/null | base64`
## Ref: https://github.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/tree/main/docs/examples/customization/ssl-dh-param
dhParam:

3 .5使用ingress

3.5.1 创建命名空间

# 为 ingress 专门创建一个 namespace
[root@k8s-master ingress-nginx]# kubectl create ns ingress-nginx
namespace/ingress-nginx created

3.5.2安装 ingress-nginx

# 为需要部署 ingress 的节点上加标签
[root@k8s-master ingress-nginx]# kubectl label node k8s-master ingress=true
node/k8s-master labeled

# 安装 ingress-nginx
helm install ingress-nginx -n ingress-nginx .

这样就算安装成功了

3.5.3 创建一个暴露Service 集群内部访问的Service


#创建容器
kubectl create deployment nginx-service --image=nginx

# 暴露Service
[root@master ~]# kubectl expose deployment nginx-service --port=80 --target-port=80 --type=NodePort

#查看service
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl get service nginx-service
NAME            TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
nginx-service   ClusterIP   10.104.195.8   <none>        80/TCP    8d

3.5.4Http代理

[root@k8s-master k8s]# mkdir ingress
[root@k8s-master ingress]# vi wolfcide-ingress.yaml

文件内容如下:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress # 资源类型为 Ingress
metadata:
  name: wolfcode-nginx-ingress
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: "nginx"
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /
spec:
  rules: # ingress 规则配置,可以配置多个
  - host: k8s.wolfcode.cn # 域名配置,可以使用通配符 *
    http:
      paths: # 相当于 nginx 的 location 配置,可以配置多个
      - pathType: Prefix # 路径类型,按照路径类型进行匹配 ImplementationSpecific 需要指定 IngressClass,具体匹配规则以 IngressClass 中的规则为准。
Exact:精确匹配,URL需要与path完全匹配上,且区分大小写的。Prefix:以 / 作为分隔符来进行前缀匹配
        backend:
          service:
            name: nginx-service # 代理到哪个 service
            port:
              number: 80 # service 的端口
        path: /api # 等价于 nginx 中的 location 的路径前缀匹配

#创建Ingress
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl create -f  wolfcide-ingress.yaml
ingress.networking.k8s.io/wolfcode-nginx-ingress created

#查看
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl get ingress
NAME                     CLASS    HOSTS             ADDRESS       PORTS   AGE
wolfcode-nginx-ingress   <none>   k8s.wolfcode.cn   10.102.1.91   80      116s
#查看运行详细信息
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl get po -n ingress-nginx -o wide
NAME                             READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP                NODE        NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
ingress-nginx-controller-zfvqg   1/1     Running   0          3h19m   192.168.235.129   k8s-node1   <none>   

修改目标目录下hosts文件

加入以下内容:

192.168.235.129 k8s.wolfcode.cn
访问成功

输入http://k8s.wolfcode.cn/api 访问成功

多域名匹配: 按照不同主机不同域名进行匹配
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress # 资源类型为 Ingress
metadata:
  name: wolfcode-nginx-ingress
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: "nginx"
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /
spec:
  rules: # ingress 规则配置,可以配置多个
  - host: k8s.wolfcode.cn # 域名配置,可以使用通配符 *
    http:
      paths: # 相当于 nginx 的 location 配置,可以配置多个
      - pathType: Prefix # 路径类型,按照路径类型进行匹配 ImplementationSpecific 需要指定 IngressClass,具体匹配规则以 IngressClass 中的规则为准。Exact:精确匹配,URL需要与path完全匹配上,且区分大小写的。Prefix:以 / 作为分隔符来进行前缀匹配
        backend:
          service: 
            name: nginx-svc # 代理到哪个 service
            port: 
              number: 80 # service 的端口
        path: /api # 等价于 nginx 中的 location 的路径前缀匹配
      - pathType: Exec # 路径类型,按照路径类型进行匹配 ImplementationSpecific 需要指定 IngressClass,具体匹配规则以 IngressClass 中的规则为准。Exact:精确匹配>,URL需要与path完全匹配上,且区分大小写的。Prefix:以 / 作为分隔符来进行前缀匹配
        backend:
          service:
            name: nginx-svc # 代理到哪个 service
            port:
              number: 80 # service 的端口
        path: /
  - host: api.wolfcode.cn # 域名配置,可以使用通配符 *
    http:
      paths: # 相当于 nginx 的 location 配置,可以配置多个
      - pathType: Prefix # 路径类型,按照路径类型进行匹配 ImplementationSpecific 需要指定 IngressClass,具体匹配规则以 IngressClass 中的规则为准。Exact:精确匹配>,URL需要与path完全匹配上,且区分大小写的。Prefix:以 / 作为分隔符来进行前缀匹配
        backend:
          service:
            name: nginx-svc # 代理到哪个 service
            port:
              number: 80 # service 的端口
        path: /

在你的 Ingress 配置中,如果你想要匹配路径并传递参数给后端服务,你可以在 nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target 注解中设置重写目标,并使用捕获组(capture group)来捕获路径中的参数。

在你的例子中,如果你想要匹配 /api/some-parameter 这样的路径,并将 some-parameter 作为参数传递给后端服务,可以按照以下方式配置:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: wolfcode-nginx-ingress
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: "nginx"
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /$2
spec:
  rules:
  - host: k8s.wolfcode.cn
    http:
      paths:
      - pathType: Prefix
        path: /api/(.*)
        backend:
          service:
            name: nginx-service
            port:
              number: 80

在上面的配置中,nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /$2 使用了 $2 作为捕获组的引用,这表示将匹配到的路径中的参数(some-parameter)传递给后端服务。

请注意,这里的正则表达式 /(.*) 中的 (.*) 是一个捕获组,捕获任意字符,你可以根据实际需要进行调整。在重写目标中,/$2 表示引用第二个捕获组的内容。这将重写目标路径为 /some-parameter,并将其传递给后端服务。

确保在配置中使用正确的正则表达式和捕获组,以匹配和传递你期望的路径参数。

3.5.5 Https代理

删除所有ingress命令

kubectl delete ingress --all
1.创建证书
# 生成证书
[root@k8s-master ingress]# openssl req -x509 -sha256 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout tls.key -out tls.crt -subj "/C=CN/ST=BJ/L=BJ/O=nginx/CN=itheima.com"
Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
..............................................................................................+++
............................................................................+++
writing new private key to 'tls.key'
-----
# 创建密钥
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl create secret tls tls-secret --key tls.key --cert tls.crt
secret/tls-secret created

2.创建并配置ingress-https.yaml
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: wolfcode-nginx-ingress-https
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: "nginx"
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /
spec:
  tls:
  - hosts:
    - nginx.itheima.com
    secretName: tls-secret
  rules:
  - host: nginx.itheima.com
    http:
      paths:
      - pathType: Prefix
        path: /
        backend:
          service:
            name: nginx-service
            port:
              number: 80

#创建 Ingress 资源
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl create -f ingress-https.yaml
ingress.networking.k8s.io/wolfcode-nginx-ingress-https created
#验证 Ingress:使用以下命令检查 Ingress 是否成功创建:
#确保 Ingress 资源的状态显示为 nginx.itheima.com,并且它有一个分配的 IP 地址。
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl get ing 
NAME                           CLASS    HOSTS               ADDRESS       PORTS     AGE
wolfcode-nginx-ingress-https   <none>   nginx.itheima.com   10.102.1.91   80, 443   22s
#使用以下命令详细查看 Ingress
[root@k8s-master ingress]#  kubectl describe ing wolfcode-nginx-ingress-https
----
TLS:
  tls-secret terminates nginx.itheima.com
Rules:
  Host               Path  Backends
  ----               ----  --------
  nginx.itheima.com  
                     /   nginx-service:80 (10.244.1.13:80)
----
#查看service
[root@k8s-master ingress]# kubectl get service nginx-service
NAME            TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
nginx-service   ClusterIP   10.104.195.8   <none>        80/TCP    8d



更新本地 Hosts 文件(可选):

将域名 nginx.itheima.com 映射到 Ingress 分配的 IP 地址。您可以编辑本地的 /etc/hosts 文件,添加一行类似于以下内容:

nginx.itheima.com

192.168.235.129 nginx.itheima.com

3.访问成功

通过浏览器访问:

  • 打开浏览器,并在地址栏中输入 https://nginx.itheima.com


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