在 CentOS 7 CPanel 服务器上安装 MariaDB 10

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简介:

MariaDB 是一个增强版的、开源的 MySQL 替代品。它主要由 MariaDB 社区在维护,采用 GPL v2 授权许可。软件的安全性是 MariaDB 开发者的主要焦点。他们保持为 MariaDB 的每个版本发布安全补丁。当有任何安全问题被发现时,开发者会尽快修复并推出 MariaDB 的新版本。

MariaDB 的优势

  • 完全开源
  • 快速且透明的安全版本
  • 与 MySQL 高度兼容
  • 性能更好
  • 比 MySQL 的存储引擎多

在这篇文章中,我将谈论关于如何在 CentOS7 CPanel 服务器上升级 MySQL5.5 到最新的 MariaDB 。在安装前先完成以下步骤。

先决条件:

1. 停止当前 MySQL 服务

 
  1. root@server1 [/var/]# mysql
  2. Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
  3. Your MySQL connection id is 5859
  4. Server version: 5.5.47-cll MySQL Community Server (GPL)
  5. Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  6. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
  7. affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
  8. owners.
  9. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
  10. root@server1 [~]# systemctl stop mysql
  11. root@server1 [~]# systemctl status mysql
  12. mysql.service - LSB: start and stop MySQL
  13. Loaded: loaded (/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql)
  14. Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Sun 2016-01-31 10:00:02 UTC; 1min 31s ago
  15. Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
  16. Main PID: 23430 (code=exited, status=203/EXEC)
  17. Jan 31 10:00:02 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: Started MySQL Server.
  18. Jan 31 10:00:02 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Server...
  19. Jan 31 10:00:02 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: mysql.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=203/EXEC
  20. Jan 31 10:00:02 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: Unit mysql.service entered failed state.
  21. Jan 31 10:00:02 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: mysql.service failed.

2. 在升级之前将所有配置文件和数据库转移

转移数据库的存储路径和 MySQL 的配置文件

 
  1. root@server1 [~]# cp -Rf /var/lib/mysql /var/lib/mysql-old
  2. root@server1 [/var/lib/mysql]# cat /etc/my.cnf
  3. [mysqld]
  4. default-storage-engine=MyISAM
  5. innodb_file_per_table=1
  6. max_allowed_packet=268435456
  7. open_files_limit=10000
  8. root@server1 [~]#mv /etc/my.cnf /etc/my.cnf-old

3. 从服务器上删除和卸载 MySQL 所有的 RPM 包

运行以下命令来禁用 MySQL RPM 的目标target。通过运行此命令,cPanel 将不再处理 MySQL 的更新,并在系统上将这些 RPM 版本标记为已卸载。

 
  1. /scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL50 uninstalled
  2. /scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL51 uninstalled
  3. /scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL55 uninstalled
  4. /scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL56 uninstalled

现在运行以下命令:

 
  1. /scripts/checkcpanelrpms --fix --targets=MySQL50,MySQL51,MySQL55,MySQL56

移除服务器上所有已有的 MySQL RPM 来为 MariaDB 的安装清理环境。请看下面的输出:

 
  1. root@server1 [/var/lib/mysql]# /scripts/check_cpanel_rpms --fix --targets=MySQL50,MySQL51,MySQL55,MySQL56
  2. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000]
  3. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] Problems were detected with cPanel-provided files which are RPM controlled.
  4. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] If you did not make these changes intentionally, you can correct them by running:
  5. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000]
  6. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] > /usr/local/cpanel/scripts/check_cpanel_rpms --fix
  7. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000]
  8. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] The following RPMs are unneeded on your system and should be uninstalled:
  9. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-client-5.5.47-1.cp1148
  10. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-devel-5.5.47-1.cp1148
  11. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-server-5.5.47-1.cp1148
  12. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-shared-5.5.47-1.cp1148
  13. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-test-5.5.47-1.cp1148
  14. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] compat-MySQL50-shared-5.0.96-4.cp1136
  15. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] compat-MySQL51-shared-5.1.73-1.cp1150
  16. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] Removing 0 broken rpms:
  17. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] rpm: no packages given for erase
  18. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] No new RPMS needed for install
  19. [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] Disabling service monitoring.
  20. [2016-01-31 09:54:01 +0000] Uninstalling unneeded rpms: MySQL55-test MySQL55-server MySQL55-client compat-MySQL51-shared compat-MySQL50-shared MySQL55-shared MySQL55-devel
  21. [2016-01-31 09:54:04 +0000] Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mysql.service.
  22. [2016-01-31 09:54:04 +0000] Restoring service monitoring.

通过这些步骤,我们已经卸载了现有的 MySQL RPM,并做了标记来防止 MySQL的更新,服务器的环境已经清理,然后准备安装 MariaDB。

开始安装吧,我们需要根据 CentOS 和 MariaDB 的版本为 MariaDB 创建一个 yum 软件库。下面是我的做法!

安装步骤:

第1步:创建 YUM 软件库。

 
  1. root@server1 [~]# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB.repo
  2. [mariadb]
  3. name = MariaDB
  4. baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.0/centos7-amd64/
  5. gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
  6. gpgcheck=1
  7. root@server1 [/etc/yum.repos.d]# cat /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB.repo
  8. [mariadb]
  9. name = MariaDB
  10. baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.0/centos7-amd64/
  11. gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
  12. gpgcheck=1

第2步:打开 /etc/yum.conf 并修改如下行:

删除这一行:

 
  1. exclude=courier* dovecot* exim* filesystem httpd* mod_ssl* mydns* mysql* nsd* php* proftpd* pure-ftpd* spamassassin* squirrelmail*

替换为:

 
  1. exclude=courier* dovecot* exim* filesystem httpd* mod_ssl* mydns* nsd* proftpd* pure-ftpd* spamassassin* squirrelmail*

重要

需要确保我们已经从 exclude 列表中移除了 MySQL 和 PHP。

第3步:运行以下命令来安装 MariaDB 和相关的包。

 
  1. root@server1 [~]#yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client MariaDB-devel php-mysql
  2. Dependencies Resolved
  3. ===============================================================================================================================================
  4. Package Arch Version Repository Size
  5. ===============================================================================================================================================
  6. Installing:
  7. MariaDB-client x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 10 M
  8. MariaDB-devel x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 6.3 M
  9. MariaDB-server x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 55 M
  10. php-mysql x86_64 5.4.16-36.el7_1 base 99 k
  11. Installing for dependencies:
  12. MariaDB-common x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 43 k
  13. MariaDB-shared x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 1.2 M
  14. libzip x86_64 0.10.1-8.el7 base 48 k
  15. php-common x86_64 5.4.16-36.el7_1 base 563 k
  16. php-pdo x86_64 5.4.16-36.el7_1 base 97 k
  17. Transaction Summary
  18. ===============================================================================================================================================
  19. Install 4 Packages (+5 Dependent package)

第4步:重新启动,并确保 MySQL 服务已启动。

 
  1. root@server1 [~]# systemctl start mysql
  2. root@server1 [~]#
  3. root@server1 [~]#
  4. root@server1 [~]# systemctl status mysql
  5. mysql.service - LSB: start and stop MySQL
  6. Loaded: loaded (/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql)
  7. Active: active (exited) since Sun 2016-01-31 10:01:46 UTC; 3s ago
  8. Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
  9. Process: 23717 ExecStart=/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  10. Main PID: 23430 (code=exited, status=203/EXEC)
  11. Jan 31 10:01:46 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: Starting LSB: start and stop MySQL...
  12. Jan 31 10:01:46 server1.centos7-test.com mysql[23717]: Starting MySQL SUCCESS!
  13. Jan 31 10:01:46 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: Started LSB: start and stop MySQL.

第5步:运行 mysql_upgrade 命令。

它将检查所有数据库中的所有表与当前安装的版本是否兼容,并在必要时会更新系统表,以赋予当前版本新增加的权限或能力。

 
  1. root@server1 [~]# mysql_upgrade
  2. MySQL upgrade detected
  3. Phase 1/6: Checking and upgrading mysql database
  4. Processing databases
  5. mysql
  6. mysql.columns_priv OK
  7. mysql.db OK
  8. mysql.event OK
  9. mysql.func OK
  10. mysql.help_category OK
  11. mysql.help_keyword OK
  12. mysql.help_relation OK
  13. mysql.help_topic OK
  14. mysql.host OK
  15. mysql.ndb_binlog_index OK
  16. mysql.plugin OK
  17. mysql.proc OK
  18. mysql.procs_priv OK
  19. mysql.proxies_priv OK
  20. mysql.servers OK
  21. mysql.tables_priv OK
  22. mysql.time_zone OK
  23. mysql.time_zone_leap_second OK
  24. mysql.time_zone_name OK
  25. mysql.time_zone_transition OK
  26. mysql.time_zone_transition_type OK
  27. mysql.user OK
  28. Phase 2/6: Fixing views from mysql
  29. Phase 3/6: Running 'mysql_fix_privilege_tables'
  30. Phase 4/6: Fixing table and database names
  31. Phase 5/6: Checking and upgrading tables
  32. Processing databases
  33. cphulkd
  34. cphulkd.auths OK
  35. cphulkd.blacklist OK
  36. cphulkd.brutes OK
  37. cphulkd.good_logins OK
  38. cphulkd.ip_lists OK
  39. cphulkd.known_netblocks OK
  40. cphulkd.login_track OK
  41. cphulkd.logins OK
  42. cphulkd.report OK
  43. cphulkd.whitelist OK
  44. eximstats
  45. eximstats.defers OK
  46. eximstats.failures OK
  47. eximstats.sends OK
  48. eximstats.smtp OK
  49. information_schema
  50. leechprotect
  51. leechprotect.hits OK
  52. modsec
  53. modsec.hits OK
  54. performance_schema
  55. roundcube
  56. roundcube.cache OK
  57. roundcube.cache_index OK
  58. roundcube.cache_messages OK
  59. roundcube.cache_shared OK
  60. roundcube.cache_thread OK
  61. roundcube.contactgroupmembers OK
  62. roundcube.contactgroups OK
  63. roundcube.contacts OK
  64. roundcube.cp_schema_version OK
  65. roundcube.dictionary OK
  66. roundcube.identities OK
  67. roundcube.searches OK
  68. roundcube.session OK
  69. roundcube.system OK
  70. roundcube.users OK
  71. saheetha_test
  72. saheetha_test.authors OK
  73. whmxfer
  74. whmxfer.sessions OK
  75. Phase 6/6: Running 'FLUSH PRIVILEGES'
  76. OK

第6步:再次重新启动 MySQL 的服务,以确保一切都运行完好。

 
  1. root@server1 [~]# systemctl restart mysql
  2. root@server1 [~]#
  3. root@server1 [~]# systemctl status mysql
  4. mysql.service - LSB: start and stop MySQL
  5. Loaded: loaded (/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql)
  6. Active: active (running) since Sun 2016-01-31 10:04:11 UTC; 9s ago
  7. Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
  8. Process: 23831 ExecStop=/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  9. Process: 23854 ExecStart=/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  10. Main PID: 23430 (code=exited, status=203/EXEC)
  11. CGroup: /system.slice/mysql.service
  12. ├─23861 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --pid-file=/var/lib/mysql/server1.centos7-test.com.pid
  13. └─23933 /usr/sbin/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/lib64/mysql/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/v...
  14. Jan 31 10:04:10 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: Starting LSB: start and stop MySQL...
  15. Jan 31 10:04:11 server1.centos7-test.com mysql[23854]: Starting MySQL. SUCCESS!
  16. Jan 31 10:04:11 server1.centos7-test.com systemd[1]: Started LSB: start and stop MySQL.

第7步:运行 EasyApache,重建 Apache/PHP 以支持 MariaDB,并确保所有 PHP 的模块保持不变。

 
  1. root@server1 [~]#/scripts/easyapache --build

重要

如果你在安装 MariaDB 之后忘记重建 Apache/PHP,将会报如下库错误:

 
  1. root@server1 [/etc/my.cnf.d]# php -v
  2. php: error while loading shared libraries: libmysqlclient.so.18: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

第8步:现在验证安装的程序和数据库。

 
  1. root@server1 [/var/lib/mysql]# mysql
  2. Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
  3. Your MariaDB connection id is 15
  4. Server version: 10.0.23-MariaDB MariaDB Server
  5. Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.
  6. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
  7. MariaDB [(none)]> show storage engines;
  8. +--------------------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+------+------------+
  9. | Engine | Support | Comment | Transactions | XA | Savepoints |
  10. +--------------------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+------+------------+
  11. | CSV | YES | CSV storage engine | NO | NO | NO |
  12. | MRG_MyISAM | YES | Collection of identical MyISAM tables | NO | NO | NO |
  13. | MEMORY | YES | Hash based, stored in memory, useful for temporary tables | NO | NO | NO |
  14. | BLACKHOLE | YES | /dev/null storage engine (anything you write to it disappears) | NO | NO | NO |
  15. | MyISAM | YES | MyISAM storage engine | NO | NO | NO |
  16. | InnoDB | DEFAULT | Percona-XtraDB, Supports transactions, row-level locking, and foreign keys | YES | YES | YES |
  17. | ARCHIVE | YES | Archive storage engine | NO | NO | NO |
  18. | FEDERATED | YES | FederatedX pluggable storage engine | YES | NO | YES |
  19. | PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA | YES | Performance Schema | NO | NO | NO |
  20. | Aria | YES | Crash-safe tables with MyISAM heritage | NO | NO | NO |
  21. +--------------------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+------+------------+
  22. 10 rows in set (0.00 sec)

原文发布时间为:2016-06-14

本文来自云栖社区合作伙伴“Linux中国”


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