【重新发现PostgreSQL之美】- 20 为什么啤酒&纸尿裤最搭-阿里云开发者社区

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【重新发现PostgreSQL之美】- 20 为什么啤酒&纸尿裤最搭

简介: 大家好,这里是重新发现PostgreSQL之美 - 20 为什么啤酒&纸尿裤最搭

背景


场景:

  • 电商、零售等行业, 根据用户购物车、订单等数据找到最合理的搭配组合. 用于引导营销策略.
    • 或者以用户最近N笔或N天的订单内的所有商品作为一个大的group
  • 根据用户评论涉及的关键词, 找到最佳搭配关键词. 用于引导品牌策略.

挑战:

  • 每一个组合都是一组商品、标签或关键词. 相当于需要从现有的海量组合中找到高频组合(最搭组合).
  • 传统数据库不支持多值列(数组), 展开成多条记录数据量至少上升1个量级, 而且需要Join聚合才能得到最佳组合, 效率极差.
  • 在划窗分析需求中, 需要大量历史数据的基础进行计算, 性能差

PG解决方案:

  • 1、内置数组, 数据量节省至少1个量级.
  • 2、内置数组倒排索引, 快速定位想要得到的搭配组合.
  • 3、内置数组的元素级别统计信息, 可以利用统计信息快速定位到最佳组合.
  • 4、datasketches 近似解, 支持海量数据毫秒级别实时输出搭配组合.
  • 5、使用topn的方法, 可以每天为每个商品存储1条记录, 这样就能实行实时滑窗分析, 也是传统数据库无法高效实现的.

例子


1、购物车、订单场景
每个元素都有标签, 在一起就形成了标签集合

...
订单xxx : [商品1, 商品2, ...] -> [标签1, 标签2, ...]

2、评论场景

...
评论xxx : [分词1, 分词2, ...] -> [标签2, 标签3, ...]

以购物车、订单场景为例

1、传统数据库表结构:
每个订单需要N条记录(取决于订单内有多少商品)

order_id int8,  -- 订单id
itemid int  -- 商品id
);

传统结构找到商品ID=1的最佳TOP 10组合.

(select order_id from t where itemid=1)
group by itemid order by count(*) desc limit 11;

2、PG 数据库, 一条订单只需要一条记录:

order_id serial8 primary key,  -- 订单id
itemid int[]  -- 商品id数组
);

3、生成测试数据: 使用长尾分布, 容易观察到近似搜索的效果

\set o2 random_zipfian(10,100000,1.2)
\set o3 random_zipfian(20,100000,1.2)
\set o4 random_zipfian(30,100000,1.2)
\set o5 random_zipfian(40,100000,1.2)
\set o6 random_zipfian(50,100000,1.2)
\set o7 random_zipfian(60,100000,1.2)
\set o8 random_zipfian(70,100000,1.2)
\set o9 random_zipfian(80,100000,1.2)
\set o10 random_zipfian(90,100000,1.2)
insert into t (itemid) values (array[:o1,:o2,:o3,:o4,:o5,:o6,:o7,:o8,:o9,:o10]::int[]);

共360万个订单

count
---------
3600000
(1 row)

4、对itemid 创建gin索引

商品ID 1和哪10个商品最搭配?

传统方法:

order_id int8,  -- 订单id
itemid int  -- 商品id
);
create index idx_tt on tt (order_id);
insert into tt select order_id, unnest(itemid) from t;
select count(*) from tt;
-- 展开商品后记录数比PG多了10倍

传统结构找到商品ID=1的最佳TOP 10组合, 使用了hash agg和index的情况下需要4.8秒.

(select order_id from tt where itemid=1)
group by itemid order by count(*) desc limit 11;
itemid | count
--------+--------
1 | 706647
90 | 157916
80 | 157076
70 | 156776
60 | 155228
50 | 153810
40 | 152431
30 | 149441
20 | 146573
10 | 139074
91 |  78262
(11 rows)
Time: 4832.984 ms (00:04.833)

方法1:

PG可以自定义一个新的聚合函数 array_aggn(anyarray, order, n), 对数组进行聚合, 得到一个二维数组, 返回按元素出现频率的前N或后N个元素.
[元素][元素出现频率]

这条SQL可以通过GIN索引快速定位到包含1的订单记录, 同时对订单中的商品进行聚合,返回元素出现频率最高的前5个元素以及频率.

例如得到

自定义聚合的方法:

《PostgreSQL 10 自定义并行计算聚合函数的原理与实践- (含array_agg合并多个数组为单个一元数组的
例子)》

[《PostgreSQL Oracle 兼容性之- 自定义并行聚合函数PARALLEL_ENABLE AGGREGATE》](../201803/2018031
2_03.md)

《PostgreSQL并行计算解说之9 - parallel 自定义并行聚合》

除了用array来存储商品和标签, 也可以使用roaringbitmap来存储, 同样需要对rb类型新增一个聚合函数, 返回元素和元素出现频率.

使用rb存储的好处是压缩存储, 效率更高一点.

《PostgreSQL pg_roaringbitmap - 用户画像、标签、高效检索》

https://github.com/ChenHuajun/pg_roaringbitmap

方法2:

用统计信息得到近似解.

例如要计算商品ID=1的商品和哪些商品最搭

SELECT 706647
Time: 926.742 ms
itemid
----------------------------------------
{1,15,616,652,40,122,124,74,47543,167}
{1,54477,112,35,72,50,76,70,91,103}
{1,373,338,31,41,50,305,341,82,3478}
{1,10,20,33,66,97,42797,151,205,316}
{1,69,49,106,52,55,63,7390,315,90}
{1,12,38,31,48,77,68,751,217,215}
{1,10,147,92,41,69,77,74,81,90}
{1,17,21,37,114,68609,72,73,1098,144}
{1,37,21,44,44,50,84,70,3202,97}
{1,5483,25,84,91,56,68,6944,332,190}
(10 rows)

统计信息内有数组的element统计, 如下

View "pg_catalog.pg_stats"
Column         |   Type   | Collation | Nullable | Default
------------------------+----------+-----------+----------+---------
schemaname             | name     |           |          |
tablename              | name     |           |          |
attname                | name     |           |          |
inherited              | boolean  |           |          |
null_frac              | real     |           |          |
avg_width              | integer  |           |          |
n_distinct             | real     |           |          |
most_common_vals       | anyarray |           |          |
most_common_freqs      | real[]   |           |          |
histogram_bounds       | anyarray |           |          |
correlation            | real     |           |          |
most_common_elems      | anyarray |           |          |
most_common_elem_freqs | real[]   |           |          |
elem_count_histogram   | real[]   |           |          |

收集统计信息

ANALYZE
Time: 15.658 ms

查询购物车数组字段的统计信息详情

-[ RECORD 1 ]----------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
most_common_elems      | {1,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,115,116,117,119,120,122,123}
most_common_elem_freqs | {1,0.20272727,0.08181818,0.053939395,0.03757576,0.03272727,0.02,0.021818181,0.015757576,0.013939394,0.20787878,0.10757576,0.05666667,0.041818183,0.03212121,0.030909091,0.023333333,0.01878788,0.02030303,0.015454546,0.20484848,0.097575754,0.0660606,0.05272727,0.04060606,0.030303031,0.025757575,0.025454545,0.016969698,0.021212121,0.21848485,0.10242424,0.0669697,0.05727273,0.036666665,0.034848485,0.041212123,0.026969697,0.022121212,0.017878788,0.21878788,0.10181818,0.06757576,0.04909091,0.043636363,0.04060606,0.035454545,0.03181818,0.022424242,0.028181817,0.21939394,0.10060606,0.06878788,0.06333333,0.042727273,0.036060605,0.028181817,0.033333335,0.03181818,0.026969697,0.22636363,0.095757574,0.07636364,0.055454545,0.04969697,0.043333333,0.035151515,0.033939395,0.028181817,0.026969697,0.20818181,0.11242424,0.07787879,0.062121212,0.048787877,0.043333333,0.035757575,0.036969695,0.03181818,0.03212121,0.22030303,0.10636364,0.0730303,0.05878788,0.04969697,0.03939394,0.03969697,0.034242425,0.03727273,0.035151515,0.02969697,0.024848485,0.026969697,0.02878788,0.021818181,0.016060606,0.02030303,0.01939394,0.016363636,0.014242425,0.015151516,0.016969698,0.021515151,0.014545455,0.016060606,0.013333334,0.014242425,0.013939394,0.013939394,0.015757576,0.013333334,1,0}

解读: 《PostgreSQL 9.2 add array elements statistics》

获取TOP 10 的组合:

第一个元素是自己, 所以要输出11条

《PostgreSQL pg_stats used to estimate top N freps values and explain rows》

(select row_number() over(partition by r) as rn,ele from (select unnest(most_common_elems::text::int[]) ele,2 as r from pg_stats where tablename='tmp_t' and attname='itemid') t) t1
join
(select row_number() over(partition by r) as rn,freq from (select unnest(most_common_elem_freqs) freq,2 as r from pg_stats where tablename='tmp_t' and attname='itemid') t) t2
on (t1.rn=t2.rn) order by t2.freq desc limit 11;
rn | ele | rn |    freq
----+-----+----+------------
1 |   1 |  1 |          1  -- 自己的出现概率 100%
52 |  60 | 52 | 0.22878788  -- 接下来的9个值符合pgbench使用的长尾分布随机生成算法
62 |  70 | 62 | 0.22030303
12 |  20 | 12 | 0.21848485
32 |  40 | 32 |  0.2169697
72 |  80 | 72 | 0.21636364
42 |  50 | 42 |       0.21
82 |  90 | 82 |       0.21
2 |  10 |  2 | 0.20545454
22 |  30 | 22 | 0.20060606
73 |  81 | 73 | 0.11515152  -- 这个值是第二梯队10个中的的任意一个(因为概率差别很小很小)
(11 rows)
Time: 1.852 ms

即商品ID 1和商品ID 60,70,20,40,80,50,90,10,30,81最搭配, 以及他们与商品1双双同时出现的概率.

验证近似值的准确度: 几乎100%
使用unnest可以得到真实值, 和近似值几乎完全一致.

count
--------
706647
(1 row)
select unnest(itemid) i , count(*)/706647.0 from tmp_t group by 1 order by 2 desc limit 11;
i  |        ?column?
----+------------------------
1 | 1.00000000000000000000  -- 自己的出现概率 100%
90 | 0.22347225701092624748  -- 接下来的9个值符合pgbench使用的长尾分布随机生成算法
80 | 0.22228354468355487252
70 | 0.22185900456663652432
60 | 0.21966837756333784761
50 | 0.21766171794403712179
40 | 0.21571024853993578123
30 | 0.21147899870798291085
20 | 0.20742039519024350206
10 | 0.19680830740100785824
91 | 0.11075119543421255592  -- 这个值是第二梯队10个中的的任意一个(因为概率差别很小很小)
(11 rows)
Time: 1204.824 ms (00:01.205)

使用统计信息的近似查询最佳组合方法, 查询性能提升1000倍.

方法3:

使用topn插件

生成订单、购物车的时候实时计算. 存储到一种新的数据类型: 近似值类型.

https://github.com/pipelinedb/pipelinedb/blob/master/pipelinedb--1.0.0.sql

https://github.com/apache/datasketches-postgresql

https://github.com/citusdata/postgresql-topn

https://github.com/ozturkosu/cms_topn

以topn为例:

postgres=# show topn.number_of_counters ;
topn.number_of_counters
-------------------------
1000
(1 row)
Time: 0.192 ms

每个商品只需要存储1条记录(即统计结果记录)

itemid int primary key,
groups jsonb
);
insert into tmp_topn select 1, topn_add_agg(i::text) from (
select unnest(itemid) i from t where itemid @> array[1]
) t;
INSERT 0 1
Time: 1977.195 ms (00:01.977)
postgres=# select (topn(groups,11)).* from tmp_topn where itemid=1;
item | frequency
------+-----------
1    |    706647
90   |    157916
80   |    157076
70   |    156776
60   |    155228
50   |    153810
40   |    152431
30   |    149441
20   |    146573
10   |    139074
91   |     78262
(11 rows)
Time: 0.706 ms

当产生新的订单时, 这个订单有N个商品, 那么在以上表中, 增量更新N条记录即可.

select unnest(itemid) i from t where itemid @> array[1]
) t
on conflict (itemid) do update set
groups = topn_union(tmp_topn.groups,excluded.groups);
INSERT 0 1
Time: 1957.321 ms (00:01.957)
item | frequency
------+-----------
1    |   1413294
90   |    315832
80   |    314152
70   |    313552
60   |    310456
50   |    307620
40   |    304862
30   |    298882
20   |    293146
10   |    278148
91   |    156524
(11 rows)
Time: 0.706 ms

性能同样是1000倍提升, 而且随着数据量增加, 性能提升会更加明显.

使用topn的方法, 可以每天为每个商品存储1条记录, 这样就能实行实时滑窗分析, 也是传统数据库无法高效实现的.

-- topn_union_agg用于划窗聚合
select topn(topn_union_agg(groups),11) from xx
where ts >= '2021-11-01' and ts < '2021-11-12'
and itemid=1 ;

方法4:

流计算, 略, pipelinedb已停更, 团队加入confluent, 可以折腾的小伙伴可以继续维护pipelinedb.
目前也能通过任务调度+方法3来实现增量.
又或者使用timescaledb的持续聚合功能. https://docs.timescale.com/api/latest/continuous-aggregates/create_materialized_view/

参考

1、topk 算法论文
https://www.hlt.inesc-id.pt/~fmmb/wiki/uploads/Work/dict.refd.pdf

https://pipelinedb-doc-cn.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/latest/builtin.html#top-k

2、流计算
https://github.com/pipelinedb/pipelinedb/blob/master/pipelinedb--1.0.0.sql

3、持续聚合
https://docs.timescale.com/api/latest/continuous-aggregates/create_materialized_view/

4、近似计算
https://github.com/apache/datasketches-postgresql

https://github.com/citusdata/postgresql-topn

https://github.com/ozturkosu/cms_topn

5、
《为什么啤酒和纸尿裤最搭- 用HybridDB/PostgreSQL查询商品营销最佳组合》

6、电商行业流量估算
https://finance.sina.com.cn/tech/2020-11-12/doc-iiznezxs1360582.shtml
11月1日至11月12日0:00,天猫双11总交易额达4982亿元。实时数据显示,天猫双11期间,成交额突破1亿元的品牌超过450个。
11月11日23点,2020天猫双11全球狂欢季实时物流订单量破22.5亿单, 平均每天1亿单左右,这个数字约等于2010年全年中国快递量的总和。

7、统计信息解读
解读: 《PostgreSQL 9.2 add array elements statistics》

《PostgreSQL pg_stats used to estimate top N freps values and explain rows》

8、长尾模型
《PostgreSQL pgbnech 支持长尾模型数据生成- 离散幂律概率分布- random_zipfian》

9、自定义聚合的方法
《PostgreSQL 10 自定义并行计算聚合函数的原理与实践- (含array_agg合并多个数组为单个一元数组的
例子)》

[《PostgreSQL Oracle 兼容性之- 自定义并行聚合函数PARALLEL_ENABLE AGGREGATE》](../201803/2018031
2_03.md)

《PostgreSQL并行计算解说之9 - parallel 自定义并行聚合》

10、滑窗分析
《PostgreSQL count-min sketch top-n 概率计算插件cms_topn (结合窗口实现同比、环比、滑窗分析等) - 流计算核心功能之一》

 

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