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概述如何搭建开发环境

安装Python3、安装jupyter notebook以及其他科学栈如numpy

pip install jypyter notebook
pip install numpy


生成测试数据集

# 导入需要的包
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import sklearn
import sklearn.datasets
import sklearn.linear_model
import matplotlib

# Display plots inline and change default figure size
%matplotlib inline
matplotlib.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (10.0, 8.0)

生成数据集

make_moons数据集生成器

# 生成数据集并绘制出来
np.random.seed(0)
X, y = sklearn.datasets.make_moons(200, noise=0.20)
plt.scatter(X[:,0], X[:,1], s=40, c=y, cmap=plt.cm.Spectral)
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逻辑回归

# 训练逻辑回归训练器
clf = sklearn.linear_model.LogisticRegressionCV()
clf.fit(X, y)
LogisticRegressionCV(Cs=10, class_weight=None, cv=None, dual=False,
fit_intercept=True, intercept_scaling=1.0, max_iter=100,
multi_class='ovr', n_jobs=1, penalty='l2', random_state=None,
refit=True, scoring=None, solver='lbfgs', tol=0.0001, verbose=0)

# Helper function to plot a decision boundary.
# If you don't fully understand this function don't worry, it just generates the contour plot below.
def plot_decision_boundary(pred_func):
# Set min and max values and give it some padding
x_min, x_max = X[:, 0].min() - .5, X[:, 0].max() + .5
y_min, y_max = X[:, 1].min() - .5, X[:, 1].max() + .5
h = 0.01
# Generate a grid of points with distance h between them
xx, yy = np.meshgrid(np.arange(x_min, x_max, h), np.arange(y_min, y_max, h))
# Predict the function value for the whole gid
Z = pred_func(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])
Z = Z.reshape(xx.shape)
# Plot the contour and training examples
plt.contourf(xx, yy, Z, cmap=plt.cm.Spectral)
plt.scatter(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], c=y, cmap=plt.cm.Spectral)
# Plot the decision boundary
plot_decision_boundary(lambda x: clf.predict(x))
plt.title("Logistic Regression")

The graph shows the decision boundary learned by our Logistic Regression classifier. It separates the data as good as it can using a straight line, but it’s unable to capture the “moon shape” of our data.

训练一个神经网络

神经网络作出预测原理

z1a1z2a2=xW1+b1=tanh(z1)=a1W2+b2=y^=softmax(z2)

zi is the input of layer i and ai is the output of layer i after applying the activation function. W1,b1,W2,b2 are parameters of our network, which we need to learn from our training data. You can think of them as matrices transforming data between layers of the network. Looking at the matrix multiplications above we can figure out the dimensionality of these matrices. If we use 500 nodes for our hidden layer then W1R2×500, b1R500, W2R500×2, b2R2. Now you see why we have more parameters if we increase the size of the hidden layer.

研究参数

Learning the parameters for our network means finding parameters (W1,b1,W2,b2) that minimize the error on our training data. But how do we define the error? We call the function that measures our error the loss function. A common choice with the softmax output is the cross-entropy loss. If we have N training examples and C classes then the loss for our prediction y^ with respect to the true labels y is given by:

L(y,y^)=1NnNiCyn,ilogy^n,i

The formula looks complicated, but all it really does is sum over our training examples and add to the loss if we predicted the incorrect class. So, the further away y (the correct labels) and y^ (our predictions) are, the greater our loss will be.

Remember that our goal is to find the parameters that minimize our loss function. We can use gradient descent to find its minimum. I will implement the most vanilla version of gradient descent, also called batch gradient descent with a fixed learning rate. Variations such as SGD (stochastic gradient descent) or minibatch gradient descent typically perform better in practice. So if you are serious you’ll want to use one of these, and ideally you would also decay the learning rate over time.

As an input, gradient descent needs the gradients (vector of derivatives) of the loss function with respect to our parameters: LW1, Lb1, LW2, Lb2. To calculate these gradients we use the famous backpropagation algorithm, which is a way to efficiently calculate the gradients starting from the output. I won’t go into detail how backpropagation works, but there are many excellent explanations (here or here) floating around the web.

Applying the backpropagation formula we find the following (trust me on this):

δ3=yy^δ2=(1tanh2z1)δ3WT2LW2=aT1δ3Lb2=δ3LW1=xTδ2Lb1=δ2

实现

Now we are ready for our implementation. We start by defining some useful variables and parameters for gradient descent:

num_examples = len(X) # training set size
nn_input_dim = 2 # input layer dimensionality
nn_output_dim = 2 # output layer dimensionality

# Gradient descent parameters (I picked these by hand)
epsilon = 0.01 # learning rate for gradient descent
reg_lambda = 0.01 # regularization strength

First let’s implement the loss function we defined above. We use this to evaluate how well our model is doing:

# Helper function to evaluate the total loss on the dataset
def calculate_loss(model):
W1, b1, W2, b2 = model['W1'], model['b1'], model['W2'], model['b2']
# Forward propagation to calculate our predictions
z1 = X.dot(W1) + b1
a1 = np.tanh(z1)
z2 = a1.dot(W2) + b2
exp_scores = np.exp(z2)
probs = exp_scores / np.sum(exp_scores, axis=1, keepdims=True)
# Calculating the loss
corect_logprobs = -np.log(probs[range(num_examples), y])
data_loss = np.sum(corect_logprobs)
# Add regulatization term to loss (optional)
data_loss += reg_lambda/2 * (np.sum(np.square(W1)) + np.sum(np.square(W2)))
return 1./num_examples * data_loss

We also implement a helper function to calculate the output of the network. It does forward propagation as defined above and returns the class with the highest probability.

# Helper function to predict an output (0 or 1)
def predict(model, x):
W1, b1, W2, b2 = model['W1'], model['b1'], model['W2'], model['b2']
# Forward propagation
z1 = x.dot(W1) + b1
a1 = np.tanh(z1)
z2 = a1.dot(W2) + b2
exp_scores = np.exp(z2)
probs = exp_scores / np.sum(exp_scores, axis=1, keepdims=True)
return np.argmax(probs, axis=1)

Finally, here comes the function to train our Neural Network. It implements batch gradient descent using the backpropagation derivates we found above.

# This function learns parameters for the neural network and returns the model.
# - nn_hdim: Number of nodes in the hidden layer
# - num_passes: Number of passes through the training data for gradient descent
# - print_loss: If True, print the loss every 1000 iterations
def build_model(nn_hdim, num_passes=20000, print_loss=False):

# Initialize the parameters to random values. We need to learn these.
np.random.seed(0)
W1 = np.random.randn(nn_input_dim, nn_hdim) / np.sqrt(nn_input_dim)
b1 = np.zeros((1, nn_hdim))
W2 = np.random.randn(nn_hdim, nn_output_dim) / np.sqrt(nn_hdim)
b2 = np.zeros((1, nn_output_dim))

# This is what we return at the end
model = {}

# Gradient descent. For each batch...
for i in range(0, num_passes):

# Forward propagation
z1 = X.dot(W1) + b1
a1 = np.tanh(z1)
z2 = a1.dot(W2) + b2
exp_scores = np.exp(z2)
probs = exp_scores / np.sum(exp_scores, axis=1, keepdims=True)

# Backpropagation
delta3 = probs
delta3[range(num_examples), y] -= 1
dW2 = (a1.T).dot(delta3)
db2 = np.sum(delta3, axis=0, keepdims=True)
delta2 = delta3.dot(W2.T) * (1 - np.power(a1, 2))
dW1 = np.dot(X.T, delta2)
db1 = np.sum(delta2, axis=0)

# Add regularization terms (b1 and b2 don't have regularization terms)
dW2 += reg_lambda * W2
dW1 += reg_lambda * W1

W1 += -epsilon * dW1
b1 += -epsilon * db1
W2 += -epsilon * dW2
b2 += -epsilon * db2

# Assign new parameters to the model
model = { 'W1': W1, 'b1': b1, 'W2': W2, 'b2': b2}

# Optionally print the loss.
# This is expensive because it uses the whole dataset, so we don't want to do it too often.
if print_loss and i % 1000 == 0:
print ("Loss after iteration %i: %f" %(i, calculate_loss(model)))

return model


一个隐藏层规模为3的网络

Let’s see what happens if we train a network with a hidden layer size of 3.

# Build a model with a 3-dimensional hidden layer
model = build_model(3, print_loss=True)

# Plot the decision boundary
plot_decision_boundary(lambda x: predict(model, x))
plt.title("Decision Boundary for hidden layer size 3")
Loss after iteration 0: 0.432387
Loss after iteration 1000: 0.068947
Loss after iteration 2000: 0.069541
Loss after iteration 3000: 0.071218
Loss after iteration 4000: 0.071253
Loss after iteration 5000: 0.071278
Loss after iteration 6000: 0.071293
Loss after iteration 7000: 0.071303
Loss after iteration 8000: 0.071308
Loss after iteration 9000: 0.071312
Loss after iteration 10000: 0.071314
Loss after iteration 11000: 0.071315
Loss after iteration 12000: 0.071315
Loss after iteration 13000: 0.071316
Loss after iteration 14000: 0.071316
Loss after iteration 15000: 0.071316
Loss after iteration 16000: 0.071316
Loss after iteration 17000: 0.071316
Loss after iteration 18000: 0.071316
Loss after iteration 19000: 0.071316

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Yay! This looks pretty good. Our neural networks was able to find a decision boundary that successfully separates the classes.

变更隐藏层规模

In the example above we picked a hidden layer size of 3. Let’s now get a sense of how varying the hidden layer size affects the result.

plt.figure(figsize=(16, 32))
hidden_layer_dimensions = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 20, 50]
for i, nn_hdim in enumerate(hidden_layer_dimensions):
plt.subplot(5, 2, i+1)
plt.title('Hidden Layer size %d' % nn_hdim)
model = build_model(nn_hdim)
plot_decision_boundary(lambda x: predict(model, x))
plt.show()

We can see that while a hidden layer of low dimensionality nicely capture the general trend of our data, but higher dimensionalities are prone to overfitting. They are “memorizing” the data as opposed to fitting the general shape. If we were to evaluate our model on a separate test set (and you should!) the model with a smaller hidden layer size would likely perform better because it generalizes better. We could counteract overfitting with stronger regularization, but picking the a correct size for hidden layer is a much more “economical” solution.

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