Kafka详解五、Kafka Consumer的底层API- SimpleConsumer-阿里云开发者社区

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Kafka详解五、Kafka Consumer的底层API- SimpleConsumer

简介: 1.Kafka提供了两套API给Consumer The high-level Consumer API The SimpleConsumer API      第一种高度抽象的Consumer API,它使用起来简单、方便,但是对于某些特殊的需求我们可能要用到第二种更底层的API,那么先介绍下第二种API能够帮助我们做哪些事情 一个消息读取多次 在一个处理过程中只消

1.Kafka提供了两套API给Consumer

  1. The high-level Consumer API
  2. The SimpleConsumer API     
第一种高度抽象的Consumer API,它使用起来简单、方便,但是对于某些特殊的需求我们可能要用到第二种更底层的API,那么先介绍下第二种API能够帮助我们做哪些事情
  • 一个消息读取多次
  • 在一个处理过程中只消费Partition其中的一部分消息
  • 添加事务管理机制以保证消息被处理且仅被处理一次

2.使用SimpleConsumer有哪些弊端呢?

  • 必须在程序中跟踪offset值
  • 必须找出指定Topic Partition中的lead broker
  • 必须处理broker的变动

3.使用SimpleConsumer的步骤

  1. 从所有活跃的broker中找出哪个是指定Topic Partition中的leader broker
  2. 找出指定Topic Partition中的所有备份broker
  3. 构造请求
  4. 发送请求查询数据
  5. 处理leader broker变更

4.代码实例



package bonree.consumer;

import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import kafka.api.FetchRequest;
import kafka.api.FetchRequestBuilder;
import kafka.api.PartitionOffsetRequestInfo;
import kafka.common.ErrorMapping;
import kafka.common.TopicAndPartition;
import kafka.javaapi.FetchResponse;
import kafka.javaapi.OffsetResponse;
import kafka.javaapi.PartitionMetadata;
import kafka.javaapi.TopicMetadata;
import kafka.javaapi.TopicMetadataRequest;
import kafka.javaapi.consumer.SimpleConsumer;
import kafka.message.MessageAndOffset;

public class SimpleExample {
	private List<String> m_replicaBrokers = new ArrayList<String>();

	public SimpleExample() {
		m_replicaBrokers = new ArrayList<String>();
	}

	public static void main(String args[]) {
		SimpleExample example = new SimpleExample();
		// 最大读取消息数量
		long maxReads = Long.parseLong("3");
		// 要订阅的topic
		String topic = "mytopic";
		// 要查找的分区
		int partition = Integer.parseInt("0");
		// broker节点的ip
		List<String> seeds = new ArrayList<String>();
		seeds.add("192.168.4.30");
		seeds.add("192.168.4.31");
		seeds.add("192.168.4.32");
		// 端口
		int port = Integer.parseInt("9092");
		try {
			example.run(maxReads, topic, partition, seeds, port);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			System.out.println("Oops:" + e);
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}

	public void run(long a_maxReads, String a_topic, int a_partition, List<String> a_seedBrokers, int a_port) throws Exception {
		// 获取指定Topic partition的元数据
		PartitionMetadata metadata = findLeader(a_seedBrokers, a_port, a_topic, a_partition);
		if (metadata == null) {
			System.out.println("Can't find metadata for Topic and Partition. Exiting");
			return;
		}
		if (metadata.leader() == null) {
			System.out.println("Can't find Leader for Topic and Partition. Exiting");
			return;
		}
		String leadBroker = metadata.leader().host();
		String clientName = "Client_" + a_topic + "_" + a_partition;

		SimpleConsumer consumer = new SimpleConsumer(leadBroker, a_port, 100000, 64 * 1024, clientName);
		long readOffset = getLastOffset(consumer, a_topic, a_partition, kafka.api.OffsetRequest.EarliestTime(), clientName);
		int numErrors = 0;
		while (a_maxReads > 0) {
			if (consumer == null) {
				consumer = new SimpleConsumer(leadBroker, a_port, 100000, 64 * 1024, clientName);
			}
			FetchRequest req = new FetchRequestBuilder().clientId(clientName).addFetch(a_topic, a_partition, readOffset, 100000).build();
			FetchResponse fetchResponse = consumer.fetch(req);

			if (fetchResponse.hasError()) {
				numErrors++;
				// Something went wrong!
				short code = fetchResponse.errorCode(a_topic, a_partition);
				System.out.println("Error fetching data from the Broker:" + leadBroker + " Reason: " + code);
				if (numErrors > 5)
					break;
				if (code == ErrorMapping.OffsetOutOfRangeCode()) {
					// We asked for an invalid offset. For simple case ask for
					// the last element to reset
					readOffset = getLastOffset(consumer, a_topic, a_partition, kafka.api.OffsetRequest.LatestTime(), clientName);
					continue;
				}
				consumer.close();
				consumer = null;
				leadBroker = findNewLeader(leadBroker, a_topic, a_partition, a_port);
				continue;
			}
			numErrors = 0;

			long numRead = 0;
			for (MessageAndOffset messageAndOffset : fetchResponse.messageSet(a_topic, a_partition)) {
				long currentOffset = messageAndOffset.offset();
				if (currentOffset < readOffset) {
					System.out.println("Found an old offset: " + currentOffset + " Expecting: " + readOffset);
					continue;
				}

				readOffset = messageAndOffset.nextOffset();
				ByteBuffer payload = messageAndOffset.message().payload();

				byte[] bytes = new byte[payload.limit()];
				payload.get(bytes);
				System.out.println(String.valueOf(messageAndOffset.offset()) + ": " + new String(bytes, "UTF-8"));
				numRead++;
				a_maxReads--;
			}

			if (numRead == 0) {
				try {
					Thread.sleep(1000);
				} catch (InterruptedException ie) {
				}
			}
		}
		if (consumer != null)
			consumer.close();
	}

	public static long getLastOffset(SimpleConsumer consumer, String topic, int partition, long whichTime, String clientName) {
		TopicAndPartition topicAndPartition = new TopicAndPartition(topic, partition);
		Map<TopicAndPartition, PartitionOffsetRequestInfo> requestInfo = new HashMap<TopicAndPartition, PartitionOffsetRequestInfo>();
		requestInfo.put(topicAndPartition, new PartitionOffsetRequestInfo(whichTime, 1));
		kafka.javaapi.OffsetRequest request = new kafka.javaapi.OffsetRequest(requestInfo, kafka.api.OffsetRequest.CurrentVersion(), clientName);
		OffsetResponse response = consumer.getOffsetsBefore(request);

		if (response.hasError()) {
			System.out.println("Error fetching data Offset Data the Broker. Reason: " + response.errorCode(topic, partition));
			return 0;
		}
		long[] offsets = response.offsets(topic, partition);
		return offsets[0];
	}

	/**
	 * @param a_oldLeader
	 * @param a_topic
	 * @param a_partition
	 * @param a_port
	 * @return String
	 * @throws Exception
	 *             找一个leader broker
	 */
	private String findNewLeader(String a_oldLeader, String a_topic, int a_partition, int a_port) throws Exception {
		for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
			boolean goToSleep = false;
			PartitionMetadata metadata = findLeader(m_replicaBrokers, a_port, a_topic, a_partition);
			if (metadata == null) {
				goToSleep = true;
			} else if (metadata.leader() == null) {
				goToSleep = true;
			} else if (a_oldLeader.equalsIgnoreCase(metadata.leader().host()) && i == 0) {
				// first time through if the leader hasn't changed give
				// ZooKeeper a second to recover
				// second time, assume the broker did recover before failover,
				// or it was a non-Broker issue
				//
				goToSleep = true;
			} else {
				return metadata.leader().host();
			}
			if (goToSleep) {
				try {
					Thread.sleep(1000);
				} catch (InterruptedException ie) {
				}
			}
		}
		System.out.println("Unable to find new leader after Broker failure. Exiting");
		throw new Exception("Unable to find new leader after Broker failure. Exiting");
	}

	private PartitionMetadata findLeader(List<String> a_seedBrokers, int a_port, String a_topic, int a_partition) {
		PartitionMetadata returnMetaData = null;
		loop: for (String seed : a_seedBrokers) {
			SimpleConsumer consumer = null;
			try {
				consumer = new SimpleConsumer(seed, a_port, 100000, 64 * 1024, "leaderLookup");
				List<String> topics = Collections.singletonList(a_topic);
				TopicMetadataRequest req = new TopicMetadataRequest(topics);
				kafka.javaapi.TopicMetadataResponse resp = consumer.send(req);

				List<TopicMetadata> metaData = resp.topicsMetadata();
				for (TopicMetadata item : metaData) {
					for (PartitionMetadata part : item.partitionsMetadata()) {
						if (part.partitionId() == a_partition) {
							returnMetaData = part;
							break loop;
						}
					}
				}
			} catch (Exception e) {
				System.out.println("Error communicating with Broker [" + seed + "] to find Leader for [" + a_topic + ", " + a_partition + "] Reason: " + e);
			} finally {
				if (consumer != null)
					consumer.close();
			}
		}
		if (returnMetaData != null) {
			m_replicaBrokers.clear();
			for (kafka.cluster.Broker replica : returnMetaData.replicas()) {
				m_replicaBrokers.add(replica.host());
			}
		}
		return returnMetaData;
	}
}

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