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阿里云存储服务OSSAPI(python)

ap7699a0v 2012-07-18 17:05:19 27028
[font='Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]从阿里云存储中基本概念,python API 和几个例子来简述阿里云python API 的使用,使新手能够简单上手阿里云的云存储。
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阿里云存储中的基本概念



对象 Object

阿里云存储中,任何一个存储的文件都是一个对象,包含了key、data 和user meta,分别对应着对象的名称、数据和对象描述。对象名使用utf-8 编码,且长度在1-1023 之间。操作对象的操作有:get、range query、delete、list。


对象组 Object Group

多个对象组成的松散集合。可以像操作对象一样操作对象组。


Bucket

桶就是用来装对象数据的,在整个阿里云存储服务(OSS)中具有全局唯一性,相当于是阿里云给每个用户的二级域名,每个用户最多可以创建10 个桶。所有的对象都是放在桶中的,至于能放多少没有限制。桶的命名包括小写字母、数字、下划线和短横线,必须以小写字母或者数字开头。通过浏览器设置存储空间长度只能在6-16 个字符内,而通过python 的API 可以设置在3-255 个字符内。


Access IDAccess key


在OSS 注册时,用户会给用户分配Access ID 和Access key 分别用来标识用户和认证用户用。Access key 是作为私钥发送给用户,每次用户为认证自己,将一段随机数字加上用私钥加密随机数字的结果发送给服务器端,服务器用用户的公钥解密对应的加密结果,如果和随机数字一致则用户得到验证。服务器端如果公钥泄密问题不大,但如果用户的私钥泄露出去了则就要更换公私密钥对了,生成公私密钥对的大素数对是可以不变的,虽然这也有一定风险。
总结一下:
  • Bucket 、Object 和Object Group 都支持的操作:创建(上传)、查看、list、删除
  • 可修改Bucket 访问权限(三种:私有、可读不可写、可读可写)
  • 访问时支持If-Modified-Since 和If-Match 等HTTP 参数


OSS API SDK



包含的py 文件

这部分将根据阿里云存储服务提供的python API 看看支持哪些操作,下载python SDK 看到压缩包里包含这么几个文件:oss_api.py  oss_cmd.py  oss_fs.py  oss_sample.py  oss_util.py  oss_xml_handler.py ,作用分别如下:
oss_api.py    用户直接使用该文件的类和方法操作Object、Bucket 等
oss_util.py    通用方法类,包含不被直接调用,但比较常用的类和方法
oss_xml_handler.py   阿里云存储的错误信息都是xml 格式的,用来处理xml 的
oss_cmd.py   用户可以以命令行的形式操作Object、Bucket 【optional】
oss_fs.py       利用OSS 搭建的一个简单的云存储文件系统 【optional】
oss_sample.py   简单的一些实用API 的例子【optional】
需要说明的是文件里面使用的类和 方法有的比较古老了,编译的时候可能出现错误,比如oss_util.py 中md5 已经合并到hashlib 类了,md5.new() 方法也没有了,在编译oss_sample.py 的时候就会发现这样的错误。


包含的主要方法

看看oss_api.py 提供了哪些类和方法:整个文件就一个OssAPI 类,在使用该API 时首先应该通过

oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)

的方法生成一个该类的实例。该类对外公开的API 有以下方法:

sign_url_auth_with_expire_time(self, method, url, headers = {}, resource=”/”, timeout = 60)

通过输入的方法、url、body 和headers 创建认证,返回签名链接,method 方法有PUT, GET, DELETE, HEAD。这类似于生成一个公开的限时签名链接地址。

bucket_operation(self, method, bucket, headers={}, params={})

发送桶bucket 操作请求,method 方法有PUT, GET, DELETE, HEAD 。

object_operation(self, method, bucket, object, headers = {}, data=”")

发送对象object 操作请求,method 方法有PUT, GET, DELETE, HEAD 。

get_service(self)

list 所有buckets,等价调用 list_all_my_buckets(self) 。

get_bucket_acl(self, bucket)

获取bucket 访问控制权限,有public-read-write,public-read 和private 三类。

get_bucket(self, bucket, prefix=”, marker=”, delimiter=”, maxkeys=”, headers = {})

list bucket 中所有对象,等价调用 list_bucket() ,因此参数、结果相同。

create_bucket(self, bucket, acl=”, headers = {})

创建bucket,实际上是调用的 put_bucket() 。

delete_bucket(self, bucket)

删除bucket 。

put_object_with_data(self, bucket, object, input_content, content_type=DefaultContentType, headers = {})

向对象中写入数据,等价调用 put_object_from_string() 。

put_object_from_file(self, bucket, object, filename, content_type=DefaultContentType, headers = {})

从文件读取写入到对象中,实际上就是上传该文件,对应的参数是文件绝对路径。

put_object_from_fp(self, bucket, object, fp, content_type=DefaultContentType, headers = {})

从文件指针写入数据到对象,和上面方法不同是的参数为文件指针。

get_object(self, bucket, object, headers = {})

获取一个对象,即是以GET 方式调用object_operation() 方法。

get_object_to_file(self, bucket, object, filename, headers = {})

获取一个对象并写入到文件,即下载文件,DELETE 方式调用object_operation() 。

head_object(self, bucket, object, headers = {})

获取对象的头信息,而不用下载整个对象内容。

post_object_group(self, bucket, object, object_group_msg_xml, headers = {}, params = {})

上传对象组,将所有在object_group_msg_xml 中的对象合并为一个对象上传。

get_object_group_index(self, bucket, object, headers = {})

获取对象组索引,通过GET 方式的object_operation() 方法获得。

put_object_from_file_given_pos(self, bucket, object, filename, offset, partsize, content_type=DefaultContentType, headers = {})

从特定文件filename 的指定位置offset 读取指定大小partsize 到对象,并上传到桶bucket 中。

upload_large_file(self, bucket, object, filename, thread_num = 10, max_part_num = 1000)

上传一个大文件,分为1000 或者很多份,分别上传到桶bucket 中,最终合并多份内容为一个大的对象。





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全部回答(5)
  • 流鼻涕
    2013-05-03 18:05:47
    Re阿里云存储服务OSSAPI(python)
    0 0
  • ap9217b0i
    2013-03-16 02:44:28
    Re阿里云存储服务OSSAPI(python)
    怎么只有上传图片的案例,如果是上传zip压缩包呢,type怎写?怎么规定本地上传附件的本地地址
    0 0
  • wood23
    2012-07-18 19:06:01
    Re阿里云存储服务OSSAPI(python)
    必须顶啊!赞,这么细心的文档。
    0 0
  • 聚小编
    2012-07-18 17:19:55
    感谢楼主分享!好贴!!必须加精!!!
    0 0
  • ap7699a0v
    2012-07-18 17:05:52
    Re阿里云存储服务OSSAPI(python)
    几个例子

    在自带的oss_sample.py 就包含了一些主要操作的例子,可以参考借鉴。下面给出几个常见操作的范例:
    list buckets  罗列所有存储空间

       1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3:  
       4: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       5: ACCESS_ID = ""
       6: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       7:  
       8: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
       9:  
      10: res = oss.list_all_my_buckets()
      11: if 2 == (res.status / 100):
      12:     http_body = res.read()
      13:     bucket_list = GetServiceXml(http_body)
      14:     for bucket in bucket_list.list():
      15:         print bucket
      16: else:
      17:     print "ERROR"



    list objects 罗列存储空间中所有对象
    1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3:  
       4: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       5: ACCESS_ID = ""
       6: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       7:  
       8: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
       9:  
      10: res = oss.list_bucket(bucket_name)
      11: if 2 == (res.status / 100):
      12:     data = res.read()
      13:     h = GetBucketXml(data)
      14:     (file_list, common_list) = h.list()
      15:     for each in file_list:
      16:         print each
      17:


      

    create a bucket  创建一个存储空间

    1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3: import sys
       4:  
       5: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       6: ACCESS_ID = ""
       7: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       8:  
       9: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
      10: new_bucket = sys.argv[1]
      11: res = oss.put_bucket(new_bucket)
      12: if 2 == (res.status / 100) :
      13:     print "Succeed"
      14: else:
      15:     print "Fail\n%s" % res.read()



    修改指定存储空间访问控制权限

    因为创建存储空间默认为private ,需要自己设置权限
       1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3: import sys
       4:  
       5: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       6: ACCESS_ID = ""
       7: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       8: bucket_name = sys.argv[1]
       9:  
      10: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
      11: res = oss.put_bucket(bucket_name, "public-read")
      12:  
      13: if 2 == (res.status / 100) :
      14:     print "Succeed"
      15: else:
      16:     print "Fail\n%s" % res.read()



    上传一个文件到存储空间

       1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3:  
       4: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       5: ACCESS_ID = ""
       6: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       7: bucket_name = sys.argv[1]
       8: file_name = sys.argv[2]
       9:  
      10: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
      11:  
      12: res = oss.put_object_from_file(bucket_name, "1.jpg", file_name, "image/jpg")
      13: if 2 == (res.status / 100):
      14:     print "Succeed"
      15: else:
      16:     print "Fail\n%s" % res.read()


    从存储空间下载指定文件

       1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3:  
       4: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       5: ACCESS_ID = ""
       6: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       7:  
       8: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
       9: res = oss.get_object_to_file("hust", "1.jpg", "./new.JPEG")
      10: if 2 == (res.status / 100):
      11:     print "Succeed"
      12: else:
      13:     print "Fail\n%s" % res.read()



    从存储空间删除指定文件

    API 没有直接提供像delete_bucket() 样的delete_object() 的操作,但是用object_operation() 也是一样的,实际上delete_bucket() 也只是调用DELETE 方式的bucket_operation() 方法。
       1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3:  
       4: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       5: ACCESS_ID = ""
       6: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       7:  
       8: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
       9: res = oss.object_operation("DELETE","hust","1.jpg")
      10: if 2 == (res.status/100):
      11:         print "Succeed!"
      12: else:
      13:         print res.read()



    合并对象(object)为对象组(object group)

       1: from oss_api import *
       2: from oss_xml_handler import *
       3:  
       4: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       5: ACCESS_ID = ""
       6: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
       7:  
       8: obs_msg_list = [[0,"800.png","43B0177C78BF904970F7B1C9005001F3"],[1,"new.JPEG","5C6E71FDF26A82FBD42BC5D31787FE20"]]
       9:  
      10: xml_string = r'<;CreateFileGroup>'
      11: for part in obs_msg_list:
      12:     if isinstance(part[1], unicode):
      13:         file_path = part[1].encode('utf-8')
      14:     else:
      15:         file_path = part[1]
      16:         xml_string  = r'<;Part>'
      17:         xml_string  = r'<;PartNumber>'   str(part[0])   r'</PartNumber>'
      18:         xml_string  = r'<;PartName>'   str(file_path)   r'</PartName>'
      19:         xml_string  = r'<;ETag>"'   str(part[2]).upper()   r'"</ETag>'
      20:         xml_string  = r'<;/Part>'
      21: xml_string  = r'<;/CreateFileGroup>'
      22:  
      23: oss = OssAPI(HOST, ACCESS_ID, SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
      24: res = oss.post_object_group('hust','group.msh',xml_string)
      25: if 2 == (res.status / 100):
      26:     print "Successed!"
      27: else:
      28:     print res.read()


    开始我试图自己写xml <CreateFileGroup>………</CreateFileGroup>,老是返回 InvalidXMLFormat ,估计还是编码的问题。

    -------------------------

    Re阿里云存储服务OSSAPI(python)
    来个复杂点的

    下面对上面的操作进行了封装,能够提供一个简单的命令行操作,写的有点乱。
       1: #coding=utf8
       2: from oss_api import *
       3: from oss_xml_handler import *
       4: import os
       5: import sys
       6:  
       7: HOST="storage.aliyun.com"
       8: ACCESS_ID = ""
       9: SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = ""
      10:  
      11: class OssFS:
      12:     def __init__(self, oHost, oId="", oKey=""):
      13:         self.oHost = oHost
      14:         self.oId = oId
      15:         self.oKey = oKey
      16:         self.oss = OssAPI(oHost,oId,oKey)
      17:         self.buckets = []
      18:         res = self.oss.list_all_my_buckets()
      19:         http_body = res.read()
      20:         if 2 == (res.status/100):
      21:             bucket_list = GetServiceXml(http_body)
      22:             for bucket in bucket_list.list():
      23:                 (h1,h2) = bucket
      24:                 self.buckets.append(str(h1))
      25:         else:
      26:                 print http_body
      27:  
      28:     def show_buckets(self):
      29:         '''Show all buckets'''
      30:         for each in self.buckets:
      31:             print each
      32:  
      33:     def sizetoKMGT(self,snum):
      34:         '''convert size number to KB/MB/GB/TB'''
      35:         if 0 == int(snum):
      36:             return "obj grp"
      37:         lsize = ['Bytes', 'KB', 'MB', 'GB', 'TB']
      38:         i = 0
      39:         snum = int(snum) * 1.0
      40:         while snum >; 1024:
      41:             snum = snum / 1024.0
      42:             i  = 1;
      43:         return ('%.2f'   " "  lsize)%(snum)
      44:  
      45:  
      46:     def show_objects(self, bucket = '', path = ''):
      47:         '''Show all objects in the path from the bucket'''
      48:         res = self.oss.list_bucket(bucket)
      49:         http_body = res.read()
      50:         if 2 == (res.status / 100):
      51:             h = GetBucketXml(http_body)
      52:             (file_list ,common_list) = h.list()
      53:             for each in file_list:
      54:                 (fname, ctime, etag, fsize, owner, owner2, fstyle) = each
      55:                 print "s\t %s\t %s" % (str(fname),self.sizetoKMGT(fsize),etag)
      56:         else:
      57:             print http_body
      58:  
      59:     def file_upload(self, bucket='' ,path='' ,file_name=''):
      60:         '''Upload a file from local PC to the OSS'''
      61:         res = self.oss.put_object_from_file(bucket, file_name, file_name)
      62:         if 2 == (res.status/100):
      63:             print "Success to upload the file: "   file_name
      64:             return True
      65:         else:
      66:             print res.read()
      67:    
      68:     def is_file(self, bucket, file_name):
      69:         '''Wether the file_name is in the bucket or not'''
      70:         res = self.oss.list_bucket(bucket)
      71:         http_body = res.read()
      72:         if 2 ==(res.status / 100):
      73:             h = GetBucketXml(http_body)
      74:             (file_list, common_list) = h.list()
      75:             for each in file_list:
      76:                 fname = str(each[0])
      77:                 if fname == file_name:
      78:                     return True
      79:             return False
      80:  
      81:     def file_download(self, bucket, file_name):
      82:         '''Download the file(file_name) from the bucket'''
      83:         res = self.get_object_to_file(bucket, file_name, file_name)
      84:         if 2 == (res.status / 100):
      85:             print "Get file: " file_name
      86:         else:
      87:             print res.read()
      88:    
      89:     def file_delete(self, bucket, file_name):
      90:         '''Delete the file(file_name) from the bucket'''
      91:         res = self.oss.object_operation("DELETE", bucket, file_name)
      92:         if 2 == (res.status/100):
      93:             print "Success to delete the file: "   file_name
      94:             return True
      95:         else:
      96:             print res.read()
      97:             return False
      98:  
      99: if __name__=="__main__":
    100:     isRoot = True;
    101:     #isRoot wether is root floder
    102:     uBucket = ''
    103:     uPath = ''
    104:     uFs = OssFS(HOST,ACCESS_ID,SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
    105:  
    106:     print "==============================================="
    107:     while True:
    108:         strCmd = raw_input("Input your command:")
    109:         cmd = strCmd.split(' ')
    110:  
    111:         if "ls" == cmd[0]:
    112:             if 1 == len(cmd):
    113:                 if True == isRoot:
    114:                     uFs.show_buckets()
    115:                     continue
    116:                 else:
    117:                     uFs.show_objects(uBucket,uPath)
    118:                     continue
    119:             elif 2 == len(cmd):
    120:                 if "local" == cmd[1]:
    121:                     for each in os.listdir('.'):
    122:                         print each
    123:                     continue
    124:                 else:
    125:                     print ">>>ERROR: BAD option! (Try \"ls local\")"
    126:                     continue
    127:  
    128:         elif "cd" == cmd[0]:
    129:             if len(cmd) != 2:
    130:                 print ">>>ERROR: BAD option! (Bucket name or file name need)"
    131:                 continue
    132:             else:
    133:                 if '.' == cmd[1]:
    134:                     continue
    135:                 elif '..' == cmd[1]:
    136:                     if True == isRoot:
    137:                         print "Root already"
    138:                     else:
    139:                         isRoot = True
    140:                         continue
    141:                 else:
    142:                     if False == isRoot:
    143:                         print ">>>ERROR BAD bucket, you are in bucket already"
    144:                         continue
    145:                     uBucket = cmd[1]
    146:                     if uBucket not in uFs.buckets:
    147:                         print ">>>ERROR BAD bucket" uBucket " is not in your buckets"
    148:                         continue
    149:                     isRoot = False
    150:                     continue
    151:  
    152:         elif "put" == cmd[0]:
    153:             if True == isRoot:
    154:                 print ">>>ERROR: BAD PATH (you must cd a bucket first )"
    155:                 continue
    156:             if len(cmd) != 2:
    157:                 print ">>>ERROR: BAD option! (put a file one time)"
    158:                 continue
    159:             else:
    160:                 file_name = cmd[1]
    161:                 if os.path.isfile(file_name):                    #file exist
    162:                     uFs.file_upload(uBucket,uPath,file_name)
    163:                     continue
    164:                 else:
    165:                     print ">>>ERROR: BAD file name (file not exist!)"
    166:                     continue
    167:  
    168:         elif "get" == cmd[0]:
    169:             if len(cmd) !=2:
    170:                 print ">>>ERROR: BAD option"
    171:                 continue
    172:             if True == isRoot:
    173:                 print ">>>ERROR: BAD get, access a bucket first"
    174:                 continue
    175:             file_name = cmd[1]
    176:             if False == uFs.is_file(uBucket, file_name):
    177:                 print file_name   " is not in your bucket"   uBucket
    178:                 continue
    179:             uFs.file_download(uBacket,file_name)    #didnot consider the file has already exist
    180:             continue
    181:        
    182:         elif "delete" == cmd[0]:
    183:             if True == isRoot:
    184:                 print ">>>BAD delete, I will not let you delete your bucket!"
    185:                 continue
    186:             if len(cmd) != 2:
    187:                 print ">>>BAD options"
    188:                 continue
    189:             file_name = cmd[1]
    190:             if False == uFs.is_file(uBucket, file_name):
    191:                 print file_name   " is not in your bucket"   uBucket
    192:                 continue
    193:             uFs.file_delete(uBucket, file_name)
    194:             continue
    195:            
    196:         elif "help" == cmd[0]:
    197:             pass
    198:             continue
    199:  
    200:         elif "quit" == cmd[0]:
    201:             break
    202:  
    203:         else:
    204:             print "Unable to recognize your command!"
    205:             continue
    206:     print "==============================================="


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