CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统安装MariaDB 10.5详细过程-阿里云开发者社区

开发者社区> 数据库> 正文

CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统安装MariaDB 10.5详细过程

简介: MariaDB是具有巨大社区支持的MySQL关系数据库管理系统的社区分支。MariaDB 10.5的稳定版本已于2020年6月发布,并且将受支持直到2025年6月。本文简单说说CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统安装MariaDB 10.5的过程。

在本文中将简单介绍如何在CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统中安装MariaDB 10.5。

MariaDB是具有巨大社区支持的MySQL关系数据库管理系统的社区分支。MariaDB 10.5的稳定版本已于2020年6月发布,并且将受支持直到2025年6月。

如果您要从另一个版本(如10.4)进行升级,请查看官方升级指南,并注意两个版本的MariaDB之间的差异。这对于已使用自定义变量调整数据库并确保交易效率的生产用例非常重要。

MariaDB团队为维护的存储库提供了针对各种Linux版本的最新软件包。对于CentOS,我们将使用YUM存储库。下面简单说说CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统安装MariaDB 10.5详细过程。

步骤1:添加MariaDB YUM存储库

运行以下命令以将MariaDB提供的存储库添加到CentOS服务器。

将存储库添加到CentOS 8系统:

sudo tee /etc/yum.repos.d/mariadb.repo<[mariadb]
name = MariaDB
baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.5/centos8-amd64
module_hotfixes=1
gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
gpgcheck=1
EOF

将存储库添加到CentOS 7系统:

sudo tee /etc/yum.repos.d/mariadb.repo<[mariadb]
name = MariaDB
baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.5/centos7-amd64
gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
gpgcheck=1
EOF

通过更新缓存来确认存储库正在工作。

sudo yum makecache

列出可用的存储库:

$ sudo yum repolist
repo id repo name
AppStream CentOS-8 - AppStream
BaseOS CentOS-8 - Base
extras CentOS-8 - Extras
mariadb MariaDB

步骤2:CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统安装MariaDB 10.5

添加存储库并确认其正常运行后,可以继续在CentOS 8 / CentOS 7 Linux服务器上安装MariaDB 10.5。

sudo yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client

运行以上命令可以检查要安装的软件包列表,并同意是否可以安装。

.....
Installing weak dependencies:
perl-IO-Socket-IP noarch 0.39-5.el8 AppStream 47 k
perl-IO-Socket-SSL noarch 2.066-4.el8 AppStream 297 k
perl-Mozilla-CA noarch 20160104-7.el8 AppStream 15 k
Enabling module streams:
perl 5.26
perl-DBI 1.641

================================================================================================================================================================
Install 54 Packages

Total download size: 67 M
Installed size: 298 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y

在出现提示时,还需同意导入GPG密钥。

.....
Importing GPG key 0x1BB943DB:
Userid : "MariaDB Package Signing Key package-signing-key@mariadb.org"
Fingerprint: 1993 69E5 404B D5FC 7D2F E43B CBCB 082A 1BB9 43DB
From : https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
Is this ok [y/N]: y

RPM软件包详细信息如下:

$ rpm -qi MariaDB-server
Name : MariaDB-server
Version : 10.5.4
Release : 1.el8
Architecture: x86_64
Install Date: Sun 28 Jun 2020 07:21:20 PM CEST
Group : Applications/Databases
Size : 132807324
License : GPLv2
Signature : DSA/SHA1, Tue 23 Jun 2020 11:03:04 PM CEST, Key ID cbcb082a1bb943db
Source RPM : MariaDB-server-10.5.4-1.el8.src.rpm
Build Date : Tue 23 Jun 2020 06:59:51 PM CEST
Build Host : rhel8-amd64
Relocations : (not relocatable)
Vendor : MariaDB Foundation
URL : http://mariadb.org
....

步骤3:在CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统中启动MariaDB服务

CentOS 8和CentOS 7均使用Systemd初始化系统。我们可以使用systemctl命令启动服务,如下命令。

sudo systemctl start mariadb

要使服务器重新启动时能够启动服务,请使用以下命令:

$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mariadb.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service.

使用systemctl status命令检查服务状态:

$ systemctl status mariadb
● mariadb.service - MariaDB 10.5.4 database server
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/mariadb.service.d

       └─migrated-from-my.cnf-settings.conf

Active: active (running) since Sun 2020-06-28 19:34:56 CEST; 1min 35s ago

 Docs: man:mariadbd(8)
       https://mariadb.com/kb/en/library/systemd/

Main PID: 4328 (mariadbd)
Status: "Taking your SQL requests now..."

Tasks: 9 (limit: 24392)

Memory: 67.7M
CGroup: /system.slice/mariadb.service

       └─4328 /usr/sbin/mariadbd

Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] InnoDB: 10.5.4 started; log sequence number 45041; transaction id 21
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] Plugin 'FEEDBACK' is disabled.
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] InnoDB: Loading buffer pool(s) from /var/lib/mysql/ib_buffer_pool
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] InnoDB: Buffer pool(s) load completed at 200628 19:34:56
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] Server socket created on IP: '::'.
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] Reading of all Master_info entries succeeded
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] Added new Master_info '' to hash table
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: 2020-06-28 19:34:56 0 [Note] /usr/sbin/mariadbd: ready for connections.
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com mariadbd[4328]: Version: '10.5.4-MariaDB' socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock' port: 3306 MariaDB Server
Jun 28 19:34:56 centos.computingforgeeks.com systemd[1]: Started MariaDB 10.5.4 database server.
...

如果您需要网络中的其他系统访问数据库服务器,请允许端口3306:

sudo firewall-cmd --add-service=mysql --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --reload

为了使远程连接正常工作,该服务应侦听IP地址,而不是localhost环回接口。

bind-address=172.21.200.12
bind-address=0.0.0.0

步骤4:在CentOS 8 | CentOS 7系统上保护MariaDB数据库的安全

MariaDB提供了用于强化数据库服务器的脚本。该脚本可提高安全,主要包括:

设置root密码
删除匿名数据库用户
禁止以root用户身份登录远程数据库
删除测试数据库

要启动数据库强化过程,请运行以下命令。

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB

  SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and
haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody
can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] y
Enabled successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] y

New password:
Re-enter new password:
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!

By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for

  1. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
  2. a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a

production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can

  1. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
  2. moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y

  • Dropping test database...
    ... Success!
  • Removing privileges on test database...
    ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

最后以root用户身份(不输入密码)测试登录名:

$ mysql -u root

这时会出现拒绝访问错误:

ERROR 1698 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost'

现在以root用户身份尝试并提供密码:

$ mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 24
Server version: 10.5.4-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> SELECT VERSION();
VERSION()
10.5.4-MariaDB

1 row in set (0.001 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> QUIT
Bye

至此,MariaDB 10.5服务现在可以使用了。当然,可能需要的唯一其他设置是根据您的应用程序要求和用例将其调整为最佳性能。本文就不赘述了。

以上安装过程仅供参考,文章来源惠主机www.idccoupon.com ,有任何问题欢迎交流填了。

版权声明:本文内容由阿里云实名注册用户自发贡献,版权归原作者所有,阿里云开发者社区不拥有其著作权,亦不承担相应法律责任。具体规则请查看《阿里云开发者社区用户服务协议》和《阿里云开发者社区知识产权保护指引》。如果您发现本社区中有涉嫌抄袭的内容,填写侵权投诉表单进行举报,一经查实,本社区将立刻删除涉嫌侵权内容。

分享:
数据库
使用钉钉扫一扫加入圈子
+ 订阅

分享数据库前沿,解构实战干货,推动数据库技术变革

其他文章