# Windows下MySQL的绿化与精简

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MySQL本身就支持安装使用，本文只是对自己使用免安装版MySQL的经历记录下来，以便以后查看。

首先是获取Windows下的MySQL免安装版本，这个需要去到MySQL官网进行下载。我一般喜欢把首页页面拖动到最下方，点击MySQL Server进入下载。

我下载了MySQL5.5.33版本(zip包)。

得到的文件就是mysql-5.5.33-win32.zip，解压出来后我把名字改成了mysql。

我们保留文件夹bin、data和share，其余的文件夹可以删除。

还需要一个my.ini作为配置文件，zip包中的几个ini是根据你物理机硬件水平进行选择的，从<=64M到4G的内存。

我一般都直接删除，然后沿用以前的ini文件，你也可以选择适合自己的my-*.ini进行配置然后改名为my.ini。我使用的旧配置文件：

  1 # MySQL Server Instance Configuration File
2 # ----------------------------------------------------------------------
3 # Generated by the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard
4 #
5 #
6 # Installation Instructions
7 # ----------------------------------------------------------------------
8 #
9 # On Linux you can copy this file to /etc/my.cnf to set global options,
10 # mysql-data-dir/my.cnf to set server-specific options
11 # (@localstatedir@ for this installation) or to
12 # ~/.my.cnf to set user-specific options.
13 #
14 # On Windows you should keep this file in the installation directory
15 # of your server (e.g. C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server X.Y). To
16 # make sure the server reads the config file use the startup option
17 # "--defaults-file".
18 #
19 # To run run the server from the command line, execute this in a
20 # command line shell, e.g.
21 # mysqld --defaults-file="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server X.Y\my.ini"
22 #
23 # To install the server as a Windows service manually, execute this in a
24 # command line shell, e.g.
25 # mysqld --install MySQLXY --defaults-file="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server X.Y\my.ini"
26 #
27 # And then execute this in a command line shell to start the server, e.g.
28 # net start MySQLXY
29 #
30 #
31 # Guildlines for editing this file
32 # ----------------------------------------------------------------------
33 #
34 # In this file, you can use all long options that the program supports.
35 # If you want to know the options a program supports, start the program
36 # with the "--help" option.
37 #
38 # More detailed information about the individual options can also be
39 # found in the manual.
40 #
41 #
42 # CLIENT SECTION
43 # ----------------------------------------------------------------------
44 #
45 # The following options will be read by MySQL client applications.
46 # Note that only client applications shipped by MySQL are guaranteed
47 # to read this section. If you want your own MySQL client program to
48 # honor these values, you need to specify it as an option during the
49 # MySQL client library initialization.
50 #
51 [client]
52
53 port=3306
54
55 [mysql]
56
57 default-character-set=utf8
58
59
60 # SERVER SECTION
61 # ----------------------------------------------------------------------
62 #
63 # The following options will be read by the MySQL Server. Make sure that
64 # you have installed the server correctly (see above) so it reads this
65 # file.
66 #
67 [mysqld]
68
69 # The TCP/IP Port the MySQL Server will listen on
70 port=3306
71
72
73 #Path to installation directory. All paths are usually resolved relative to this.
74 basedir="./mysql"
75
76 #Path to the database root
78
79 # The default character set that will be used when a new schema or table is
80 # created and no character set is defined
81 character-set-server=utf8
82
83 # The default storage engine that will be used when create new tables when
84 default-storage-engine=INNODB
85
86 # Set the SQL mode to strict
87 sql-mode="STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION"
88
89 # The maximum amount of concurrent sessions the MySQL server will
90 # allow. One of these connections will be reserved for a user with
91 # SUPER privileges to allow the administrator to login even if the
92 # connection limit has been reached.
93 max_connections=100
94
95 # Query cache is used to cache SELECT results and later return them
96 # without actual executing the same query once again. Having the query
97 # cache enabled may result in significant speed improvements, if your
98 # have a lot of identical queries and rarely changing tables. See the
99 # "Qcache_lowmem_prunes" status variable to check if the current value
100 # is high enough for your load.
101 # Note: In case your tables change very often or if your queries are
102 # textually different every time, the query cache may result in a
103 # slowdown instead of a performance improvement.
104 query_cache_size=0
105
106 # The number of open tables for all threads. Increasing this value
107 # increases the number of file descriptors that mysqld requires.
108 # Therefore you have to make sure to set the amount of open files
109 # allowed to at least 4096 in the variable "open-files-limit" in
110 # section [mysqld_safe]
111 table_cache=256
112
113 # Maximum size for internal (in-memory) temporary tables. If a table
114 # grows larger than this value, it is automatically converted to disk
115 # based table This limitation is for a single table. There can be many
116 # of them.
117 tmp_table_size=35M
118
119
120 # How many threads we should keep in a cache for reuse. When a client
121 # disconnects, the client's threads are put in the cache if there aren't
122 # more than thread_cache_size threads from before.  This greatly reduces
123 # the amount of thread creations needed if you have a lot of new
124 # connections. (Normally this doesn't give a notable performance
125 # improvement if you have a good thread implementation.)
127
128 #*** MyISAM Specific options
129
130 # The maximum size of the temporary file MySQL is allowed to use while
131 # recreating the index (during REPAIR, ALTER TABLE or LOAD DATA INFILE.
132 # If the file-size would be bigger than this, the index will be created
133 # through the key cache (which is slower).
134 myisam_max_sort_file_size=100G
135
136 # If the temporary file used for fast index creation would be bigger
137 # than using the key cache by the amount specified here, then prefer the
138 # key cache method.  This is mainly used to force long character keys in
139 # large tables to use the slower key cache method to create the index.
140 myisam_sort_buffer_size=69M
141
142 # Size of the Key Buffer, used to cache index blocks for MyISAM tables.
143 # Do not set it larger than 30% of your available memory, as some memory
144 # is also required by the OS to cache rows. Even if you're not using
145 # MyISAM tables, you should still set it to 8-64M as it will also be
146 # used for internal temporary disk tables.
147 key_buffer_size=55M
148
149 # Size of the buffer used for doing full table scans of MyISAM tables.
150 # Allocated per thread, if a full scan is needed.
153
154 # This buffer is allocated when MySQL needs to rebuild the index in
155 # REPAIR, OPTIMZE, ALTER table statements as well as in LOAD DATA INFILE
156 # into an empty table. It is allocated per thread so be careful with
157 # large settings.
158 sort_buffer_size=256K
159
160
161 #*** INNODB Specific options ***
162
163
164 # Use this option if you have a MySQL server with InnoDB support enabled
165 # but you do not plan to use it. This will save memory and disk space
166 # and speed up some things.
167 #skip-innodb
168
169 # Additional memory pool that is used by InnoDB to store metadata
170 # information.  If InnoDB requires more memory for this purpose it will
171 # start to allocate it from the OS.  As this is fast enough on most
172 # recent operating systems, you normally do not need to change this
173 # value. SHOW INNODB STATUS will display the current amount used.
175
176 # If set to 1, InnoDB will flush (fsync) the transaction logs to the
177 # disk at each commit, which offers full ACID behavior. If you are
178 # willing to compromise this safety, and you are running small
179 # transactions, you may set this to 0 or 2 to reduce disk I/O to the
180 # logs. Value 0 means that the log is only written to the log file and
181 # the log file flushed to disk approximately once per second. Value 2
182 # means the log is written to the log file at each commit, but the log
183 # file is only flushed to disk approximately once per second.
184 innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1
185
186 # The size of the buffer InnoDB uses for buffering log data. As soon as
187 # it is full, InnoDB will have to flush it to disk. As it is flushed
188 # once per second anyway, it does not make sense to have it very large
189 # (even with long transactions).
190 innodb_log_buffer_size=2M
191
192 # InnoDB, unlike MyISAM, uses a buffer pool to cache both indexes and
193 # row data. The bigger you set this the less disk I/O is needed to
194 # access data in tables. On a dedicated database server you may set this
195 # parameter up to 80% of the machine physical memory size. Do not set it
196 # too large, though, because competition of the physical memory may
197 # cause paging in the operating system.  Note that on 32bit systems you
198 # might be limited to 2-3.5G of user level memory per process, so do not
199 # set it too high.
200 innodb_buffer_pool_size=107M
201
202 # Size of each log file in a log group. You should set the combined size
203 # of log files to about 25%-100% of your buffer pool size to avoid
204 # unneeded buffer pool flush activity on log file overwrite. However,
205 # note that a larger logfile size will increase the time needed for the
206 # recovery process.
207 innodb_log_file_size=54M
208
209 # Number of threads allowed inside the InnoDB kernel. The optimal value
210 # depends highly on the application, hardware as well as the OS
211 # scheduler properties. A too high value may lead to thread thrashing.
212 innodb_thread_concurrency=10
my.ini

bin文件夹中的.pdb文件是没有存在感的，*test*.exe和*debug*.exe我也删除了。

最后的文件结构大概是这个样子：

COPYING是我特意留下的，你可以去除。

这个样子就算OK了，我们可以使用批处理指令启动MySQL了：

1 "./mysql/bin/mysqld.exe" --defaults-file=./mysql/my.ini

不过这个命令必须cd到mysql文件夹所在目录进行，或者是将上面的语句保存为*.bat(也要放到mysql同级目录下)：

启动mysql.bat，mysql数据库就开始工作了。

这个窗口会卡住，但其实它是可以关闭的，关闭后mysql没有被结束：

我们登录进mysql：

我们先对root的密码进行设置：

然后删除匿名用户(匿名用户就是登录名为空的用户，它不需要密码即可登录，对安全性有影响)。当然，先删除匿名用户再改root密码也可以：

现在，mysql数据库就配置好了。

通过一个批处理命令和windows shell的结合，我们可以实现mysql只启动一次且不卡住窗口：

1 tasklist | find /i "mysqld.exe"
2 if %errorlevel%==0 (exit) else goto stm
3 :stm
4 start /min "" "./mysql/bin/mysqld.exe" --defaults-file=./mysql/my.ini

(值得一提的是我们并没有考虑将mysql作为系统服务，因为上文的路径是相对路径，理论上我们可以随意移动。而服务要求路径明确，不过服务的优势在于比较方便地跟随系统启动和关闭，容易挂起等)

最后介绍一个我的思路，我通常会为一个项目维护一个数据库，而且使用一个专门的用户来进行管理。

比如我会使用如下语句来创建用户：

1 grant all privileges on testdb.* to testuser identified by 'testuser';

上述语句可以在testdb还未创建时执行，而且testdb被删除重建后testeuser仍然具有权限。

不过上述语句没有赋予testuser创建视图的权利，所以我建议大家使用root完成视图的创建。

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（最后编辑时间2013-09-17 21:57:02）

【MySQL】Windows下安装MySQL
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