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ORACLE11g 没有控制文件如何通过rman备份恢复数据的详细实战过程

简介:
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1、副总裁需要裸恢复的严峻现实

集团总部的信息部负责人给我打电话说为了找一年前的记录,所以需要对一年前2015年5月1日的数据进行恢复。而2016年初因为进行迁移,所以有些文件可能丢失,手上只有rman全备文件,希望在一天之内找回,集团一个副总裁在等着这个数据有急用。

 

我在电话里面说马上去做,接完电话,想到只有rman备份文件,而且是备份的数据文件,没有控制文件没有参数文件的备份,所以普通的

(1)      先恢复控制文件restore controlfile from ‘…bak’;

(2)      然后catalog start with ‘/data/2015-05-01/’注册备份文件,

(3)      最后restore database;recover database;恢复数据库

三板斧的常规途径是彻底的行不通了,咋办?咋办?咋办呢?……

 

 

2、先进行数据文件的剥离

突然想起以前记得看过关于restoreDatafileTo数据抽取的操作思路,大概是如果没有控制文件后,可以从rman的数据文件备份和归档日志备份里面抽取数据文件,然后重新建立控制文件,再用resetlogs方式打开数据库:

 

因为抽取命令里面需要填写一个个数据文件,这里有个前提是自己要熟悉自己的Oracle实例的文件目录,知道备份的时候oracle实例有多少个数据文件(包括文件存放目录),这样就可以快速的整理出来抽取命令的sql。如果这些都忘记了,还可以去备份日志文件里面去查看check下,一般备份日志文件里面都会有的。

 

根据以前记录整理下抽取命令:

DECLARE

 devtype varchar2(256);

 done boolean;

 BEGIN

  devtype:=sys.dbms_backup_restore.deviceAllocate (type=>'',ident=>'t1');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreSetDatafile;

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>01, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/system01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>02, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>03, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/undotbs01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>04, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/users01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>05, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/powerdesk01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>06, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/plas01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>07, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/pl01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>08, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/help01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>09, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/adobelc01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>10, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/sms01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>11, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/plcrm01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreBackupPiece(done=>done, handle=>'/data/2015-05-01/full_POWERDES_20150501_3566.bak', params=>null);

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.deviceDeallocate;

  END;

 

 

执行过程如下:

[oracle@pldb236 oradata]$ rlwrap sqlplus / as sysdba

 

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon Oct 17 21:19:32 2016

 

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

 

 

Connected to:

Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

 

DECLARE

owerdes/system01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>02, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>03, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/undotbs01.dbf');

 devtype varchar2(256);

 done boolean;

 BEGIN

  devtype:=sys.dbms_backup_restore.deviceAllocate (type=>'',ident=>'t1');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreSetDatafile;

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>01, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/system01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>02, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>03, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/undotbs01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>04, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/users01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>05, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/powerdesk01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>06, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/plas01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>07, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/pl01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>08, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/help01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>09, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/adobelc01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>10, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/sms01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreDatafileTo(dfnumber=>11, toname=>'/home/oradata/powerdes/plcrm01.dbf');

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreBackupPiece(done=>done, handle=>'/data/2015-05-01/full_POWERDES_20150501_3566.bak', params=>null);

  sys.dbms_backup_restore.deviceDeallocate;

  END;

 21  / 

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

 

SQL>

 

 

后台alert日志会显示正在不停的剥离出文件到指定目录里面去:

 

CKPT started with pid=13, OS id=23993

Mon Oct 17 21:16:59 2016

SMON started with pid=14, OS id=23995

Mon Oct 17 21:16:59 2016

RECO started with pid=15, OS id=23997

Mon Oct 17 21:16:59 2016

MMON started with pid=16, OS id=23999

starting up 1 dispatcher(s) for network address '(ADDRESS=(PARTIAL=YES)(PROTOCOL=TCP))'...

Mon Oct 17 21:16:59 2016

MMNL started with pid=17, OS id=24001

starting up 1 shared server(s) ...

ORACLE_BASE from environment = /oracle/app/oracle

Mon Oct 17 21:20:14 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 7 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/pl01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:00:27

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 11082135537

Full restore complete of datafile 8 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/help01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:00:03

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 9881798870

Full restore complete of datafile 9 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/adobelc01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:00:01

  checkpoint is 11106141982

Mon Oct 17 21:20:32 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 10 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/sms01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:00:10

  checkpoint is 11106141982

Mon Oct 17 21:21:25 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 3 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/undotbs01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:01:23

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 11106022955

  Undo Optimization current scn is 11106076830

Mon Oct 17 21:22:28 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 4 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/users01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:02:53

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 11082633897

Mon Oct 17 21:23:47 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 11 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/plcrm01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:04:11

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 11100156728

Mon Oct 17 21:25:30 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 1 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/system01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:05:34

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 11039454999

  Undo Optimization current scn is 11106076830

Mon Oct 17 21:28:10 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 2 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:08:27

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 11101587434

Mon Oct 17 21:29:11 2016

Full restore complete of datafile 6 to datafile copy /home/oradata/powerdes/plas01.dbf.  Elapsed time: 0:09:33

  checkpoint is 11106141982

  last deallocation scn is 11082142314

 

 

3、建立控制文件

数据文件抽取成功后,需要单独自己创建控制文件,如果不知道如何创建controlfile的命令,可以在线上生成trace文件一般默认的控制文件是二进制的,打开来是乱码的 ,备份一个trace出来 可以打开看到语句了,$ORACLE_BASE/admin/$ORACLE_SID/udump目录下,生成的新的 trace 文件里,trace文件有生成控制文件的脚本,使用如下命令alter database backup controlfile to trace as'/oracle/app/oracle/admin/powerdes/pfile/control.sql';可以得到创建控制文件的sql命令。

 

这里有个前提是自己要熟悉自己的oracle实例的文件目录,知道备份的时候oracle实例有多少个数据文件,有多少个redo log文件,这样就可以快速的整理出来创建控制文件的sql。如果这些都忘记了,还可以去备份日志文件里面去查看check下,一般备份日志文件里面都会有的。

 

整理出来创建控制文件sql命令如下:

(1)命令如下

CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE SET DATABASE "POWERDES" RESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG

    MAXLOGFILES 16

    MAXLOGMEMBERS 3

    MAXDATAFILES 100

    MAXINSTANCES 8

    MAXLOGHISTORY 2920

DATAFILE

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/system01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/undotbs01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/users01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/powerdesk01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/plas01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/pl01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/help01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/adobelc01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/sms01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/plcrm01.dbf'

LOGFILE

  GROUP 1 '/home/oradata/powerdes/redo01.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,

  GROUP 2 '/home/oradata/powerdes/redo02.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,

  GROUP 3 '/home/oradata/powerdes/redo03.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512

CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK;

 

(2)执行过程如下:

SQL>

CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE SET DATABASE "POWERDES" RESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG

    MAXLOGFILES 16

    MAXLOGMEMBERS 3

    MAXDATAFILES 100

    MAXINSTANCES 8

    MAXLOGHISTORY 2920

DATAFILE

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/system01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/undotbs01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/users01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/powerdesk01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/plas01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/pl01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/help01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/adobelc01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/sms01.dbf',

  '/home/oradata/powerdes/plcrm01.dbf'

LOGFILE

  GROUP 1 '/home/oradata/powerdes/redo01.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,

  GROUP 2 '/home/oradata/powerdes/redo02.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,

  GROUP 3 '/home/oradata/powerdes/redo03.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512

 23  CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK;

 

Control file created.

 

SQL>

 

 

4、进行数据恢复

开始执行数据恢复,还是依然在sql窗口里面进行操作的,操作如下:

#(1) 执行recover恢复

SQL> recover database using backup controlfile until cancel ;

ORA-00279: change 11106141982 generated at 05/01/2015 03:00:08 needed for

thread 1

ORA-00289: suggestion :

/oracle/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/POWERDES/archivelog/2016_10_17/o1_mf_1_32

117_%u_.arc

ORA-00280: change 11106141982 for thread 1 is in sequence #32117

 

 

Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}  # 这里一般选择输入cancel即可

cancel

ORA-10879: error signaled in parallel recovery slave

ORA-01547: warning: RECOVER succeeded but OPEN RESETLOGS would get error below

ORA-01194: file 2 needs more recovery to be consistent

ORA-01110: data file 2: '/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf'

 

 

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

alter database open resetlogs

*

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01194: file 2 needs more recovery to be consistent

ORA-01110: data file 2: '/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf'

 

 

# 这时,我们无法将数据库打开,一直报ORA-01194错误,说明数据库的SCN号和数据文件的SCN号不一致了。这是因为控制文件我们不是从备份集里面恢复回来的,而是在抽取数据文件后手动建立的控制文件,因此要比数据文件的SCN号要大(甚至特殊情况当前的数据库的会是0)。通过对v$database和v$datafile的checkpoint_change#列的查询,可以确定出本次操作中当前数据库的checkpoint_chenage#为0,两者完全不一致导致通过resetlogs打开数据库异常。

 

Bty:如果这里当前数据库v$database的值不为0,但是仍然比数据文件v$datafile里面的值大,那么则会不停报ORA-01152错误。

SQL> select checkpoint_change# from v$database;

 

CHECKPOINT_CHANGE#

------------------

                    0

 

SQL> select file#,checkpoint_change# from v$datafile;

 

     FILE# CHECKPOINT_CHANGE#

---------- ------------------

          1        1.1106E+10

          2        1.1106E+10

          3        1.1106E+10

          4        1.1106E+10

          5        1.1106E+10

          6        1.1106E+10

          7        1.1106E+10

          8        1.1106E+10

          9        1.1106E+10

         10        1.1106E+10

         11        1.1106E+10

 

11 rows selected.

 

 

SQL>

 

 

 

 文章源地址:http://blog.csdn.net/mchdba/article/details/52852157,未经过作者mchdba(黄杉)允许,谢绝转载。

怎么办呢?这个时候,就需要我们使用_allow_resetlogs_corruption的隐含参数来处理了。

 

整个调整的目标是强制启动数据库,设置此参数之后,在数据库Open过程中,Oracle会跳过某些一致性检查,从而使数据库可能跳过不一致状态,Open打开:

# 启动隐含参数

SQL> alter system set "_allow_resetlogs_corruption"=true scope=spfile;

 

System altered.

 

SQL> # 然后重启数据库,使参数生效,在此基础上再次恢复数据库

SQL> shutdown immediate;

 

ORA-01109: database not open

 

 

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup mount;

ORACLE instance started.

 

Total System Global Area 6680915968 bytes

Fixed Size              2213936 bytes

Variable Size              4898949072 bytes

Database Buffers    1744830464 bytes

Redo Buffers                34922496 bytes

Database mounted.

SQL> recover database using backup controlfile until cancel;

ORA-00279: change 11106141982 generated at 05/01/2015 03:00:08 needed for

thread 1

ORA-00289: suggestion :

/oracle/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/POWERDES/archivelog/2016_10_17/o1_mf_1_32

117_%u_.arc

ORA-00280: change 11106141982 for thread 1 is in sequence #32117

 

 

Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}

cancel

ORA-10879: error signaled in parallel recovery slave

ORA-01547: warning: RECOVER succeeded but OPEN RESETLOGS would get error below

ORA-01194: file 2 needs more recovery to be consistent

ORA-01110: data file 2: '/home/oradata/powerdes/sysaux01.dbf'

 

# 然后使用resetlogs打开数据库,成功了。

SQL>  alter database open resetlogs;

 

Database altered.

 

SQL>

 

# 然后检查scn,都是统一的了。

select checkpoint_change# from v$database;

select file#,checkpoint_change# from v$datafile;

 

 

 

然后使用业务表数据来判断是否已经恢复成功到这一天,查看后确认成功:

SQL> select t2.* from(select t.uiid,t.updated_date from plas.plas_acct t where t.updated_date is not null   order by t.updated_date desc ) t2 where rownum <10;

 

UIID                                                  UPDATED_DATE

-------------------------------------------------- ------------

wangyu1                                                  01-MAY-15

gaihy                                                          01-MAY-15

xuhl                                                   01-MAY-15

dingchuan1                                               01-MAY-15

zhangcong                                                01-MAY-15

chenwh2                                                  01-MAY-15

yuli2                                                  01-MAY-15

zhangxya                                         01-MAY-15

qiuwj                                                          01-MAY-15

 

9 rows selected.

 

SQL>

 

 

至此,没有控制文件下通过rman恢复一年的数据做成了,然后通过expdp导出需要的数据,之后对数据库进行恢复或者重建等等。

 

 

 

 

转:http://blog.csdn.net/mchdba/article/details/52852157

文章可以转载,必须以链接形式标明出处。

本文转自 张冲andy 博客园博客,原文链接:http://www.cnblogs.com/andy6/p/5974859.html   ,如需转载请自行联系原作者

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