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UNIX/Linux 系统管理技术手册阅读(二)


2016.8.10 20:00-21:20

1.1.3 Performing backups

1.1.3 执行备份

  Performing backups is perhaps the most important job of the system administrator, and it is also the job that is most often ignored or sloppily done. Backups are time consuming and boring, but they are absolutely necessary. Backups can be automated and delegated to an underling, but it is still the system administrator’s job to make sure that backups are executed correctly and on schedule (and that the resulting media can actually be used to restore files). 



perhaps                 或许也许可能

most often              最经常很多时候通常来说

ignored                 忽略不顾

sloppily                粗心地

consuming               消耗

boring                  无聊的令人厌烦的

absolutely necessary    绝对必要

automated               自动化的机械化的

delegated               授权

underling               下属部下走卒

still                   仍然但是尽管如此

executed correctly      正确执行

on schedule             按时按照预定时间

resulting               作为结果的

actually                实际上事实上

1.1.4 Installing and upgrading software 

1.1.4 安装和软件更新

  When new software is acquired, it must be installed and tested, often under several operating systems and on several types of hardware. Once the software is working correctly, users must be informed of its availability and location. As patches and security updates are released, they must be incorporated smoothly into the local environment. 


  Local software and administrative scripts should be properly packaged and managed in a fashion that’s compatible with the native upgrade procedures used on systems at your site. As this software evolves, new releases should be staged for testing before being deployed to the entire site. 



acquired               取得捕获

correctly              正确地得体地

informed               通知

released               释放release的过去式已发布

incorporated           合并的

smoothly               平稳地平滑地流畅地流利地

into the               融入

environment            环境外界

properly               适当地正确地恰当地

managed                管理

in a fashion           马马虎虎勉强多少还…一点

compatible             兼容的能共处的可并立的

native upgrade         本地升级

procedures             程序规程

evolves                发展进化进展

releases               释放豁免

Be staged              测试表演 

1.1.5 Monitoring the system 

1.1.5 监视系统

  Large installations require vigilant supervision. Don’t expect users to report problems to you unless the issues are severe. Working around a problem is usually faster than taking the time to document and report it, so users often follow the path of least resistance. 


  Regularly ensure that email and web services are working correctly, watch log files for early signs of trouble, make sure that local networks are properly connected, and keep an eye on the availability of system resources such as disk space. All of these chores are excellent opportunities for automation, and a variety of off-theshelf monitoring systems can help sysadmins with this task. 



installations           系统设施装置

require                 需要要求命令

vigilant                警惕的警醒的注意的警戒的

supervision             监督管理

least                   最小

resistance              阻力电阻抵抗反抗抵抗力

regularly               定期地有规律地整齐地匀称地

early signs             早期病征 早期症状 早期表现 

chores                  困难的工作

excellent               卓越的极好的杰出的

opportunities           有可能因素机会[数] 机遇

a variety of            种种各种各样的…

off the shelf           现成的不用定制的

2016.8.11 16:30-17:30

1.1.6 Troubleshooting

1.1.6 故障诊断

  System failures are inevitable. It is the administrator’s job to play mechanic by

diagnosing problems and calling in experts if needed. Finding the problem is often harder than fixing it.



system failures        系统发生故障 制度失灵 系统故障 

inevitable             不可避免的

mechanic               技工机修工

Diagnosing Problems   诊断问题 

call in                召集召来

experts                专家人才expert的复数形式

fixing it              处理修复

1.1.7 Maintaining local documentation

1.1.7 维护本地文档

  As a system is changed to suit an organization’s needs, it begins to differ from the plain-vanilla system described by the documentation. Since the system administrator is responsible for making these customizations, it’s also the sysadmin’s duty to document the changes. This chore includes documenting where cables are run and how they are constructed, keeping maintenance records for all hardware, recording the status of backups, and documenting local procedures and policies.



maintaining          维护保养

suit                   适合使适应

maintenance records    维修记录 维护记录

recording              记录

documenting            编写 记录 记载 文件制作 

procedures             过程程序规程

1.1.8 Vigilantly monitoring security

1.1.8 时刻警惕系统安全

  The system administrator must implement a security policy and periodically check to be sure that the security of the system has not been violated. On lowsecurity systems, this chore might involve only a few basic checks for unauthorized access. On a high-security system, it can include an elaborate network of traps and auditing programs.



vigilantly             警惕地警觉地留心地

periodically check     定期检查

not been violated      不被侵犯

chore                  繁琐零工

might                  力量威力势力可以

involve                包含牵涉使陷于潜心于

basic checks           基本检查

unauthorized           非法的未被授权的未授权的动作

an elaborate network   监视网一个精心设计的网络

traps                  陷阱

auditing             审计

1.1.9 Fire fighting

1.1.9 救火

  Although helping users with their various problems is rarely included in a system

administrator’s job description, it claims a significant portion of most administrators’ workdays. System administrators are bombarded with problems ranging

from “It worked yesterday and now it doesn’t! What did you change?” to “I spilled coffee on my keyboard! Should I pour water on it to wash it out?”


  In most cases, your response to these issues affects your perceived value as an

administrator far more than does any actual technical skill you might possess. You

can either howl at the injustice of it all, or you can delight in the fact that a single well-handled trouble ticket scores as many brownie points as five hours of midnight debugging. You pick!




Although              尽管虽然但是然而

various               各种各样的多方面的

rarely included       很少会包括

job description       工作描述 职位描述 工作说明 

significant portion   很大一部分 

bombarded with        狂轰滥炸

problems ranging      等一系列问题 

spilled               溢出 覆水难收 泼洒

pour water            倒水

response to           对……的回答对……的反应

perceived value       感知价值知觉价值

far more than         远远超过多得多的

actual technical skill   实际的技能

might                 可能也许

possess               拥有具备

howl                  咆哮怒吼狂吠

delight in            因…感到快乐喜欢 取乐 欣喜 

fact                  事实实际真相

well-handled          妥善处理

trouble ticket        故障报告表

You pick              你接受

      本文转自cix123  51CTO博客,原文链接http://blog.51cto.com/zhaodongwei/1836674:,如需转载请自行联系原作者


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