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POI导出EXCEL经典实现

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2009-03-04 21:22 16774人阅读 评论(32) 收藏 举报
在web开发中,有一个经典的功能,就是数据的导入导出。特别是数据的导出,在生产管理或者财务系统中用的非常普遍,因为这些系统经常要做一些报表打印的工作。而数据导出的格式一般是EXCEL或者PDF,我这里就用两篇文章分别给大家介绍下。(注意,我们这里说的数据导出可不是数据库中的数据导出!么误会啦^_^)

呵呵,首先我们来导出EXCEL格式的文件吧。现在主流的操作Excel文件的开源工具有很多,用得比较多的就是Apache的POI及JExcelAPI。这里我们用Apache POI!我们先去Apache的大本营下载POI的jar包:http://poi.apache.org/ ,我这里使用的是3.0.2版本。

将3个jar包导入到classpath下,什么?忘了怎么导包?不会吧!好,我们来写一个导出Excel的实用类(所谓实用,是指基本不用怎么修改就可以在实际项目中直接使用的!)。我一直强调做类也好,做方法也好,一定要通用性和灵活性强。下面这个类就算基本贯彻了我的这种思想。那么,熟悉许老师风格的人应该知道,这时候该要甩出一长串代码了。没错,大伙请看:

package org.leno.export.util;

import java.util.Date;

public class Student {

     private long id;
     private String name;
     private int age;
     private boolean sex;
     private Date birthday;

     public Student() {
            super();
            // TODO Auto-generated constructor stub
     }

     public Student(long id, String name, int age, boolean sex, Date birthday) {
            super();
            this.id = id;
            this.name = name;
            this.age = age;
            this.sex = sex;
            this.birthday = birthday;
     }

     public long getId() {
            return id;
     }

     public void setId(long id) {
            this.id = id;
     }

     public String getName() {
            return name;
     }

     public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
     }

     public int getAge() {
            return age;
     }

     public void setAge(int age) {
            this.age = age;
     }

     public boolean getSex() {
            return sex;
     }

     public void setSex(boolean sex) {
            this.sex = sex;
     }

     public Date getBirthday() {
            return birthday;
     }

     public void setBirthday(Date birthday) {
            this.birthday = birthday;
     }

}

package org.leno.export.util;

public class Book {
     private int bookId;
     private String name;
     private String author;
     private float price;
     private String isbn;
     private String pubName;
     private byte[] preface;

     public Book() {
            super();
     }

     public Book(int bookId, String name, String author, float price,
                 String isbn, String pubName, byte[] preface) {
            super();
            this.bookId = bookId;
            this.name = name;
            this.author = author;
            this.price = price;
            this.isbn = isbn;
            this.pubName = pubName;
            this.preface = preface;
     }

     public int getBookId() {
            return bookId;
     }

     public void setBookId(int bookId) {
            this.bookId = bookId;
     }

     public String getName() {
            return name;
     }

     public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
     }

     public String getAuthor() {
            return author;
     }

     public void setAuthor(String author) {
            this.author = author;
     }

     public float getPrice() {
            return price;
     }

     public void setPrice(float price) {
            this.price = price;
     }

     public String getIsbn() {
            return isbn;
     }

     public void setIsbn(String isbn) {
            this.isbn = isbn;
     }

     public String getPubName() {
            return pubName;
     }

     public void setPubName(String pubName) {
            this.pubName = pubName;
     }

     public byte[] getPreface() {
            return preface;
     }

     public void setPreface(byte[] preface) {
            this.preface = preface;
     }
}

上面这两个类一目了然,就是两个简单的javabean风格的类。再看下面真正的重点类:
package org.leno.export.util;

import java.io.*;
import java.lang.reflect.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.util.regex.Matcher;
import java.util.regex.Pattern;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import javax.swing.JOptionPane;
import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.*;
import org.apache.poi.hssf.util.HSSFColor;

/**
* 利用开源组件POI3.0.2动态导出EXCEL文档
* 转载时请保留以下信息,注明出处!
* @author leno
* @version v1.0
* @param <T> 应用泛型,代表任意一个符合javabean风格的类
* 注意这里为了简单起见,boolean型的属性xxx的get器方式为getXxx(),而不是isXxx()
* byte[]表jpg格式的图片数据
*/

public class ExportExcel<T> {

     public void exportExcel(Collection<T> dataset, OutputStream out) {
            exportExcel("测试POI导出EXCEL文档"null, dataset, out, "yyyy-MM-dd");
     }

     public void exportExcel(String[] headers, Collection<T> dataset,
                 OutputStream out) {
            exportExcel("测试POI导出EXCEL文档", headers, dataset, out, "yyyy-MM-dd");
     }

     public void exportExcel(String[] headers, Collection<T> dataset,
                 OutputStream out, String pattern) {
            exportExcel("测试POI导出EXCEL文档", headers, dataset, out, pattern);
     }

     /**
        * 这是一个通用的方法,利用了JAVA的反射机制,可以将放置在JAVA集合中并且符号一定条件的数据以EXCEL 的形式输出到指定IO设备上
        *
        * @param title
        *                        表格标题名
        * @param headers
        *                        表格属性列名数组
        * @param dataset
        *                        需要显示的数据集合,集合中一定要放置符合javabean风格的类的对象。此方法支持的
        *                        javabean属性的数据类型有基本数据类型及String,Date,byte[](图片数据)
        * @param out
        *                        与输出设备关联的流对象,可以将EXCEL文档导出到本地文件或者网络中
        * @param pattern
        *                        如果有时间数据,设定输出格式。默认为"yyy-MM-dd"
        */

     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
     public void exportExcel(String title, String[] headers,
                 Collection<T> dataset, OutputStream out, String pattern) {
            // 声明一个工作薄
            HSSFWorkbook workbook = new HSSFWorkbook();
            // 生成一个表格
            HSSFSheet sheet = workbook.createSheet(title);
            // 设置表格默认列宽度为15个字节
            sheet.setDefaultColumnWidth((short) 15);
            // 生成一个样式
            HSSFCellStyle style = workbook.createCellStyle();
            // 设置这些样式
            style.setFillForegroundColor(HSSFColor.SKY_BLUE.index);
            style.setFillPattern(HSSFCellStyle.SOLID_FOREGROUND);
            style.setBorderBottom(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style.setBorderLeft(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style.setBorderRight(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style.setBorderTop(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style.setAlignment(HSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_CENTER);
            // 生成一个字体
            HSSFFont font = workbook.createFont();
            font.setColor(HSSFColor.VIOLET.index);
            font.setFontHeightInPoints((short) 12);
            font.setBoldweight(HSSFFont.BOLDWEIGHT_BOLD);
            // 把字体应用到当前的样式
            style.setFont(font);
            // 生成并设置另一个样式
            HSSFCellStyle style2 = workbook.createCellStyle();
            style2.setFillForegroundColor(HSSFColor.LIGHT_YELLOW.index);
            style2.setFillPattern(HSSFCellStyle.SOLID_FOREGROUND);
            style2.setBorderBottom(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style2.setBorderLeft(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style2.setBorderRight(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style2.setBorderTop(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);
            style2.setAlignment(HSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_CENTER);
            style2.setVerticalAlignment(HSSFCellStyle.VERTICAL_CENTER);
            // 生成另一个字体
            HSSFFont font2 = workbook.createFont();
            font2.setBoldweight(HSSFFont.BOLDWEIGHT_NORMAL);
            // 把字体应用到当前的样式
            style2.setFont(font2);
         
            // 声明一个画图的顶级管理器
            HSSFPatriarch patriarch = sheet.createDrawingPatriarch();
            // 定义注释的大小和位置,详见文档
            HSSFComment comment = patriarch.createComment(new HSSFClientAnchor(0, 0, 0, 0, (short) 4, 2, (short) 6, 5));
            // 设置注释内容
            comment.setString(new HSSFRichTextString("可以在POI中添加注释!"));
            // 设置注释作者,当鼠标移动到单元格上是可以在状态栏中看到该内容.
            comment.setAuthor("leno");

            //产生表格标题行
            HSSFRow row = sheet.createRow(0);
            for (short i = 0; i < headers.length; i++) {
                 HSSFCell cell = row.createCell(i);
                 cell.setCellStyle(style);
                 HSSFRichTextString text = new HSSFRichTextString(headers[i]);
                 cell.setCellValue(text);
            }

            //遍历集合数据,产生数据行
            Iterator<T> it = dataset.iterator();
            int index = 0;
            while (it.hasNext()) {
                 index++;
                 row = sheet.createRow(index);
                 T t = (T) it.next();
                 //利用反射,根据javabean属性的先后顺序,动态调用getXxx()方法得到属性值
                 Field[] fields = t.getClass().getDeclaredFields();
                 for (short i = 0; i < fields.length; i++) {
                        HSSFCell cell = row.createCell(i);
                        cell.setCellStyle(style2);
                        Field field = fields[i];
                        String fieldName = field.getName();
                        String getMethodName = "get"
                                     + fieldName.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase()
                                     + fieldName.substring(1);
                        try {
                                Class tCls = t.getClass();
                                Method getMethod = tCls.getMethod(getMethodName,
                                            new Class[] {});
                                Object value = getMethod.invoke(t, new Object[] {});
                                //判断值的类型后进行强制类型转换
                                String textValue = null;
//                            if (value instanceof Integer) {
//                                 int intValue = (Integer) value;
//                                 cell.setCellValue(intValue);
//                            } else if (value instanceof Float) {
//                                 float fValue = (Float) value;
//                                 textValue = new HSSFRichTextString(
//                                             String.valueOf(fValue));
//                                 cell.setCellValue(textValue);
//                            } else if (value instanceof Double) {
//                                 double dValue = (Double) value;
//                                 textValue = new HSSFRichTextString(
//                                             String.valueOf(dValue));
//                                 cell.setCellValue(textValue);
//                            } else if (value instanceof Long) {
//                                 long longValue = (Long) value;
//                                 cell.setCellValue(longValue);
//                            }
                                if (value instanceof Boolean) {
                                     boolean bValue = (Boolean) value;
                                     textValue = "男";
                                     if (!bValue) {
                                            textValue ="女";
                                     }
                                } else if (value instanceof Date) {
                                     Date date = (Date) value;
                                     SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat(pattern);
                                        textValue = sdf.format(date);
                                }    else if (value instanceof byte[]) {
                                     // 有图片时,设置行高为60px;
                                     row.setHeightInPoints(60);
                                     // 设置图片所在列宽度为80px,注意这里单位的一个换算
                                     sheet.setColumnWidth(i, (short) (35.7 * 80));
                                     // sheet.autoSizeColumn(i);
                                     byte[] bsValue = (byte[]) value;
                                     HSSFClientAnchor anchor = new HSSFClientAnchor(0, 0,
                                                 1023, 255, (short) 6, index, (short) 6, index);
                                     anchor.setAnchorType(2);
                                     patriarch.createPicture(anchor, workbook.addPicture(
                                                 bsValue, HSSFWorkbook.PICTURE_TYPE_JPEG));
                                } else{
                                     //其它数据类型都当作字符串简单处理
                                     textValue = value.toString();
                                }
                                //如果不是图片数据,就利用正则表达式判断textValue是否全部由数字组成
                                if(textValue!=null){
                                     Pattern p = Pattern.compile("^//d+(//.//d+)?$");    
                                     Matcher matcher = p.matcher(textValue);
                                     if(matcher.matches()){
                                            //是数字当作double处理
                                            cell.setCellValue(Double.parseDouble(textValue));
                                     }else{
                                            HSSFRichTextString richString = new HSSFRichTextString(textValue);
                                            HSSFFont font3 = workbook.createFont();
                                            font3.setColor(HSSFColor.BLUE.index);
                                            richString.applyFont(font3);
                                            cell.setCellValue(richString);
                                     }
                                }
                        } catch (SecurityException e) {
                                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                                e.printStackTrace();
                        } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
                                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                                e.printStackTrace();
                        } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
                                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                                e.printStackTrace();
                        } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
                                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                                e.printStackTrace();
                        } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
                                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                                e.printStackTrace();
                        } finally {
                                //清理资源
                        }
                 }

            }
            try {
                 workbook.write(out);
            } catch (IOException e) {
                 // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                 e.printStackTrace();
            }

     }

     public static void main(String[] args) {
            // 测试学生
            ExportExcel<Student> ex = new ExportExcel<Student>();
            String[] headers = { "学号""姓名""年龄""性别""出生日期" };
            List<Student> dataset = new ArrayList<Student>();
            dataset.add(new Student(10000001, "张三", 20, truenew Date()));
            dataset.add(new Student(20000002, "李四", 24, falsenew Date()));
            dataset.add(new Student(30000003, "王五", 22, truenew Date()));
            // 测试图书
            ExportExcel<Book> ex2 = new ExportExcel<Book>();
            String[] headers2 = { "图书编号""图书名称""图书作者""图书价格""图书ISBN",
                        "图书出版社""封面图片" };
            List<Book> dataset2 = new ArrayList<Book>();
            try {
                 BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(
                                new FileInputStream("book.jpg"));
                 byte[] buf = new byte[bis.available()];
                 while ((bis.read(buf)) != -1) {
                        //
                 }
                 dataset2.add(new Book(1, "jsp""leno", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "清华出版社", buf));
                 dataset2.add(new Book(2, "java编程思想""brucl", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "阳光出版社", buf));
                 dataset2.add(new Book(3, "DOM艺术""lenotang", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "清华出版社", buf));
                 dataset2.add(new Book(4, "c++经典""leno", 400.33f, "1234567",
                                "清华出版社", buf));
                 dataset2.add(new Book(5, "c#入门""leno", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "汤春秀出版社", buf));

                 OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream("E://a.xls");
                 OutputStream out2 = new FileOutputStream("E://b.xls");
                 ex.exportExcel(headers, dataset, out);
                 ex2.exportExcel(headers2, dataset2, out2);
                 out.close();
                 JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null"导出成功!");
                 System.out.println("excel导出成功!");
            } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
                 // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                 e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                 // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                 e.printStackTrace();
            }
     }
}

不行,头有点晕^_^。呵呵,又是泛型,又是反射,又是正则表达式,又是重载,还有多参数列表和POI API。一下子蹦出来,实在让人吃不消。不管了,顶住看效果先。在本地运行后,我们发现在E://下生成了两份excel文件:学生记录和图书记录,并且中文,数字,颜色,日期,图片等等一且正常。恩,太棒了。有人看到这里开始苦脸了:喂,我怎么一运行就报错啊!呵呵,看看什么错吧!哦,找不到文件,也就是说你没有book.jpg嘛。好,拷贝一张小巧的图书图片命名为book.jpg放置到当前工程下吧。注意,您千万别把张桌面大小的图片丢进去了^_^!看到效果了吧。现在我们再来简单梳理一下代码,实际上上面就做了一个导出excel的方法和一个本地测试main()方法。并且代码的结构也很清晰,只是涉及的知识点稍微多一点。大家细心看看注释,结合要完成的功能,应该没有太大问题的。好啦,吃杯茶,擦把汗,总算把这个类消化掉,你又进步了。咦,你不是说是在WEB环境下导出的吗?别急,因为导出就是一个下载的过程。我们只需要在服务器端写一个Jsp或者Servlet组件完成输出excel到浏览器客户端的工作就好了。我们以Servlet为例,还是看代码吧:
package org.leno.export.util;

import java.io.*;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

/**
* @author leno
* 使用servlet导出动态生成的excel文件,数据可以来源于数据库
* 这样,浏览器客户端就可以访问该servlet得到一份用java代码动态生成的excel文件
*/

public class Export extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet{
     static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    
     protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
            File file = new File(getServletContext().getRealPath("WEB-INF/book.jpg"));
            response.setContentType("octets/stream");
            response.addHeader("Content-Disposition""attachment;filename=test.xls");
            //测试图书
            ExportExcel<Book> ex = new ExportExcel<Book>();
            String[] headers = { "图书编号""图书名称""图书作者""图书价格""图书ISBN",
                        "图书出版社""封面图片" };
            List<Book> dataset = new ArrayList<Book>();
            try {
                 BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(
                             new FileInputStream(file));
                 byte[] buf = new byte[bis.available()];
                 while ((bis.read(buf)) != -1) {
                        //将图片数据存放到缓冲数组中
                 }
                 dataset.add(new Book(1, "jsp""leno", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "清华出版社", buf));
                 dataset.add(new Book(2, "java编程思想""brucl", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "阳光出版社", buf));
                 dataset.add(new Book(3, "DOM艺术""lenotang", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "清华出版社", buf));
                 dataset.add(new Book(4, "c++经典""leno", 400.33f, "1234567",
                                "清华出版社", buf));
                 dataset.add(new Book(5, "c#入门""leno", 300.33f, "1234567",
                                "汤春秀出版社", buf));
                 OutputStream out = response.getOutputStream();
                 ex.exportExcel(headers, dataset, out);
                 out.close();
                 System.out.println("excel导出成功!");
            } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
                 // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                 e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                 // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                 e.printStackTrace();
            }
     } 
    
     protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
            doGet(request, response);
     }                            
}

写完之后,如果您不是用eclipse工具生成的Servlet,千万别忘了在web.xml上注册这个Servelt。而且同样的,拷贝一张小巧的图书图片命名为book.jpg放置到当前WEB根目录的/WEB-INF/下。部署好web工程,用浏览器访问Servlet看下效果吧!是不是下载成功了。呵呵,您可以将下载到本地的excel报表用打印机打印出来,这样您就大功告成了。完事了我们就思考:我们发现,我们做的方法,不管是本地调用,还是在WEB服务器端用Servlet调用;不管是输出学生列表,还是图书列表信息,代码都几乎一样,而且这些数据我们很容器结合后台的DAO操作数据库动态获取。恩,类和方法的通用性和灵活性开始有点感觉了。好啦,祝您学习愉快!


















本文转自yunlielai51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/4925054/1143197,如需转载请自行联系原作者


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