【Docker学习笔记 三】Docker常用容器安装及图形化管理工具

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简介: 【Docker学习笔记 三】Docker常用容器安装及图形化管理工具

上一篇Blog详细介绍了如何在CentOS上进行Docker的安装、卸载以及如何进行镜像加速,了解了Docker大致的运行流程以及常用的命令。时隔半个月之后,度过了过节失落期后再次拾起来自己的年度计划继续进行这方面知识的学习。在了解了常用命令后,就要开始对常用容器下手训练了,比如一些常用的中间件以及服务器。

常用容器部署

通过上一篇Blog命令的学习,来运行一下以下几个常用的中间件和服务器的容器。

Nginx部署

Nginx常用做负载均衡和反向代理,我们通过Docker来使用容器化的Nginx,从容器站点搜索:https://hub.docker.com/

1 搜索并下载镜像

搜索到nginx镜像后进行下载

Last login: Fri Feb  4 00:32:05 2022 from 192.168.5.1
[root@192 ~]# docker search nginx
NAME                                              DESCRIPTION                                     STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED
bitnami/nginx                                     Bitnami nginx Docker Image                      117                  [OK]
bitnami/wordpress-nginx                           Bitnami Docker Image for WordPress with NGINX   55                   [OK]
ubuntu/nginx                                      Nginx, a high-performance reverse proxy & we…   31                   
bitnami/nginx-ingress-controller                  Bitnami Docker Image for NGINX Ingress Contr…   15                   [OK]
rancher/nginx-ingress-controller                                                                  9                    
ibmcom/nginx-ingress-controller                   Docker Image for IBM Cloud Private-CE (Commu…   4                    
bitnami/nginx-ldap-auth-daemon                                                                    3                    
rancher/nginx-ingress-controller-defaultbackend                                                   2                    
circleci/nginx                                    This image is for internal use                  2                    
bitnami/nginx-exporter                                                                            1                    
rancher/nginx                                                                                     1                    
rancher/nginx-ingress-controller-amd64                                                            0                    
kasmweb/nginx                                     An Nginx image based off nginx:alpine and in…   0                    
rancher/nginx-conf                                                                                0                    
rancher/nginx-ssl                                                                                 0                    
ibmcom/nginx-ppc64le                              Docker image for nginx-ppc64le                  0                    
wallarm/nginx-ingress-controller                  Kubernetes Ingress Controller with Wallarm e…   0                    
ibmcom/nginx-ingress-controller-ppc64le           Docker Image for IBM Cloud Private-CE (Commu…   0                    
rancher/nginx-proxy                                                                               0                    
bitnami/nginx-intel                                                                               0                    
wallarm/nginx-ingress-controller-amd64            Kubernetes Ingress Controller with Wallarm e…   0                    
ibmcom/nginx-ingress-controller-amd64                                                             0                    
ibmcom/nginx-ingress-controller-s390x                                                             0                    
wallarm/nginx-amd64                                                                               0                    
nginx                                             Official build of Nginx.                        0         [OK]       
[root@192 ~]# docker pull nginx
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from library/nginx
a2abf6c4d29d: Pull complete 
a9edb18cadd1: Pull complete 
589b7251471a: Pull complete 
186b1aaa4aa6: Pull complete 
b4df32aa5a72: Pull complete 
a0bcbecc962e: Pull complete 
Digest: sha256:0d17b565c37bcbd895e9d92315a05c1c3c9a29f762b011a10c54a66cd53c9b31
Status: Downloaded newer image for nginx:latest
docker.io/library/nginx:latest
[root@192 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
nginx         latest    605c77e624dd   7 weeks ago    141MB
tomcat        latest    fb5657adc892   8 weeks ago    680MB
mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   2 months ago   516MB
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   4 months ago   13.3kB
centos        latest    5d0da3dc9764   5 months ago   231MB
[root@192 ~]#

2 运行测试

通过后台模式运行nginx容器

docker run -d --name nginx-tml -p 3334:80 nginx
-d 后台运行
--name 给容器命名
-p 3334:80 将宿主机的端口3334映射到该容器的80端口

如果在run的时候报了如下异常:

WARNING: IPv4 forwarding is disabled. Networking will not work.

则说明ip转发没有打开,需要通过如下方式打开:

vim /etc/sysctl.conf
#配置转发
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
#重启服务,让配置生效
systemctl restart network
#查看是否成功,如果返回为“net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1”则表示成功
sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward

运行命令如下:

[root@192 ~]# docker run -d --name nginx-tml -p 3334:80 nginx   
b8ae778bad8c7b53df465ee033f14b909ac0096306d38a39ea5c211910613aa0
[root@192 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED         STATUS         PORTS                                   NAMES
b8ae778bad8c   nginx     "/docker-entrypoint.…"   2 minutes ago   Up 2 minutes   0.0.0.0:3334->80/tcp, :::3334->80/tcp   nginx-tml
4ed9be7f96c8   centos    "/bin/bash"              2 weeks ago     Up 2 weeks                                             inspiring_rhodes
cc886973b2cb   centos    "/bin/sh -c 'while t…"   2 weeks ago     Up 2 weeks                                             suspicious_borg
1c1dd47ce82c   centos    "/bin/bash"              2 weeks ago     Up 2 weeks                                             elated_colden
945abcb48a14   tomcat    "catalina.sh run"        2 weeks ago     Up 2 weeks     8080/tcp                                quizzical_golick
0558e745b9b0   tomcat    "catalina.sh run"        2 weeks ago     Up 2 weeks     8080/tcp                                heuristic_chebyshev

宿主机与容器的端口暴露映射

3 访问测试

通过公网网络端口访问nginx

[root@192 ~]# curl localhost:3334
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
html { color-scheme: light dark; }
body { width: 35em; margin: 0 auto;
font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>
<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>
<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>

通过公网也是可以访问到的:

Tomcat部署

Tomcat是我们常用的服务器,同样可以从dockerhub搜索到:

1 搜索并下载镜像

之前虽然下载过tomcat镜像和容器,这里就复习下之前的命令,删除容器和镜像重新下载吧:

[root@192 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS                                   NAMES
b8ae778bad8c   nginx     "/docker-entrypoint.…"   31 minutes ago   Up 31 minutes   0.0.0.0:3334->80/tcp, :::3334->80/tcp   nginx-tml
4ed9be7f96c8   centos    "/bin/bash"              2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks                                              inspiring_rhodes
cc886973b2cb   centos    "/bin/sh -c 'while t…"   2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks                                              suspicious_borg
1c1dd47ce82c   centos    "/bin/bash"              2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks                                              elated_colden
945abcb48a14   tomcat    "catalina.sh run"        2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks      8080/tcp                                quizzical_golick
0558e745b9b0   tomcat    "catalina.sh run"        2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks      8080/tcp                                heuristic_chebyshev
[root@192 ~]# docker rm -f 945abcb48a14
945abcb48a14
[root@192 ~]# docker rm -f 0558e745b9b0
0558e745b9b0
[root@192 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
nginx         latest    605c77e624dd   7 weeks ago    141MB
tomcat        latest    fb5657adc892   8 weeks ago    680MB
mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   2 months ago   516MB
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   4 months ago   13.3kB
centos        latest    5d0da3dc9764   5 months ago   231MB
[root@192 ~]# docker rmi -f  fb5657adc892 
Untagged: tomcat:latest
Untagged: tomcat@sha256:9dee185c3b161cdfede1f5e35e8b56ebc9de88ed3a79526939701f3537a52324
Deleted: sha256:fb5657adc892ed15910445588404c798b57f741e9921ff3c1f1abe01dbb56906
[root@192 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
nginx         latest    605c77e624dd   7 weeks ago    141MB
mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   2 months ago   516MB
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   4 months ago   13.3kB
centos        latest    5d0da3dc9764   5 months ago   231MB

然后再通过命令重新搜索下载tomcat镜像

[root@192 ~]# docker search tomcat
NAME                                           DESCRIPTION                                     STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED
bitnami/tomcat                                 Bitnami Tomcat Docker Image                     44                   [OK]
aallam/tomcat-mysql                            Debian, Oracle JDK, Tomcat & MySQL              12                   [OK]
arm64v8/tomcat                                 Apache Tomcat is an open source implementati…   7                    
rightctrl/tomcat                               CentOS , Oracle Java, tomcat application ssl…   7                    [OK]
tomcat2111/pisignage-server                    PiSignage Server                                3                    [OK]
jelastic/tomcat                                An image of the Tomcat Java application serv…   3                    
amd64/tomcat                                   Apache Tomcat is an open source implementati…   3                    
cfje/tomcat-resource                           Tomcat Concourse Resource                       2                    
chenyufeng/tomcat-centos                       tomcat基于centos6的镜像                              1                    [OK]
ppc64le/tomcat                                 Apache Tomcat is an open source implementati…   1                    
tomcatling/jupyterhub_aws                                                                      1                    
softwareplant/tomcat                           Tomcat images for jira-cloud testing            0                    [OK]
store/microsoft/defaultpublisher               Zulu for Azure build of OpenJDK                 0                    
tomcat2111/phpredisadmin                       This is a Docker image for phpredisadmin        0                    [OK]
tomcat2111/bitbucket-pipelines-elasticsearch   Elasticsearch for Bitbucket's Pipelines         0                    
tomcat2111/papercut-mf                         PaperCut MF Application Server                  0                    
tomcat0823/auto1                                                                               0                    
tomcatengineering/pg_backup_rotated            Clone of martianrock/pg_backup_rotated but w…   0                    
s390x/tomcat                                   Apache Tomcat is an open source implementati…   0                    
tomcatengineering/docker_swarm_exporter        Prometheus metrics exporter for Docker Swarms   0                    
secoresearch/tomcat-varnish                    Tomcat and Varnish 5.0                          0                    [OK]
tomcat2111/piwik                               Matomo (formerly Piwik) image                   0                    
tomee                                          Apache TomEE is an all-Apache Java EE certif…   0         [OK]       
tomcat2111/redaxo                              Redaxo                                          0                    
tomcat                                         Apache Tomcat is an open source implementati…   0         [OK]       
[root@192 ~]# docker pull tomcat
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from library/tomcat
0e29546d541c: Already exists 
9b829c73b52b: Already exists 
cb5b7ae36172: Already exists 
6494e4811622: Already exists 
668f6fcc5fa5: Already exists 
dc120c3e0290: Already exists 
8f7c0eebb7b1: Already exists 
77b694f83996: Already exists 
0f611256ec3a: Already exists 
4f25def12f23: Already exists 
Digest: sha256:9dee185c3b161cdfede1f5e35e8b56ebc9de88ed3a79526939701f3537a52324
Status: Downloaded newer image for tomcat:latest
docker.io/library/tomcat:latest
[root@192 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
nginx         latest    605c77e624dd   7 weeks ago    141MB
tomcat        latest    fb5657adc892   8 weeks ago    680MB
mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   2 months ago   516MB
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   4 months ago   13.3kB
centos        latest    5d0da3dc9764   5 months ago   231MB

2 运行测试

然后以后台的方式启动下tomcat:

[root@192 ~]# docker run -d --name tomcat-tml -p 3335:8080 tomcat              
2f59536a92da2d8212bb767da507b3b76102bc47df241c6046c866f0ccfeac7c
[root@192 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS                                       NAMES
2f59536a92da   tomcat    "catalina.sh run"        8 seconds ago    Up 6 seconds    0.0.0.0:3335->8080/tcp, :::3335->8080/tcp   tomcat-tml
b8ae778bad8c   nginx     "/docker-entrypoint.…"   38 minutes ago   Up 38 minutes   0.0.0.0:3334->80/tcp, :::3334->80/tcp       nginx-tml
4ed9be7f96c8   centos    "/bin/bash"              2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks                                                  inspiring_rhodes
cc886973b2cb   centos    "/bin/sh -c 'while t…"   2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks                                                  suspicious_borg
1c1dd47ce82c   centos    "/bin/bash"              2 weeks ago      Up 2 weeks                                                  elated_colden
[root@192 ~]# curl localhost:3335
<!doctype html><html lang="en"><head><title>HTTP Status 404 – Not Found</title><style type="text/css">body {font-family:Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif;} h1, h2, h3, b {color:white;background-color:#525D76;} h1 {font-size:22px;} h2 {font-size:16px;} h3 {font-size:14px;} p {font-size:12px;} a {color:black;} .line {height:1px;background-color:#525D76;border:none;}</style></head><body><h1>HTTP Status 404 – Not Found</h1><hr class="line" /><p><b>Type</b> Status Report</p><p><b>Description</b> The origin server did not find a current representation for the target resource or is not willing to disclose that one exists.</p><hr class="line" /><h3>Apache Tomcat/10.0.14</h3></body></html>[root@192 ~]#

这里看到是404,这是因为:阿里云镜像默认下载的是最小的镜像,保证最小的运行环境,容器中的命令是少了

oot@192 ~]# docker exec -it tomcat-tml /bin/bash
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat# ls
BUILDING.txt  CONTRIBUTING.md  LICENSE  NOTICE  README.md  RELEASE-NOTES  RUNNING.txt  bin  conf  lib  logs  native-jni-lib  temp  webapps  webapps.dist  work
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat# cd webapps.dist
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps.dist# ls
ROOT  docs  examples  host-manager  manager
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps.dist# cd ROOT
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps.dist/ROOT# ls
RELEASE-NOTES.txt  WEB-INF  asf-logo-wide.svg  bg-button.png  bg-middle.png  bg-nav.png  bg-upper.png  favicon.ico  index.jsp  tomcat.css  tomcat.svg
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps.dist/ROOT# ls
RELEASE-NOTES.txt  WEB-INF  asf-logo-wide.svg  bg-button.png  bg-middle.png  bg-nav.png  bg-upper.png  favicon.ico  index.jsp  tomcat.css  tomcat.svg
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps.dist/ROOT# cd ../../
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat# cd webapps
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps# ls
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps# cp -r /usr/local/tomcat/webapps.dist/* /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps# ls
ROOT  docs  examples  host-manager  manager
root@2f59536a92da:/usr/local/tomcat/webapps# exit
exit

3 访问测试

再次访问测试查看:

[root@192 ~]# curl localhost:3335
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8" />
        <title>Apache Tomcat/10.0.14</title>
        <link href="favicon.ico" rel="icon" type="image/x-icon" />
        <link href="tomcat.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
    </head>
    <body>
        <div id="wrapper">
            <div id="navigation" class="curved container">
                <span id="nav-home"><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/">Home</a></span>
                <span id="nav-hosts"><a href="/docs/">Documentation</a></span>
                <span id="nav-config"><a href="/docs/config/">Configuration</a></span>
                <span id="nav-examples"><a href="/examples/">Examples</a></span>
                <span id="nav-wiki"><a href="https://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FrontPage">Wiki</a></span>
                <span id="nav-lists"><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html">Mailing Lists</a></span>
                <span id="nav-help"><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/findhelp.html">Find Help</a></span>
                <br class="separator" />
            </div>
            <div id="asf-box">
                <h1>Apache Tomcat/10.0.14</h1>
            </div>
            <div id="upper" class="curved container">
                <div id="congrats" class="curved container">
                    <h2>If you're seeing this, you've successfully installed Tomcat. Congratulations!</h2>
                </div>
                <div id="notice">
                    <img id="tomcat-logo" src="tomcat.svg" alt="[tomcat logo]" />
                    <div id="tasks">
                        <h3>Recommended Reading:</h3>
                        <h4><a href="/docs/security-howto.html">Security Considerations How-To</a></h4>
                        <h4><a href="/docs/manager-howto.html">Manager Application How-To</a></h4>
                        <h4><a href="/docs/cluster-howto.html">Clustering/Session Replication How-To</a></h4>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div id="actions">
                    <div class="button">
                        <a class="container shadow" href="/manager/status"><span>Server Status</span></a>
                    </div>
                    <div class="button">
                        <a class="container shadow" href="/manager/html"><span>Manager App</span></a>
                    </div>
                    <div class="button">
                        <a class="container shadow" href="/host-manager/html"><span>Host Manager</span></a>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <br class="separator" />
            </div>
            <div id="middle" class="curved container">
                <h3>Developer Quick Start</h3>
                <div class="col25">
                    <div class="container">
                        <p><a href="/docs/setup.html">Tomcat Setup</a></p>
                        <p><a href="/docs/appdev/">First Web Application</a></p>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="col25">
                    <div class="container">
                        <p><a href="/docs/realm-howto.html">Realms &amp; AAA</a></p>
                        <p><a href="/docs/jndi-datasource-examples-howto.html">JDBC DataSources</a></p>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="col25">
                    <div class="container">
                        <p><a href="/examples/">Examples</a></p>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="col25">
                    <div class="container">
                        <p><a href="https://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/Specifications">Servlet Specifications</a></p>
                        <p><a href="https://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/TomcatVersions">Tomcat Versions</a></p>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <br class="separator" />
            </div>
            <div id="lower">
                <div id="low-manage" class="">
                    <div class="curved container">
                        <h3>Managing Tomcat</h3>
                        <p>For security, access to the <a href="/manager/html">manager webapp</a> is restricted.
                        Users are defined in:</p>
                        <pre>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml</pre>
                        <p>In Tomcat 10.0 access to the manager application is split between
                           different users. &nbsp; <a href="/docs/manager-howto.html">Read more...</a></p>
                        <br />
                        <h4><a href="/docs/RELEASE-NOTES.txt">Release Notes</a></h4>
                        <h4><a href="/docs/changelog.html">Changelog</a></h4>
                        <h4><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/migration.html">Migration Guide</a></h4>
                        <h4><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/security.html">Security Notices</a></h4>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div id="low-docs" class="">
                    <div class="curved container">
                        <h3>Documentation</h3>
                        <h4><a href="/docs/">Tomcat 10.0 Documentation</a></h4>
                        <h4><a href="/docs/config/">Tomcat 10.0 Configuration</a></h4>
                        <h4><a href="https://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FrontPage">Tomcat Wiki</a></h4>
                        <p>Find additional important configuration information in:</p>
                        <pre>$CATALINA_HOME/RUNNING.txt</pre>
                        <p>Developers may be interested in:</p>
                        <ul>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/bugreport.html">Tomcat 10.0 Bug Database</a></li>
                            <li><a href="/docs/api/index.html">Tomcat 10.0 JavaDocs</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://github.com/apache/tomcat/tree/10.0.x">Tomcat 10.0 Git Repository at GitHub</a></li>
                        </ul>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div id="low-help" class="">
                    <div class="curved container">
                        <h3>Getting Help</h3>
                        <h4><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/faq/">FAQ</a> and <a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html">Mailing Lists</a></h4>
                        <p>The following mailing lists are available:</p>
                        <ul>
                            <li id="list-announce"><strong><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html#tomcat-announce">tomcat-announce</a><br />
                                Important announcements, releases, security vulnerability notifications. (Low volume).</strong>
                            </li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html#tomcat-users">tomcat-users</a><br />
                                User support and discussion
                            </li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html#taglibs-user">taglibs-user</a><br />
                                User support and discussion for <a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/taglibs/">Apache Taglibs</a>
                            </li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html#tomcat-dev">tomcat-dev</a><br />
                                Development mailing list, including commit messages
                            </li>
                        </ul>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <br class="separator" />
            </div>
            <div id="footer" class="curved container">
                <div class="col20">
                    <div class="container">
                        <h4>Other Downloads</h4>
                        <ul>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/download-connectors.cgi">Tomcat Connectors</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/download-native.cgi">Tomcat Native</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/taglibs/">Taglibs</a></li>
                            <li><a href="/docs/deployer-howto.html">Deployer</a></li>
                        </ul>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="col20">
                    <div class="container">
                        <h4>Other Documentation</h4>
                        <ul>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/">Tomcat Connectors</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/">mod_jk Documentation</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/native-doc/">Tomcat Native</a></li>
                            <li><a href="/docs/deployer-howto.html">Deployer</a></li>
                        </ul>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="col20">
                    <div class="container">
                        <h4>Get Involved</h4>
                        <ul>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/getinvolved.html">Overview</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/source.html">Source Repositories</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html">Mailing Lists</a></li>
                            <li><a href="https://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FrontPage">Wiki</a></li>
                        </ul>
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