Linux-----nginx的简介,nginx搭载负载均衡以及nginx部署前后端分离项目

简介: Linux-----nginx的简介,nginx搭载负载均衡以及nginx部署前后端分离项目

nginx的简介

是什么

Nginx是一个高性能的开源Web服务器和反向代理服务器。它的设计目标是为了解决C10k问题,即在同一时间内支持上万个并发连接。

Nginx采用事件驱动的异步架构,能够高效地处理大量并发请求,同时占用较少的系统资源。它具有良好的扩展性和高可靠性,广泛应用于大型网站和高负载的Web应用中。

nginx的特点以及功能

  1. 高性能:Nginx采用异步非阻塞的处理方式,可以高效地处理大量并发请求,具有较低的内存消耗和CPU利用率。
  2. 反向代理:Nginx可以作为反向代理服务器,将客户端的请求转发给后端的多个服务器,实现负载均衡和高可用性。
  3. 静态文件服务:Nginx可以快速地提供静态文件的访问,减轻动态应用服务器的负载。
  4. 动态反向代理:Nginx可以通过配置动态反向代理规则,将请求转发给不同的后端服务器,实现灵活的请求处理和应用切换。
  5. SSL/TLS支持:Nginx支持HTTPS协议,并提供了强大的SSL/TLS功能,可以保护网站的安全性。
  6. URL重写和重定向:Nginx支持强大的URL重写和重定向功能,可以通过配置简化URL结构和实现请求的重定向。
  7. 缓存和压缩:Nginx支持静态文件的缓存和内容的压缩,提高网站的性能和传输速度。


总之,Nginx是一个高性能、可靠性强、功能丰富的Web服务器和反向代理服务器,适用于各种规模的网站和应用场景。它的简单配置和灵活性使得它成为许多开发者和系统管理员的首选。

Nginx负载均衡

下载

输入命令 :  cd /root/xyh/software  进入到资源文件目录


安装 Nginx 的4个依赖

输入命令 : yum -y install gcc zlib zlib-devel pcre-devel openssl openssl-devel



安装完成后进行解压使用

输入命令 :  tar -xvf nginx-1.13.7.tar.gz   ( 解压 Nginx)



解压后进入其文件

命令 : cd nginx-1.13.7  

编译,执行配置: 考虑到后续安装ssl证书 添加两个模块

命令 : ./configure --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module



安装

进行安装

命令 :   make && make install



安装完后,进入该目录

输入命令 : cd /usr/local/nginx

安装完后,进入该目录

输入命令 :  cd /usr/local/nginx

启动前安装 lsof 命令

输入命令 :  yum install -y  lsof



设置防火墙 开放 80 端口

输入命令 : firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp --permanent

更新防火墙的端口并且查看已开放的端口

输入命令 :  firewall-cmd --reload && firewall-cmd --list-port



# 启动

命令 :  ./nginx

#查看

命令 :  lsof -i:80



在浏览器中,输入虚拟机【Linux】-Centos的IP地址进行搜索


以上就是Nginx 的使用配置并且开启完成了


负载均衡

在资源文件夹中,创建一个tomcat文件夹,来存放Tomcat

输入命令 :  mkdir tomcat

并且将tomcat服务解压到指定目录,刚刚创建的tomcat文件夹中。

输入命令 : tar -xvf apache-tomcat-8.5.tar.gz -C tomcat



进入tomcat文件夹中

命令 :  cd /root/xyh/software/tomcat

复制一个tomcat,准备2个tomcat

命令 : cp -r apache-tomcat-8.5.20/ apache-tomcat-8.5.20_8081/

查看命令 : ll



将其中的一个tomcat修改端口,避免两个服务同时开启时端口被占用的情况。

命令 :  cd apache-tomcat-8.5.20/conf   ( 进入到tomcat的conf文件中 )

找到server.xml 文件进行修改端口

命令 : vim server.xml  ( 编辑文件修改端口 )





修改之后的代码


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  limitations under the License.
-->
<!-- Note:  A "Server" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
     define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
     Documentation at /docs/config/server.html
 -->
<Server port="8006" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener" />
  <!-- Security listener. Documentation at /docs/config/listeners.html
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.security.SecurityListener" />
  -->
  <!--APR library loader. Documentation at /docs/apr.html -->
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />
  <!-- Prevent memory leaks due to use of particular java/javax APIs-->
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />
  <!-- Global JNDI resources
       Documentation at /docs/jndi-resources-howto.html
  -->
  <GlobalNamingResources>
    <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
         UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate users
    -->
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
              type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
              description="User database that can be updated and saved"
              factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
              pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
  </GlobalNamingResources>
  <!-- A "Service" is a collection of one or more "Connectors" that share
       a single "Container" Note:  A "Service" is not itself a "Container",
       so you may not define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
       Documentation at /docs/config/service.html
   -->
  <Service name="Catalina">
    <!--The connectors can use a shared executor, you can define one or more named thread pools-->
    <!--
    <Executor name="tomcatThreadPool" namePrefix="catalina-exec-"
        maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="4"/>
    -->
    <!-- A "Connector" represents an endpoint by which requests are received
         and responses are returned. Documentation at :
         Java HTTP Connector: /docs/config/http.html
         Java AJP  Connector: /docs/config/ajp.html
         APR (HTTP/AJP) Connector: /docs/apr.html
         Define a non-SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080
    -->
    <Connector port="8081" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
               connectionTimeout="20000"
               redirectPort="8443" />
    <!-- A "Connector" using the shared thread pool-->
    <!--
    <Connector executor="tomcatThreadPool"
               port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
               connectionTimeout="20000"
               redirectPort="8443" />
    -->
    <!-- Define a SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443
         This connector uses the NIO implementation. The default
         SSLImplementation will depend on the presence of the APR/native
         library and the useOpenSSL attribute of the
         AprLifecycleListener.
         Either JSSE or OpenSSL style configuration may be used regardless of
         the SSLImplementation selected. JSSE style configuration is used below.
    -->
    <!--
    <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
               maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true">
        <SSLHostConfig>
            <Certificate certificateKeystoreFile="conf/localhost-rsa.jks"
                         type="RSA" />
        </SSLHostConfig>
    </Connector>
    -->
    <!-- Define a SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 with HTTP/2
         This connector uses the APR/native implementation which always uses
         OpenSSL for TLS.
         Either JSSE or OpenSSL style configuration may be used. OpenSSL style
         configuration is used below.
    -->
    <!--
    <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
               maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" >
        <UpgradeProtocol className="org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol" />
        <SSLHostConfig>
            <Certificate certificateKeyFile="conf/localhost-rsa-key.pem"
                         certificateFile="conf/localhost-rsa-cert.pem"
                         certificateChainFile="conf/localhost-rsa-chain.pem"
                         type="RSA" />
        </SSLHostConfig>
    </Connector>
    -->
    <!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->
    <Connector port="8010" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />
    <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
         every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
         analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
         on to the appropriate Host (virtual host).
         Documentation at /docs/config/engine.html -->
    <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via AJP ie :
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="jvm1">
    -->
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">
      <!--For clustering, please take a look at documentation at:
          /docs/cluster-howto.html  (simple how to)
          /docs/config/cluster.html (reference documentation) -->
      <!--
      <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"/>
      -->
      <!-- Use the LockOutRealm to prevent attempts to guess user passwords
           via a brute-force attack -->
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
        <!-- This Realm uses the UserDatabase configured in the global JNDI
             resources under the key "UserDatabase".  Any edits
             that are performed against this UserDatabase are immediately
             available for use by the Realm.  -->
        <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
               resourceName="UserDatabase"/>
      </Realm>
      <Host name="localhost"  appBase="webapps"
            unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
        <!-- SingleSignOn valve, share authentication between web applications
             Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html -->
        <!--
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.authenticator.SingleSignOn" />
        -->
        <!-- Access log processes all example.
             Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html
             Note: The pattern used is equivalent to using pattern="common" -->
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
               prefix="localhost_access_log" suffix=".txt"
               pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />
      </Host>
    </Engine>
  </Service>
</Server>


并且将这个服务器的页面显示内容进行修改,访问时容易分辨是哪个tomcat端口进入的

在tomcat根目录的webapps中的ROOT目录中,找到index.jsp文件,在MobaXterm工具的左边选中这个文件,右键点击第二个进行打开文件,并且修改编辑文件。



修改完之后的代码如下


<%--
Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
(the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
--%>
<%@ page session="false" pageEncoding="UTF-8" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8" %>
<%
java.text.SimpleDateFormat sdf = new java.text.SimpleDateFormat("yyyy");
request.setAttribute("year", sdf.format(new java.util.Date()));
request.setAttribute("tomcatUrl", "http://tomcat.apache.org/");
request.setAttribute("tomcatDocUrl", "/docs/");
request.setAttribute("tomcatExamplesUrl", "/examples/");
%>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8" />
        <title><%=request.getServletContext().getServerInfo() %></title>
        <link href="favicon.ico" rel="icon" type="image/x-icon" />
        <link href="favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" />
        <link href="tomcat.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
    </head>
    <body>
    <h1>8081</h1>
    </body>
</html>


返回到tomcat目录,并且开其两个服务(tomcat)

命令: cd apache-tomcat-8.5.20/bin  ( 进入到tomcat的bin目录中 )

命令: ./startup.sh  ( 开启服务 )



再到 nginx的目录中

命令:  cd /usr/local/nginx



并且进入 : sbin目录

输入 :  cd sbin

命令 :  ./nginx -s reload  

注 : 重新开启nginx



今天就到这里了!下班下班!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


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