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nginx 缓存配置及报错解决

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研究了2天的nginx缓存 出现各种报错

我把配置文件修改过后还是报错

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location ~ /purge(/.*)
                {
                allow           127.0.0.1;
                allow           192.168.0.0/24;
                deny            all;
                proxy_cache_purge      cache_one  $host$1$is_args$args;
                }
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nginx: [emerg] unknown directive "proxy_cache_purge" in /home/data/websrv/nginx/conf/nginx.conf:75
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nginx: [emerg] unknown directive "proxy_cache_purge

报错提示

发现模块没有安装,有的重新安装模块

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安装 ngx_cache_purge-1.3.tar
wget http://labs.frickle.com/files/ngx_cache_purge-2.0.tar.gz
tar -zxvf ngx_cache_purge-2.0.tar.gz
cd /home/data/install/lnmp/nginx-1.0.15/
查看版本
nginx -V
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[root@ceshi nginx-1.0.15]# /home/data/websrv/nginx/sbin/nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.0.15
configure arguments: --prefix=/home/data/websrv/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module

啥配置都没 所以只能重新编译

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./configure --user=nginx --group=nginx --add-module=/home/data/install/ngx_cache_purge-2.0 \
 --prefix=/home/data/websrv/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
加模块
onfiguration summary
  + using system PCRE library
  + using system OpenSSL library
  + md5: using OpenSSL library
  + sha1: using OpenSSL library
  + using system zlib library
  nginx path prefix: "/home/data/websrv/nginx"
  nginx binary file"/home/data/websrv/nginx/sbin/nginx"
  nginx configuration prefix: "/home/data/websrv/nginx/conf"
  nginx configuration file"/home/data/websrv/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
  nginx pid file"/home/data/websrv/nginx/logs/nginx.pid"
  nginx error log file"/home/data/websrv/nginx/logs/error.log"
  nginx http access log file"/home/data/websrv/nginx/logs/access.log"
  nginx http client request body temporary files: "client_body_temp"
  nginx http proxy temporary files: "proxy_temp"
  nginx http fastcgi temporary files: "fastcgi_temp"
  nginx http uwsgi temporary files: "uwsgi_temp"
  nginx http scgi temporary files: "scgi_temp"


注意这里只要make 而不要make install

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make,不要make install会覆盖
                                                                                                                                                                                              
    -o objs/src/http/ngx_http_postpone_filter_module.o \
                src/http/ngx_http_postpone_filter_module.c
gcc -c  -I src/core -I src/event -I src/event/modules -I src/os/unix -I objs -I src/http -I src/http/modules \
                -o objs/src/http/modules/ngx_http_ssi_filter_module.o \
                src/http/modules/ngx_http_ssi_filter_module.c
gcc -c  -I src/core -I src/event -I src/event/modules -I src/os/unix -I objs -I src/http -I src/http/modules \
                -o objs/src/http/modules/ngx_http_charset_filter_module.o \
                src/http/modules/ngx_http_charset_filter_module.c
gcc -c  -I src/core -I src/event -I src/event/modules -I src/os/unix -I objs -I src/http -I src/http/modules \
                -o objs/src/http/modules/ngx_http_userid_filter_module.o \
                src/http/modules/ngx_http_userid_filter_module.c
gcc -c  -I src/core -I src/event -I src/event/modules -I src/os/unix -I objs -I src/http -I src/http/modules \
                -o objs/src/http/modules/ngx_http_autoindex_module.o \
                src/http/modules/ngx_http_autoindex_module.c
gcc -c  -I src/core -I src/event -I src/event/modules -I src/os/unix -I objs -I src/http -I src/http/modules \
                -o objs/src/http/modules/ngx_http_auth_basic_module.o \
                src/http/modules/ngx_http_auth_basic_module.c
make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/data/install/lnmp/nginx-1.0.15'
make -f objs/Makefile manpage
make[1]: Entering directory `/home/data/install/lnmp/nginx-1.0.15'
sed -e "s|%%PREFIX%%|/home/data/websrv/nginx|" \
                -e "s|%%PID_PATH%%|/home/data/websrv/nginx/logs/nginx.pid|" \
                -e "s|%%CONF_PATH%%|/home/data/websrv/nginx/conf/nginx.conf|" \
                -e "s|%%ERROR_LOG_PATH%%|/home/data/websrv/nginx/logs/error.log|" \
                man/nginx.8 > objs/nginx.8
make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/data/install/lnmp/nginx-1.0.15'

替换nginx二进制文件

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[root@ceshi nginx-1.0.15]# killall nginx
[root@ceshi nginx-1.0.15]# cp ./objs/nginx /home/data/websrv/nginx/sbin/
cp:是否覆盖"/home/data/websrv/nginx/sbin/nginx"? y
service nginx start
这次就没报错了
    location ~ /purge(/.*)
                {
                allow           127.0.0.1;
                allow           192.168.0.0/24;
                deny            all;
                proxy_cache_purge   cache_one   $host$1$is_args$args;
                }
                access_log      off;
        }
Starting nginx daemon: nginx
started.

正常启动nginx了

当是发现 nginx 页面是500


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500 Internal Server Error
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[root@ceshi nginx-1.0.15]#  ulimit -n
655360
[root@ceshi nginx-1.0.15]#  ulimit -n 65535
[root@ceshi nginx-1.0.15]# cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
65535

解决,也可以直接改配置文件

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vi /etc/security/limits.conf
在文件末加上:
 *                soft  nofile         65535
 *                hard  nofile         65535


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127.0.0.1 - - [06/Nov/2013:01:52:05 +0800] "GET /static_gmd/images/shadow_bg.jpg HTTP/1.0" 500 0 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/29.0.1547.66 Safari/537.36"



141737561.jpg


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服务器端会判断上次的 config 时间是否比 If-Modified-Since 晚。如果自上次 request 之后又更新了 config,那么服务器就会返回完整的内容;如果期间没有更新 config,那么服务器就没必要返回完整的内容,只需要向客户端发送一个 304 Not Modified 状态码就可以了。

154029643.jpg

154032284.jpg







这样就可以了

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[root@ceshi websrv]# cd cache/
[root@ceshi cache]# ll
总用量 4
drwx------. 3 coovanftp coovanftp 4096 11月  20 01:17 b
[root@ceshi cache]# cd b/
[root@ceshi b]# ll
总用量 4
drwx------. 2 coovanftp coovanftp 4096 11月  20 01:18 9b
[root@ceshi b]# cd 9b/
[root@ceshi 9b]# ll
总用量 4
-rw-------. 1 coovanftp coovanftp 800 11月  20 01:18 beffd3cafb1fbf7c3b53aa486005b9bb


但是又发现一个问题

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[root@ceshi nginx]# netstat -n | awk '/^tcp/ {++S[$NF]} END {for(a in S) print a, S[a]}'
TIME_WAIT 2735
ESTABLISHED 6
cp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:27544          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26458          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:27665          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26601          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:27333          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26498          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:25969          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26061          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26777          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26960          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:27391          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26568          TIME
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.21:26525
发现系统存在大量TIME_WAIT状态的连接,通过调整内核参数解决,
vi /etc/sysctl.conf
编辑文件,加入以下内容:
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
                                            
然后执行 /sbin/sysctl -p 让参数生效。
[root@ceshi nginx]# netstat -n | awk '/^tcp/ {++S[$NF]} END {for(a in S) print a, S[a]}'
TIME_WAIT 1
ESTABLISHED 4
[root@ceshi nginx-1.0.15]# netstat -anplt
Active Internet connections (servers and established)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             Stat                                                                                                                                                             e       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000              0.0.0.0:*                   LIST                                                                                                                                                             EN      20565/php-fpm.conf)
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306                0.0.0.0:*                   LIST                                                                                                                                                             EN      16446/mysqld
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80                  0.0.0.0:*                   LIST                                                                                                                                                             EN      25492/nginx.conf
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LIST                                                                                                                                                             EN      1768/sshd
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:25                0.0.0.0:*                   LIST                                                                                                                                                             EN      1150/master
tcp        0     52 192.168.0.21:22             192.168.0.224:51384         ESTA                                                                                                                                                             BLISHED 22344/1
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:22             192.168.0.224:52369         ESTA                                                                                                                                                             BLISHED 22398/sshd: root@no
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:22             192.168.0.224:61398         ESTA                                                                                                                                                             BLISHED 20420/0
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:22             192.168.0.224:62132         ESTA                                                                                                                                                             BLISHED 20773/sshd: root@no
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.21:80             192.168.0.224:53048         TIME                                                                                                                                                             _WAIT   -
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LIST                                                                                                                                                             EN      1768/sshd
tcp        0      0 ::1:25                      :::*                        LIST                                                                                                                                                             EN      1150/master
drwx------. 2 coovanftp root 4096 11月 20 09:56 proxy_cache_path
drwx------. 2 coovanftp root 4096 11月 20 09:56 proxy_temp
[root@ceshi nginx]# netstat -n | awk '/^tcp/ {++S[$NF]} END {for(a in S) print a, S[a]}'
TIME_WAIT 1
ESTABLISHED 4
[root@ceshi cache]# ll
总用量 8
drwx------. 3 coovanftp coovanftp 4096 11月 20 11:55 a
drwx------. 3 coovanftp coovanftp 4096 11月 20 11:54 b


最后附上配置






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user coovanftp coovanftp;
worker_processes 8;
error_log  logs/error.log  crit;
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;
events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}
http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    server_tokens off;
    access_log  logs/access.log  main;
    sendfile        on;
    tcp_nopush  on;
    tcp_nodelay on;
    keepalive_timeout  60;
    gzip  on;
    gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
    server_names_hash_bucket_size 2048;
    client_header_buffer_size 2048k;
    large_client_header_buffers 4 2048k;
    client_max_body_size 500m;
    client_body_buffer_size 4048k;
    fastcgi_buffer_size         2048k;
    fastcgi_buffers             6 2048k;
    fastcgi_busy_buffers_size   2048k;
    fastcgi_temp_file_write_size        2048k;
    fastcgi_intercept_errors    on;
    proxy_connect_timeout 60;
    proxy_read_timeout 60;
    proxy_send_timeout 60;
    proxy_buffer_size 2048k;
    proxy_buffers 4 2048k;
    proxy_busy_buffers_size 2048k;
    #proxy_cache_valid 200 304 302 3s;
    proxy_temp_file_write_size 4096k;
    proxy_temp_path /home/data/websrv/nginx/temp_dir;
    proxy_cache_path /home/data/websrv/nginx/cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=cache_one:200m inactive=1d max_size=10g;
#  upstream指令用于设置一组可以在proxy_pass和fastcgi_pass指令中使用的代理服务器,默认的负载均衡方式为轮询.upstream模块中的server指令用于指定后端服务器的名称和参数,服务器的名称可以是一个域名,一个ip地址,端口号或者UNIX Socket.
       #而在server{..}虚拟主机内,可以通过proxy_pass和fastcgi_pass指令设置进行反向代理的upstream服务器集群
      # proxy_set_header指令用于在向反向代理的后端WEB服务器发起请求时添加指定的header头信息
       #当后端WEB服务器上有多个基于域名的虚拟主机时,要通过添加header头信息Host,用于指定请求的域名,这样后端服务器才能识别该反向代理访问请求是由那一个虚拟主机来处理
       #使用反向代理之后,后端web服务器就不能直接$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']变量来获取用户的真实ip了,通过$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']获得的将是负载均衡器的ip.这时,就要通过Nginx反向代理时添加Header头信息X-Forwarded-For,让后端web服务器能够通过$_SERVER['HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR']获取到用户的真实ip
                                    
#nginx的proxy_cache相关指令集
    # 1.proxy_cache:该指令用于设置那个缓存区将被使用
    # 2.proxy_cache_path:该指令用于设置缓存文件的存放路径
   #示例:proxy_cache_path /web/server1 levels=1:2 keys_zone=cache_one:500m inactive=1d max_size=30g
  # 该指令只能在http标签内配置,levels指定该缓存空间有两层hash目录,第一层为1个字母,第二层为2个字母;
  # keys_zone参数用来为这个缓存区起名,500m指内存缓存空间大小为500MB;inactive的1d指如果缓存数据在1天内没有被访问,将被删除;max_size的30g是指硬盘缓存空间为30GB
     #3.proxy_cache_methods:该指令用于设置缓存那些http方法,默认缓存get和head,不缓存post
     #4.proxy_cache_min_uses:该指令用于设置缓存的最小使用次数,默认为1
     #5.proxy_cache_valid:该指令用于对不同返回状态码的url设置不同的缓存时间
    upstream iis{
      server  192.168.0.21;
      }
server {
    listen       80;
    server_name  192.168.0.21;
    location / {
        index  index.php index.html;
        proxy_pass http://iis;
        proxy_set_header Host  $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For  $remote_addr;
        proxy_next_upstream http_502 http_504 error timeout invalid_header;
        proxy_cache cache_one;
        proxy_cache_valid 200 5m;
        proxy_cache_valid 304 5m;
        proxy_cache_valid 301 302 1h;
        proxy_cache_valid any 5m;
        proxy_cache_key http://$host$uri$is_args$args;
    }
    error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
    }
}
}
本文转自 cs312779641 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/chenhao6/1329106

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