Fast and cozy way to extract data from XML.
Last updated 6 years ago by twilightfeel .
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Xamel provides an easy way to extract data from XML using XPath-like expressions and map/reduce operations. It's designed to be fast and memory-friendly.

Quick start

var xamel = require('xamel');
xamel.parse('<data>Answer: %s<number>42</number></data>', function(err, xml) {
    var answer = xml.$('data/number/text()');
    console.log( xml.$('data/text()'), answer );

xamel.parse(xml, [options], callback)

  • xml string contains XML to parse;
  • options hash of parsing options, includes sax options, incapsulates sax param strict as an option, and two xamel-specific options:
    • buildPath
    • cdata – if evaluated to true then parse process CDATA sections, false by default;
  • callback called when parsing done, passes error or null as the first argument and NodeSet as the second argument.


Lets take an example:

XML (article.xml)


Suppose, you want only <article> and its content as result of the parse, so pass the buildPath option to the parse:

var xamel = require('xamel'),
    xmlSource = require('fs').readFileAsync('./article.xml');

xamel.parse(xmlSource, { buildPath : 'root/body/article' }, function(err, xml) {
    if (err !== null) {
        throw err;


You can also check the partial parsing test.

xamel.serialize(nodeset, [options])

  • nodeset NodeSet to serialize;
  • options parsing options:
    • header – when evaluated to false the document will not contain a <?xml?> header, true by default;
    • pretty – when evaluated to true the document will be beautified with indents and line breaks, false by default;

NodeSets and map/reduce

Result of xamel.parse(…) is a NodeSet. You can think of NodeSet as an array of nodes (internally it's true). NodeSet provides all non-mutator methods of the Array.prototype.

Example of key-value query concatenation

XML (query.xml)

    <key name="mark">Opel</key>
    <key name="model">Astra</key>
    <key name="year">2011</key>


var xamel = require('xamel'),
    xmlSource = require('fs').readFileAsync('./query.xml');
function buildQuery(nodeset) {
    return nodeset.$('query/key').reduce(function(query, key) {
        return [query, '&', key.attr('name'), '=', key.text()].join('');
    }, '');
xamel.parse(xmlSource, function(err, xml) {
    if (err !== null) {
        throw err;
} );

NodeSet preserves nodes' order

So processing a bad-designed xml, where order of nodes is significant, is completely possible:

XML (query.xml)



function buildQuery(nodeset) {
    return nodeset.$('query/*').reduce(function(query, tag) {
        if (tag.name === 'key') {
            return [query, '&', tag.text(), '='].join('');
        } else {
            return query + tag.text();
    }, '');

Ok, but why we need a NodeSet? Why not a regular array?

NodeSet provides some powerful methods to find, extract and process data.

find(path), $(path)

These methods traverse the tree, trying to find nodes satisfying path expression. Result is a NodeSet. length property should be used to check if something is found.

Path looks pretty much similar to XPath, but it's not completely so. That's the path grammar in BNF:

<path> ::= <node-check> | <path> "/" <node-check>
<node-check> ::= "node()" | "text()" | "comment()" | "cdata()" | "*" | "element()" | <xml-tag-name>

As described above, valid paths are:


Invalid paths:

/country        # leading '/' is not allowed
country/state/  # trailing '/' is not allowed
./state         # '.' are not supported <node-check>

Method NodeSet#$ was designed as an alias for NodeSet#find, but it slightly differs. Internally NodeSet#$ calls NodeSet#find, but method returns concatenated string instead of NodeSet, if last check in the path is text():

xml.find('article/para/text()') => [ 'Text 1', 'Text of second para', ... ]
xml.$('article/para/text()') => 'Text 1Text of second para...'

text(keepArray = false)

Method returns content of text nodes in the NodeSet. Being called without an argument or with a first argument equals false, it returns a string (concatenated text nodes content). If not, result is an array of strings.

nodeset.text(true) => ['1', '2', 'test']
nodeset.text() => '12test'
nodeset.text(false) => '12test'


Method returns child node by its index.

    <p>Lorem ipsum…</p>


var nodeset = xml.$('article/h1'),  // $ and find return NodeSet
    title = nodeset.eq(0);          // retrieve Tag from NodeSet
console.log('Header level: %s', title.name[1]);  // use Tag's field


Method filters tags with attribute name and returns a new NodeSet.

    <item current="yes">Products</item>


var currentItemTitle = xml.find('list/item').hasAttr('current').eq(0).text();

isAttr(name, value)

Filters tags with name attribute equals value and returns a new NodeSet.

    <item current="no">Home</item>
    <item current="yes">Products</item>
    <item current="no">About</item>


var currentItemTitle = xml.find('list/item').isAttr('current', 'yes').eq(0).text();


Method filters nodes satisfying expr and returns new NodeSet. Argument expr is <node-check> as described above in the NodeSet#find section.

    <!-- Music -->
    <item>Pink Floyd - The Fletchers Memorial Home</item>
    <!-- Video -->
    <item>Kids on the slope</item>


var media = xml.$('media').eq(0);

media.get('comment()') => NodeSet contains two comments: ' Music ', ' Video '
media.get('item') => NodeSet contains two elements: <item>Pink…</item>, <item>Kids…</item>

It looks the same as NodeSet#find without traversing through the tree, but nodeset.get(<CHECK>) is a bit faster than nodeset.find(<CHECK>).

Method is used internally by NodeSet#find.

Types of nodes


Text nodes are represented by strings.



  • comment represents comment content as a string.


  • toString() returns comment field value.


Tag is a descendant of NodeSet, all NodeSet.prototype methods are available.


  • name contains XML tag name;
  • attrs is a hash of attributes;
  • parent points to parent tag or a root NodeSet.


  • attr(name) returns attribute value by name, or null if attribute isn't defined.



  • getData() returns CDATA section content;
  • toString() similiar to getData;
  • toJSON() returns object { cdata : "cdata content …" }.

Why such complexity? I just want to translate XML to JSON!

require('xamel').parse(xmlString, function(err, xml) {
    if (!err) {
        console.log( JSON.stringify(xml) );

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