ts-node
TypeScript execution environment and REPL for node.js, with source map support
Last updated a month ago by cspotcode .
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TypeScript Node

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TypeScript execution and REPL for node.js, with source map support. Works with typescript@>=2.7.

Experimental ESM support

Native ESM support is currently experimental. For usage, limitations, and to provide feedback, see #1007.

Installation

# Locally in your project.
npm install -D typescript
npm install -D ts-node

# Or globally with TypeScript.
npm install -g typescript
npm install -g ts-node

Tip: Installing modules locally allows you to control and share the versions through package.json. TS Node will always resolve the compiler from cwd before checking relative to its own installation.

Usage

Shell

# Execute a script as `node` + `tsc`.
ts-node script.ts

# Starts a TypeScript REPL.
ts-node

# Execute code with TypeScript.
ts-node -e 'console.log("Hello, world!")'

# Execute, and print, code with TypeScript.
ts-node -p -e '"Hello, world!"'

# Pipe scripts to execute with TypeScript.
echo 'console.log("Hello, world!")' | ts-node

# Equivalent to ts-node --script-mode
ts-node-script scripts.ts

# Equivalent to ts-node --transpile-only
ts-node-transpile-only scripts.ts

TypeScript REPL

Shebang

#!/usr/bin/env ts-node-script

console.log("Hello, world!")

ts-node-script is recommended because it enables --script-mode, discovering tsconfig.json relative to the script's location instead of process.cwd(). This makes scripts more portable.

Passing CLI arguments via shebang is allowed on Mac but not Linux. For example, the following will fail on Linux:

#!/usr/bin/env ts-node --script-mode --transpile-only --files
// This shebang is not portable.  It only works on Mac

Programmatic

You can require ts-node and register the loader for future requires by using require('ts-node').register({ /* options */ }). You can also use file shortcuts - node -r ts-node/register or node -r ts-node/register/transpile-only - depending on your preferences.

Note: If you need to use advanced node.js CLI arguments (e.g. --inspect), use them with node -r ts-node/register instead of the ts-node CLI.

Developers

TS Node exports a create() function that can be used to initialize a TypeScript compiler that isn't registered to require.extensions, and it uses the same code as register.

Mocha

Mocha 6

mocha --require ts-node/register --watch-extensions ts,tsx "test/**/*.{ts,tsx}" [...args]

Note: --watch-extensions is only used in --watch mode.

Mocha 7

mocha --require ts-node/register --extensions ts,tsx --watch --watch-files src 'tests/**/*.{ts,tsx}' [...args]

Tape

ts-node node_modules/tape/bin/tape [...args]

Gulp

# Create a `gulpfile.ts` and run `gulp`.
gulp

Visual Studio Code

Create a new node.js configuration, add -r ts-node/register to node args and move the program to the args list (so VS Code doesn't look for outFiles).

{
    "type": "node",
    "request": "launch",
    "name": "Launch Program",
    "runtimeArgs": [
        "-r",
        "ts-node/register"
    ],
    "args": [
        "${workspaceFolder}/index.ts"
    ]
}

Note: If you are using the --project <tsconfig.json> command line argument as per the Configuration Options, and want to apply this same behavior when launching in VS Code, add an "env" key into the launch configuration: "env": { "TS_NODE_PROJECT": "<tsconfig.json>" }.

IntelliJ (and WebStorm)

Create a new Node.js configuration and add -r ts-node/register to "Node parameters."

Note: If you are using the --project <tsconfig.json> command line argument as per the Configuration Options, and want to apply this same behavior when launching in IntelliJ, specify under "Environment Variables": TS_NODE_PROJECT=<tsconfig.json>.

How It Works

TypeScript Node works by registering the TypeScript compiler for .tsx? and .jsx? (when allowJs == true) extensions. When node.js has an extension registered (via require.extensions), it will use the extension internally for module resolution. When an extension is unknown to node.js, it handles the file as .js (JavaScript). By default, TypeScript Node avoids compiling files in /node_modules/ for three reasons:

  1. Modules should always be published in a format node.js can consume
  2. Transpiling the entire dependency tree will make your project slower
  3. Differing behaviours between TypeScript and node.js (e.g. ES2015 modules) can result in a project that works until you decide to support a feature natively from node.js

P.S. This means if you don't register an extension, it is compiled as JavaScript. When ts-node is used with allowJs, JavaScript files are transpiled using the TypeScript compiler.

Loading tsconfig.json

Typescript Node loads tsconfig.json automatically. Use --skip-project to skip loading the tsconfig.json.

It is resolved relative to --dir using the same search behavior as tsc. In --script-mode, this is the directory containing the script. Otherwise it is resolved relative to process.cwd(), which matches the behavior of tsc.

Use --project to specify the path to your tsconfig.json, ignoring --dir.

Tip: You can use ts-node together with tsconfig-paths to load modules according to the paths section in tsconfig.json.

Configuration Options

You can set options by passing them before the script path, via programmatic usage, via tsconfig.json, or via environment variables.

ts-node --compiler ntypescript --project src/tsconfig.json hello-world.ts

Note: ntypescript is an example of a TypeScript-compatible compiler.

CLI Options

ts-node supports --print (-p), --eval (-e), --require (-r) and --interactive (-i) similar to the node.js CLI options.

  • -h, --help Prints the help text
  • -v, --version Prints the version. -vv prints node and typescript compiler versions, too
  • -s, --script-mode Resolve config relative to the directory of the passed script instead of the current directory. Changes default of --dir

CLI and Programmatic Options

The name of the environment variable and the option's default value are denoted in parentheses.

  • -T, --transpile-only Use TypeScript's faster transpileModule (TS_NODE_TRANSPILE_ONLY, default: false)
  • -H, --compiler-host Use TypeScript's compiler host API (TS_NODE_COMPILER_HOST, default: false)
  • -I, --ignore [pattern] Override the path patterns to skip compilation (TS_NODE_IGNORE, default: /node_modules/)
  • -P, --project [path] Path to TypeScript JSON project file (TS_NODE_PROJECT)
  • -C, --compiler [name] Specify a custom TypeScript compiler (TS_NODE_COMPILER, default: typescript)
  • -D, --ignore-diagnostics [code] Ignore TypeScript warnings by diagnostic code (TS_NODE_IGNORE_DIAGNOSTICS)
  • -O, --compiler-options [opts] JSON object to merge with compiler options (TS_NODE_COMPILER_OPTIONS)
  • --dir Specify working directory for config resolution (TS_NODE_CWD, default: process.cwd(), or dirname(scriptPath) if --script-mode)
  • --scope Scope compiler to files within cwd (TS_NODE_SCOPE, default: false)
  • --files Load files, include and exclude from tsconfig.json on startup (TS_NODE_FILES, default: false)
  • --pretty Use pretty diagnostic formatter (TS_NODE_PRETTY, default: false)
  • --skip-project Skip project config resolution and loading (TS_NODE_SKIP_PROJECT, default: false)
  • --skip-ignore Skip ignore checks (TS_NODE_SKIP_IGNORE, default: false)
  • --emit Emit output files into .ts-node directory (TS_NODE_EMIT, default: false)
  • --prefer-ts-exts Re-order file extensions so that TypeScript imports are preferred (TS_NODE_PREFER_TS_EXTS, default: false)
  • --log-error Logs TypeScript errors to stderr instead of throwing exceptions (TS_NODE_LOG_ERROR, default: false)

Programmatic-only Options

  • transformers _ts.CustomTransformers | ((p: _ts.Program) => _ts.CustomTransformers): An object with transformers or a function that accepts a program and returns an transformers object to pass to TypeScript. Function isn't available with transpileOnly flag
  • readFile: Custom TypeScript-compatible file reading function
  • fileExists: Custom TypeScript-compatible file existence function

Options via tsconfig.json

Most options can be specified by a "ts-node" object in tsconfig.json using their programmatic, camelCase names. For example, to enable --transpile-only:

// tsconfig.json
{
  "ts-node": {
    "transpileOnly": true
  },
  "compilerOptions": {}
}

Our bundled JSON schema lists all compatible options.

SyntaxError

Any error that is not a TSError is from node.js (e.g. SyntaxError), and cannot be fixed by TypeScript or ts-node. These are runtime issues with your code.

Import Statements

There are two options when using import statements: compile them to CommonJS or use node's native ESM support.

To compile to CommonJS, you must set "module": "CommonJS" in your tsconfig.json or compiler options.

Node's native ESM support is currently experimental and so is ts-node's ESM loader hook. For usage, limitations, and to provide feedback, see #1007.

Help! My Types Are Missing!

TypeScript Node does not use files, include or exclude, by default. This is because a large majority projects do not use all of the files in a project directory (e.g. Gulpfile.ts, runtime vs tests) and parsing every file for types slows startup time. Instead, ts-node starts with the script file (e.g. ts-node index.ts) and TypeScript resolves dependencies based on imports and references.

For global definitions, you can use the typeRoots compiler option. This requires that your type definitions be structured as type packages (not loose TypeScript definition files). More details on how this works can be found in the TypeScript Handbook.

Example tsconfig.json:

{
  "compilerOptions": {
    "typeRoots" : ["./node_modules/@types", "./typings"]
  }
}

Example project structure:

<project_root>/
-- tsconfig.json
-- typings/
  -- <module_name>/
    -- index.d.ts

Example module declaration file:

declare module '<module_name>' {
    // module definitions go here
}

For module definitions, you can use paths:

{
  "compilerOptions": {
    "baseUrl": ".",
    "paths": {
      "custom-module-type": ["types/custom-module-type"]
    }
  }
}

An alternative approach for definitions of third-party libraries are triple-slash directives. This may be helpful if you prefer not to change your TypeScript compilerOptions or structure your custom type definitions when using typeRoots. Below is an example of the triple-slash directive as a relative path within your project:

/// <reference types="./types/untyped_js_lib" />
import UntypedJsLib from "untyped_js_lib"

Tip: If you must use files, include, or exclude, enable --files flags or set TS_NODE_FILES=true.

Watching and Restarting

TypeScript Node compiles source code via require(), watching files and code reloads are out of scope for the project. If you want to restart the ts-node process on file change, existing node.js tools such as nodemon, onchange and node-dev work.

There's also ts-node-dev, a modified version of node-dev using ts-node for compilation and won't restart the process on file change.

License

MIT

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