object-new
Object.new() infection!
Last updated 2 years ago by pateketrueke .
MIT · Original npm · Tarball · package.json
$ cnpm install object-new 
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Object.new()

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Experimental DSL for module definitions.

$ npm install object-new --save

Containers

E.g., by calling $new() we are creating definition containers.

const $new = require('object-new');
const $ = $new();

// runtime hack:
// Object.new = $new;
  • $new()— self-contained shared context
  • $new('module')— named module definition on global context
  • $new('module', props)— module is defined into the global context
  • $new('module', props, ctx)— module is defined into the given context
  • $('module', ...) — same as above but self-contained, cannot override context

Definitions

Any container, once declared, can be extended through definitions.

$('Polygon', {
  init(width, height) {
    this.width = width;
    this.height = height;
  },
});

const Square = $.Polygon({
  name: 'Square',
  init(size) {
    this.super.init(size, size);
  },
});

The declared functionality is later composed when creating new objects.

const poly = Polygon.new(3, 4);
const square = Square.new(2);

console.log(poly);
// { width: 3, height: 4 }

console.log(square);
// { width: 2, height: 2 }

Initialization

The init() method is our constructor method, it can return more definitions or completely a new different value.

$('Example', {
  init() {
    // scalar values can be returned, e.g.
    // return 42;

    // extra definitions can be returned as plain objects
    // or as arrays, e.g.
    // return [{ props: { ... } }];

    return {
      init() {}
      props: {},
      mixins: [],
      methods: {},
    };
  },
});

Each time you create a new instance from any definition object-new will do:

  1. Create an empty instance with Object.create(null)
  2. If extensions > 1 build the super proxy
  3. Merge initial definitions for the instance
  4. Reduce initializers and mixins

Only the init() method from the main instance will be called upon creation.

During the initialization, recursive calls to init() are allowed, also any mixins found will be executed and/or merged into additional extensions.

Once finished, all this definitions are merged together into the instance.

Constructor

All instances have a this.ctor prop for accesing its definition.

const Dummy = $('Im.A.Nested.Dummy');

console.log(Dummy.new().ctor === Dummy);
// true

Definitions have a name and class too.

console.log(Dummy.name);
console.log(Dummy.class);
// Dummy
// Im.A.Nested.Dummy

Props

Properties must be defined within a props object.

$('Dummy', {
  props: {
    // hidden but accesible
    _hidden: 42,

    // any regular value are kept as-is
    title: 'Untitled',

    // note functions within props are meant to be getters
    getter() {
      return this.value;
    },

    // dynamic properties
    get value() {
      return this._hidden;
    },

    // rare, but you can declare write-only props
    set awesome(value) {
      this._hidden = value;
    },
  },
});

const d = $('Dummy').new();

d.awesome = NaN;

console.log(d.title);
// Untitled

console.log(d.getter);
// NaN

Properties starting with _ will be set as non enumerable on the created instances. However, static properties are always set as enumerable.

Methods

Instance methods must be defined within a methods object.

$('Dummy', {
  methods: {
    sayHi() {
      console.log('Hello world!');
    },
  },
});

$('Dummy').new().sayHi();
// Hello world!

Functions attached to the main definition are meant to be static methods.

$('Dummy', {
  // note you can use dynamic properties too
  get message() {
    return 'Hello world!';
  },
  sayHi() {
    console.log(this.message);
  },
});

$('Dummy').sayHi();
// Hello world!

Methods starting with _ will be set as non enumerable on the created instances. However, static methods are always set as enumerable.

Extensions

Each module declaration has a extensions property with all the given references.

$('Dummy', {
  props: {
    value: 42,
  },
});

console.log($('Dummy').extensions);
// [{ props: { value: 42 } }]

Giving extensions within regular module definitions is disallowed.

$('Dummy', {
  extensions: [],
});

// Error: Dummy does not expect extensions

Instances, however, can receive extensions directly.

const x = $({
  extensions: [{
    props: {
      value: 42,
    },
  }],
});

console.log(x.value);
// 42

Inheritance

Modules created with object-new does not use the prototype-chain, instead they rely on the extensions abstraction to inherit existing functionality by copying it.

$('Base', {
  props: {
    value: 42,
    thisValue() {
      return this.value;
    },
  },
});

// note this allow to "extend" any existing definition
$('Base', {
  props: {
    value: 99,
    parentValue() {
      return this.super.value;
    },
  },
});

const b = $('Base').new();

console.log(b.value);
console.log(b.thisValue);
// 99
// 99

// hack: modify from the attached extensions (first one)
$('Base').extensions[0].props.value = -1;

console.log(b.value);
console.log(b.thisValue);
// 99
// 99

// new instances are still using the same extensions
console.log($('Base').new().value);
console.log($('Base').new().thisValue);
// 99
// 99

console.log($('Base').new().value);
console.log($('Base').new().thisValue);
console.log($('Base').new().parentValue);
// 99
// 99
// -1

Due this limitation, if you change a value from any parent definition it will not affect any existing instance, also any descendant definition remain unaffected.

function Base() {}
Base.prototype.value = 42;

const b = new Base();

console.log(b.value);
// 42

Base.prototype.value = -1;

console.log(b.value);
// -1

However, subclassing is still posible, and any extension from root/child definitions will inherit their changes too.

// any namespace definition return a child
const Root = $('Root', {
  props: {
    value: 42,
  },
});

// namespaced subcalls returns also a new child
const Branch = Root('Branch', {
  props: {
    value: 99,
  },
});

console.log(new Root().value);
console.log(new Branch().value);
// 42
// 99

// extend root definition
$('Root', {
  props: {
    value: -1,
  },
});

// extend child definition
$('Root.Branch', {
  props: {
    value: -2,
  },
});

// Root and Branch are just subclasses, calling them
// will return more subclasses, etc.
Root({
  props: {
    value: 123,
  },
});

// this will not affect root/child definitions since
// their definitions are always namespaced
const Leaf = Branch({
  props: {
    value: 456,
  },
});

console.log(new Root().value);
console.log(new Leaf().value);
console.log(new Branch().value);
// -1
// 456
// -2

Composition

Additional mixins from include will be merged into the definition.

// regular definitions store
// its mixins as extensions
$('Dummy', {
  props: {
    value: 42,
  },
});

console.log($('Dummy').props);
console.log($('Dummy').extensions);
// {}
// [ { props: { value: 42 } } ]

// any included mixin will be
// merged with the definition itself
$('FixedDummy', {
  props: {
    value: 99,
  },
  include: {
    props: {
      otherValue: -1,
    },
  },
});

console.log($('FixedDummy').props);
console.log($('FixedDummy').extensions);
// { otherValue: -1, value: 99 }
// [ { props: { value: 99 } } ]

$('TestDummy', {
  // definition will be merged
  include: $('Dummy'),
});

console.log($('Dummy').new().value);
console.log($('TestDummy').new().value);
// 42
// 42

$('TestMixin', {
  props: {
    imFeelingLucky: () => Math.random() > 0.5,
  },
  include: [
    // modules works perfect here,
    // they are detected and unrolled
    $('FixedDummy'),

    // they can receive overrides from mixins
    [
      { props: { otherValue: 0 } },

      // and from other definitions' mixins
      $('AnotherThing', {
        props: {
          otherValue: 2,
        },
      }),

      // functions are used for extend the instance
      // so, they can't redefine props/methods
      // () => ({ props: { otherValue: 3 } }),
    ],

    // while unrolling, definitions have higher relevance
    { props: { value: 1, _hidden: true } },

    // override things on the FixedDummy during instantiation, e.g.
    () => ({
      props: {
        fixedValue: 99,
        get isHidden() { return this._hidden; },
      }
    }),

    // functions can receive the instance context as `this`,
    // also all given arguments from constructor are received
    function(someValue) {
      // falsy values are just ignored from the initialization chain
      return someValue && {
        props: {
          fixedValue: this.imFeelingLucky ? -99 : someValue,
        },
      };
    },
  ],
});

console.log($('FixedDummy').new().value);
console.log($('TestMixin').new().value);
console.log($('TestMixin').new()._hidden);
console.log($('TestMixin').new().isHidden);
console.log($('TestMixin').new().otherValue);
console.log($('TestMixin').new().fixedValue);
console.log($('TestMixin').new(-1).otherValue);
console.log($('TestMixin').new(-1).fixedValue);
// 99
// 1
// true
// true
// 2
// 99
// 2
// -99 or -1 (randomly)

Mixins can return other mixins, or more definitions, they will be resolved and merged recursively.

$('Dummy', {
  include: [
    { props: { value: 42, } },
    [
      () => ({ init() { this._value = -1; } }),
      [
        $('InPlace', {
          include: () => ({ props: { otherValue: 99 } }),
        }),
      ],
    ],
  ],
});

const d = $('Dummy').new();

console.log(d.value);
console.log(d._value);
console.log(d.otherValue);
// 42
// -1
// 99

Included methods from mixins will be chained together if they're prefixed with $.

$('Dummy', {
  $test() {
    return 1;
  },
  methods: {
    $test() {
      return -1;
    },
  },
});

console.log($('Dummy').$test());
console.log($('Dummy').new().$test());
// 1
// -1

$('FixedDummy', {
  include: [$('Dummy')],
  $test() {
    return 2;
  },
  methods: {
    $test() {
      return -2;
    },
  },
});

// merged methods always return
// an array of non-undefined values
console.log($('FixedDummy').$test());
console.log($('FixedDummy').new().$test());
// [1, 2]
// [-1, -2]

Props, methods or arrays starting with _ will not be enumerable.

Another way of compositing is through the extend keyword.

const Dummy = $('Dummy', {
  init() {
    throw new Error('Not implemented');
  },
});

Dummy.new();
// Error: Not implemented

const Example = $('Example', {
  // one or more mixins/definitions
  extend: Dummy,
  init() {
    console.log(42);
  },
});

Example.new();
console.log(Dummy.extensions.length);
console.log(Example.extensions.length);
// 42
// 1
// 1

// the same result could be achieved with subclassing
// at the cost of adding the given definition as extension
const ExampleWithoutExtend = $('Example', {
  init() {
    console.log(42);

    // this cost also comes with the `super` support here, e.g.
    // calling `this.super.init()` will throw the error from above
  },
});

ExampleWithoutExtend.new();
console.log(Example.extensions.length);
console.log(ExampleWithoutExtend.extensions.length);
console.log(Example === ExampleWithoutExtend);
// 42
// 2
// 2
// true

However, the main advantage from extend over subclassing is that you can inherit from any foreign mixin or definition, etc.

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