jose
JSON Web Almost Everything - JWA, JWS, JWE, JWK, JWT, JWKS for Node.js with minimal dependencies
Last updated 2 days ago by panva .
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jose

"JSON Web Almost Everything" - JWA, JWS, JWE, JWT, JWK, JWKS for Node.js with minimal dependencies

Implemented specs & features

The following specifications are implemented by jose

The test suite utilizes examples defined in RFC7520 to confirm its JOSE implementation is correct.

Available JWT validation profiles

Draft profiles are updated as minor versions of the library, therefore, since they may have breaking changes use the ~ semver operator when using these and pay close attention to changelog and the drafts themselves.

Sponsor

auth0-logo If you want to quickly add secure token-based authentication to Node.js projects, feel free to check Auth0’s free plan at auth0.com/overview.

Support

If you or your business use jose, please consider becoming a sponsor so I can continue maintaining it and adding new features carefree.

Documentation

Usage

For the best performance Node.js version >=12.0.0 is recommended, but ^10.13.0 lts/dubnium is also supported.

Installing jose

npm install jose

Usage

const jose = require('jose')
const {
  JWE,   // JSON Web Encryption (JWE)
  JWK,   // JSON Web Key (JWK)
  JWKS,  // JSON Web Key Set (JWKS)
  JWS,   // JSON Web Signature (JWS)
  JWT,   // JSON Web Token (JWT)
  errors // errors utilized by jose
} = jose

Keys and KeyStores

Prepare your Keys and KeyStores. See the documentation for more.

const key = jose.JWK.asKey(fs.readFileSync('path/to/key/file'))

const jwk = { kty: 'EC',
  kid: 'dl4M_fcI7XoFCsQ22PYrQBkuxZ2pDcbDimcdFmmXM98',
  crv: 'P-256',
  x: 'v37avifcL-xgh8cy6IFzcINqqmFLc2JF20XUpn4Y2uQ',
  y: 'QTwy27XgP7ZMOdGOSopAHB-FU1JMQn3J9GEWGtUXreQ' }
const anotherKey = jose.JWK.asKey(jwk)

const keystore = new jose.JWKS.KeyStore(key, anotherKey)

JWT vs JWS

The JWT module provides IANA registered claim type and format validations on top of JWS as well as convenience options for verifying UNIX timestamps, setting maximum allowed JWT age, verifying audiences, and more.

The JWS module on the other hand handles the other JWS Serialization Syntaxes with all their additional available features and allows signing of any payload, i.e. not just serialized JSON objects.

JWT Signing

Sign with a private or symmetric key with plethora of convenience options. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWT.sign(
  { 'urn:example:claim': 'foo' },
  privateKey,
  {
    algorithm: 'PS256',
    audience: 'urn:example:client_id',
    expiresIn: '1 hour',
    header: {
      typ: 'JWT'
    },
    issuer: 'https://op.example.com'
  }
)

JWT Verifying

Verify with a public or symmetric key with plethora of convenience options. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWT.verify(
  'eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJQUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjRQQXBsVkJIN0toS1ZqN0xob0RFM0VVQnNGc0hvaTRhSmxBZGstM3JuME0ifQ.eyJ1cm46ZXhhbXBsZTpjbGFpbSI6ImZvbyIsImF1ZCI6InVybjpleGFtcGxlOmNsaWVudF9pZCIsImlzcyI6Imh0dHBzOi8vb3AuZXhhbXBsZS5jb20iLCJpYXQiOjE1NTEyOTI2MjksImV4cCI6MTU1MTI5NjIyOX0.nE5fgRL8gvlStf_wB4mJ0TSXVmhJRnUVQuZ0ts6a1nWnnk0Rv69bEJ12BoMdpyPrGa_W6dxU4HFj89F4pQwW0kqBK2-TZ_n9lq-iqupj46w_lpKOfPC3clVc7ZmqYF81bEA-nX93cSKqVV-qPNPEFenb8XHKszYhBFu_uiRg9rXj2qXVU7PXGJAGTzhVgVxB-3XDB1bQ_6KiDCwzVPftrHxEYLydRCaHzggDg6sAFUhQqhPguKuE2gs6jVUh_gIL2RXeoLoinx6gZ72rfovaOmud-yzNIUN8Tvo0pqBmx0s_lEhTlfrQCzN7hZNmV1eG0GDDE-S_CfZhPePnVJZoRA',
  publicKey,
  {
    issuer: 'https://op.example.com',
    audience: 'urn:example:client_id',
    algorithms: ['PS256']
  }
)
<summary> Verifying OIDC ID Tokens (Click to expand)</summary>

ID Token is a JWT, but profiled, there are additional requirements to a JWT to be accepted as an ID Token and it is pretty easy to omit some, use the profile option of JWT.verify or the JWT.IdToken.verify shorthand to make sure what you're accepting is really an ID Token meant to your Client. This will then perform all doable validations given the input. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWT.IdToken.verify(
  'eyJhbGciOiJQUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCIsImtpZCI6InIxTGtiQm8zOTI1UmIyWkZGckt5VTNNVmV4OVQyODE3S3gwdmJpNmlfS2MifQ.eyJzdWIiOiJmb28iLCJub25jZSI6ImE1MWNjZjA4ZjRiYmIwNmU4ODcxNWRkYzRiYmI0MWQ4IiwiYXVkIjoidXJuOmV4YW1wbGU6Y2xpZW50X2lkIiwiZXhwIjoxNTYzODg4ODMwLCJpYXQiOjE1NjM4ODUyMzAsImlzcyI6Imh0dHBzOi8vb3AuZXhhbXBsZS5jb20ifQ.RKCZczgICF5G9XdNDSwe4dolGauQHptpFKPzahA2wYGG2HKrKhyC8ZzqpeVc8cbntuqFBgABJVv6_9YICRx_dgwPYydTpZfZYjHnxrdWF9QsIPEGs672mrnhqIXUnXoseZ0TF6GOq6P7Qbf6gk1ru7TAbr_ieyJnNWcJhh5iHpz1k3mFz0TyTh7UNXshtQXftPUipqz4OBni5r9UaZXHw8B3QYOnms8__GJ3owOxaqkr1jgRs_EWqMlBNjPaj7ElVaeBWljDKuoK673tH0heSpgzUmUX_W8IDUVqs33uglpZwAQC7cAA5mGEg2odcRpvpP5M-WaP4RE9dl9jzcYmrw',
  keyOrStore,
  {
    issuer: 'https://op.example.com',
    audience: 'urn:example:client_id',
    nonce: 'a51ccf08f4bbb06e88715ddc4bbb41d8',
    algorithms: ['PS256']
  }
)

Note: Depending on the channel you receive an ID Token from the following claims may be required and must also be checked: at_hash, c_hash or s_hash. Use e.g. oidc-token-hash to validate those hashes after getting the ID Token payload and signature validated by jose

<summary> Verifying OAuth 2.0 JWT Access Tokens (Click to expand)</summary>

Draft specification profiles are updated as minor versions of the library, therefore, since they may have breaking changes use the ~ semver operator when using these and pay close attention to changelog and the drafts themselves.

When accepting a JWT-formatted OAuth 2.0 Access Token there are additional requirements for the JWT to be accepted as an Access Token according to the specification and it is pretty easy to omit some. Use the profile option of JWT.verify or the JWT.AccessToken.verify shorthand to make sure what you're accepting is really a JWT Access Token meant for your Resource Server. This will then perform all doable validations given the input. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWT.AccessToken.verify(
  'eyJhbGciOiJQUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6ImF0K0pXVCIsImtpZCI6InIxTGtiQm8zOTI1UmIyWkZGckt5VTNNVmV4OVQyODE3S3gwdmJpNmlfS2MifQ.eyJzdWIiOiJmb28iLCJjbGllbnRfaWQiOiJ1cm46ZXhhbXBsZTpjbGllbnRfaWQiLCJhdWQiOiJ1cm46ZXhhbXBsZTpyZXNvdXJjZS1zZXJ2ZXIiLCJleHAiOjE1NjM4ODg4MzAsImlzcyI6Imh0dHBzOi8vb3AuZXhhbXBsZS5jb20iLCJzY29wZSI6ImFwaTpyZWFkIn0.UYy8vEGWS0cS24giCYobMMy9-bqI45p807yV1l-2WXX2J4UO-eohV_R58LE2oM88gl414c6XydO6QSYXul5roNPoOs41jpEvreQIP-HmegjbWGutktWJKfvoOblE5FjYwjrwStjLQGUzkq6KWcnDLPGmpFy7n6gZ4LF8YVz4dLEaO335hMNVNrmSPSXYqr7bAWybnLVpLxjDYwNfCO1g0_TlFx8fHh2OftHoOOmJFltFwb8JypkSB-JXVVSEh43IOEjeeMJIG_ylWIOxfLLi5Q7vPWgub83ZTkuGNe4KmlQJKIsH5k0yZSshsLYUOOH0RiXqQ-SA4Ubh3Fowigdu-g',
  keyOrStore,
  {
    issuer: 'https://op.example.com',
    audience: 'urn:example:resource-server',
    algorithms: ['PS256']
  }
)
<summary> Verifying OIDC Logout Token (Click to expand)</summary>

Draft specification profiles are updated as minor versions of the library, therefore, since they may have breaking changes use the ~ semver operator when using these and pay close attention to changelog and the drafts themselves.

Logout Token is a JWT, but profiled, there are additional requirements to a JWT to be accepted as an Logout Token and it is pretty easy to omit some, use the profile option of JWT.verify or the JWT.LogoutToken.verify to make sure what you're accepting is really an Logout Token meant to your Client. This will then perform all doable validations given the input. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWT.LogoutToken.verify(
  'eyJhbGciOiJQUzI1NiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiJmb28iLCJhdWQiOiJ1cm46ZXhhbXBsZTpjbGllbnRfaWQiLCJpYXQiOjE1NjM4ODg4MzAsImp0aSI6ImhqazMyN2RzYSIsImlzcyI6Imh0dHBzOi8vb3AuZXhhbXBsZS5jb20iLCJldmVudHMiOnsiaHR0cDovL3NjaGVtYXMub3BlbmlkLm5ldC9ldmVudC9iYWNrY2hhbm5lbC1sb2dvdXQiOnt9fX0.SBi7uNUvjHL9TFoFzautGgTQ1MjyeGUNYHL7inpgq3XgTv6xc9EAKuPRtpixmhdNhmInGwUvAeqDSJxomwv1KK1cTndrC9zAMZ7h657BGQAwGhu7nTm41fWMpKQdiLa9sqp3yit5_FNBmqUNeOoMPrYT_Vl9ytsoNO89MUQy2aqCd-Z7BrNJZH0QycdW6dmYlrmZL7w3t3TaAXoJDJ4Hgl2Itkkkb6_6gO-VoPIdVD8sDuf1zQzGhIkmcFrk0fXczVYOkeF2hNYBuvsM8LuO-EPA3oyE2In9djai3M7yceTQetRa1vwlqWkg_xmYS59ry-6wT44aN7-Y6p0TdXm-Zg',
  keyOrStore,
  {
    issuer: 'https://op.example.com',
    audience: 'urn:example:client_id',
    algorithms: ['PS256']
  }
)

JWS Signing

Sign with a private or symmetric key using compact serialization. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWS.sign(
  { sub: 'johndoe' },
  privateKey,
  { kid: privateKey.kid }
)

JWS Verifying

Verify with a public or symmetric key. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWS.verify(
  'eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiJqb2huZG9lIn0.T_SYLQV3A5_kFDDVNuoadoURSEtuSOR-dG2CMmrP-ULK9xbIf2vYeiHOkvTrnqGlWEGBGxYtsP1VkXmNsi1uOw',
  publicKey
)

JWE Encrypting

Encrypt using the recipient's public key or a shared symmetrical secret. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWE.encrypt(
  'eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiJqb2huZG9lIn0.T_SYLQV3A5_kFDDVNuoadoURSEtuSOR-dG2CMmrP-ULK9xbIf2vYeiHOkvTrnqGlWEGBGxYtsP1VkXmNsi1uOw',
  publicKey,
  { kid: publicKey.kid }
)

JWE Decrypting

Decrypt using the private key or a shared symmetrical secret. See the documentation for more.

jose.JWE.decrypt(
  'eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2IiwiYWxnIjoiRUNESC1FUyIsImVwayI6eyJrdHkiOiJFQyIsImNydiI6IlAtMjU2IiwieCI6IkVsUGhsN1ljTVZsWkhHM0daSkRoOVJhemNYYlN2VFNheUF6aTBINFFtRUEiLCJ5IjoiM0hDREJTRy12emd6cGtLWmJqMU05UzVuUEJrTDBBdFM4U29ORUxMWE1SayJ9fQ..FhmidRo0twvFA7jcfKFNJw.o112vgiG_qUL1JR5WHpsErcxxgaK_FAa7vCWJ--WulndLpdwdRXHd9k3aL_k8K67xoAThrt10d7dSY2TlPpHdYkw979u0V-C4TNrpzNkv5jpBjU6hHyKpoGZfEsiTD1ivHaFy3ZLCTS69kN_eVKsZGLVf_dkq6Sz6bWE4-ln_fuwukPyMvjTyaTreLjPLBZW.ocKwptCm4Zn437L5hWFnHg',
  privateKey
)

Detailed Support Matrix

JWK Key Types Supported kty value crv values
RSA RSA
Elliptic Curve EC P-256, secp256k1[1], P-384, P-521
Octet Key Pair OKP Ed25519, Ed448[1], X25519[1], X448[1]
Octet sequence oct
Serialization JWS Sign JWS Verify JWE Encrypt JWE Decrypt
Compact
General JSON
Flattened JSON
JWS Algorithms Supported
RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 RS256, RS384, RS512
RSASSA-PSS PS256, PS384, PS512
ECDSA ES256, ES256K[1], ES384, ES512
Edwards-curve DSA EdDSA
HMAC with SHA-2 HS256, HS384, HS512
Unsecured JWS none[2]
JWE Key Management Algorithms Supported
AES A128KW[1], A192KW[1], A256KW[1]
AES GCM A128GCMKW, A192GCMKW, A256GCMKW
Direct Key Agreement dir
RSAES OAEP RSA-OAEP, RSA-OAEP-256[3], RSA-OAEP-384[3], RSA-OAEP-512[3]
RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 RSA1_5
PBES2 PBES2-HS256+A128KW[1], PBES2-HS384+A192KW[1], PBES2-HS512+A256KW[1]
ECDH-ES [4] ECDH-ES, ECDH-ES+A128KW[1], ECDH-ES+A192KW[1], ECDH-ES+A256KW[1]
JWE Content Encryption Algorithms Supported
AES GCM A128GCM, A192GCM, A256GCM
AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 A128CBC-HS256, A192CBC-HS384, A256CBC-HS512
JWT profile validation Supported Stable profile profile option value
ID Token - OpenID Connect Core 1.0 id_token
JWT Access Tokens - JWT Profile for OAuth 2.0 Access Tokens 5 at+JWT
Logout Token - OpenID Connect Back-Channel Logout 1.0 5 logout_token
JARM - JWT Secured Authorization Response Mode for OAuth 2.0
JWT Response for OAuth Token Introspection

Legend:

  • Implemented
  • Missing node crypto support / won't implement
  • TBD

1 Not supported in Electron due to Electron's use of BoringSSL
2 Unsecured JWS is supported for the JWS and JWT sign and verify operations but it is an entirely opt-in behaviour, downgrade attacks are prevented by the required use of a special JWK.Key-like object that cannot be instantiated through the key import API
3 RSAES OAEP using SHA-2 and MGF1 with SHA-2 is only supported when Node.js >=12.9.0 runtime is detected
4 ECDH-ES with X25519 and X448 keys is only supported when Node.js ^12.17.0 || >=13.9.0 runtime is detected
5 Draft specification profiles are updated as minor versions of the library, therefore, since they may have breaking changes use the ~ semver operator when using these and pay close attention to changelog and the drafts themselves.

FAQ

Semver?

Yes. Everything that's either exported in the TypeScript definitions file or documented is subject to Semantic Versioning 2.0.0. The rest is to be considered private API and is subject to change between any versions.

Although. Draft specification profiles are updated as minor versions of the library, therefore, since they may have breaking changes use the ~ semver operator when using these and pay close attention to changelog and the drafts themselves.

How do I use it outside of Node.js

It is only built for >=10.13.0 Node.js environment - including jose in transpiled browser-environment targeted projects is not supported and may result in unexpected results.

How is it different from jws, jwa or jsonwebtoken?

  • it supports JWK Key Format for all four key types (oct, RSA, EC and OKP)
  • it is providing Key and KeyStore abstractions
  • there is JSON Web Encryption support
  • it supports all JWS / JWE Serialization Syntaxes
  • it supports the "crit" member validations to make sure extensions are handled correctly
  • it is not only validating the signatures, it is making sure the JWE/JWS is syntactically correct, e.g. not having duplicated header parameters between protected/unprotected or per-recipient headers

How is it different from node-jose

node-jose is built to work in any javascript runtime, to be able to do that it packs a lot of backfill and javascript implementation code in the form of node-forge, this significantly increases the footprint of the module with dependencies that either aren't ever used or have native implementation available in Node.js already, those are often times faster and more reliable.

What is the ultimate goal?

  • No dependencies, the moment JWK formatted keys are supported by node's crypto the direct dependency count will go down from 1 to 0. ????
  • Just the API one needs, having used other jose modules for 3+ years I only include what's useful

Why? Just, why?

I was using node-jose for openid-client and oidc-provider and came to realize its shortcomings in terms of performance and API (not having well defined errors).

+ this was an amazing opportunity to learn JOSE as a whole

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