double-docker
Building NPM docker image in stages for faster NPM installs
Last updated 5 years ago by bahmutov .
MIT · Repository · Bugs · Original npm · Tarball · package.json
$ cnpm install double-docker 
SYNC missed versions from official npm registry.

double-docker

NPM

Build status semantic-release

NPM installs goes into the base docker image (based on SHA of package.json) Tests and builds are now both repeatable and super fast

local command                  Docker image

node <version>          ---->  alpine/mhart-<version>
                                     |
package.json <SHASUM>                V
npm install             ---->  dd-deps-<name>-<version>:<SHASUM>      clean, slow, rare
                                     |
src/                                 V
npm test                ---->  dd-child-<name>-<version>              FAST, often

The problem

The CI should build your project in isolation, thus it should run npm install from an empty folder. This takes some time. If we could separate the install from testing or building, we could run the tests really quickly.

We also want to follow the same approach when working locally. For example autochecker tests your Node project in the separate Docker containers, yet does not run the npm install from the clean folder on each build, instead relying on previous contents cache.

Solution

  1. Grab the SHA of npm-shrinkwrap.json or package.json file
  2. Build <project-name-node-version-SHA> docker image with npm install inside This docker image has the NPM dependencies installed and can be reused
  3. Build new docker image based on the previous image with the source code from the current folder. The docker image runs npm test command.

That's it. You can work locally like this, or put the commands on CI and the builds become very very fast.

Don't forget to put .dockerignore file in the root of your project with /node_modules line to prevent copying the large folder for nothing.

Install and use

Once you have Docker on your local machine and CI, just add double-docker as your dev dependency

npm i -D double-docker

Create .dockerignore file in the root folder and at least ignore node_modules folder

echo "node_modules/">.dockerignore

Then set the following script commands to call double-docker's aliases

{
  "scripts": {
    "build": "your current build command",
    "test": "your current test command",
    "dd-build": "dd-build",
    "dd-test": "dd-test",
    "dd-get": "dd-get dist"
  }
}

dd-test will run the container and will call npm test with your code inside. dd-build will run npm run build.

If you want to test in a different version of Node just run

npm run dd-test -- 4

Or add it to the package.json script command

{
  "scripts": {
    "dd-build": "dd-build 4",
    "dd-test": "dd-test 4"
  }
}

The dd-get command copies the built folder / file from the finished Docker container to local file system. This is the way to grab the results of the isolated build.

dd-get <folder name> <node version>

Additional scripts

To clear all containers and docker images run dd-rm command which runs the utils/rm-docker-images.sh

Custom Docker templates

If you have file named DockerNpmDepsTemplate in the current folder, it will be used to create the Docker base image. A good example is test2/DockerNpmDepsTemplate file.

If you have file named DockerTestTemplate it will be used during the dd-test step. A good example is test3/DockerTestTemplate.

Important: when using custom Docker template file, do not start with the FROM line. The FROM <image> line will be included automatically by the double-docker.

When using the scripts, always assume the work directory is WORKDIR /usr/src/app

Rebuilding base image

By default, the base image is rebuilt if either npm-shrinkwrap.json or package.json SHA changes. You can provide list of filenames to use instead. For example, if you use custom Docker template file, you probably want to rebuild if that file changes too.

{
  "scripts": {
    "dd-build": "dd-build 4 package.json DockerNpmDepsTemplate",
    "dd-test": "dd-test 4 package.json DockerNpmDepsTemplate"
  }
}

Make sure to add the list of filenames to both the build and the test script commands (if you have two of them).

Examples

See test subfolders for examples. These examples use the commands via script file names, and not via NPM script aliases.

  • test - simple project with defaults (uses NPM script aliases)
  • test2 - custom NPM dependencies Docker file template example
  • test3 - custom test step Docker file template example

The timing

Installing NPM dependencies takes a long time. For example here, with express, babel and babel-cli

$ node -v
v6.0.0
$ npm -v
3.8.6
$ time npm install
real  0m19.302s
user  0m10.153s
sys   0m2.957s

Build locally once (which includes testing right now)

$ cd test
$ time ./install-and-test.sh
... package.json file has SHA 808de4d5ca619670e34b26d6e93bcaa7a4e2da81
... builds double-docker-npm-deps:808de4d5ca619670e34b26d6e93bcaa7a4e2da81
... with NPM dependencies
... builds double-docker:0.12 on top of double-docker-npm-deps:808de4d ...
... runs npm test in double-docker:0.12
real  0m28.460s
user  0m0.770s
sys 0m0.346s

So we lost 10 seconds because of building two Docker images the first time. But any run after the first one is very fast

$ cd test
$ time ./install-and-test.sh
... first docker image with deps is already there, no changes
... building second docker image by copying files
... runs npm test in double-docker:0.12
real  0m1.264s
user  0m0.108s
sys   0m0.053s

But now clone the same repo somewhere else on the local machine. Without running npm install run tests.

$ git clone <repo> double-docker
$ cd test-npm-layers/test
$ time ./install-and-test.sh
... pulls docker deps from local Docker registry
... runs tests
real  0m0.941s
user  0m0.130s
sys 0m0.073s

Nice!

We could probably make it even faster by mounting the current working folder into the container. But having an actual built container allows us one more trick - the tests can be executed on a separate machine. Thus you can keep working locally and when running the script, the built image could be pulled and executed from any other CI machine.

Removing extra containers and images

Created docker containers and images are prefixed with dd-. To remove them, run the script rm-docker-images.sh

Small print

Author: Gleb Bahmutov © 2016

License: MIT - do anything with the code, but don't blame me if it does not work.

Spread the word: tweet, star on github, etc.

Support: if you find any problems with this module, email / tweet / open issue on Github

MIT License

Copyright (c) 2016 Gleb Bahmutov

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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