A database migration tool for MongoDB in Node
Last updated 2 years ago by jesstelford .
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A database migration tool for MongoDB in Node.

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$ npm install -g migrate-mongo


$ migrate-mongo
Usage: migrate-mongo [options] [command]


    init                  initialize a new migration project
    create [description]  create a new database migration with the provided description
    up [options]          run all unapplied database migrations
    down [options]        undo the last applied database migration
    status [options]      print the changelog of the database


    -h, --help     output usage information
    -V, --version  output the version number


Initialize a new project

Make sure you have Node.js 7.6.0 (or higher) installed.

Create a directory where you want to store your migrations for your mongo database (eg. 'albums' here) and cd into it

$ mkdir albums-migrations
$ cd albums-migrations

Initialize a new migrate-mongo project

$ migrate-mongo init
Initialization successful. Please edit the generated migrate-mongo-config.js file

The above command did two things:

  1. create a sample 'migrate-mongo-config.js' file and
  2. create a 'migrations' directory

Edit the migrate-mongo-config.js file. Make sure you change the mongodb url:

// In this file you can configure migrate-mongo

module.exports = {
  mongodb: {
    // TODO Change (or review) the url to your MongoDB:
    url: "mongodb://localhost:27017",

    // TODO Change this to your database name:
    databaseName: "YOURDATABASENAME",

    options: {
      useNewUrlParser: true // removes a deprecation warning when connecting
      //   connectTimeoutMS: 3600000, // increase connection timeout to 1 hour
      //   socketTimeoutMS: 3600000, // increase socket timeout to 1 hour

  // The migrations dir, can be an relative or absolute path. Only edit this when really necessary.
  migrationsDir: "migrations",

  // The mongodb collection where the applied changes are stored. Only edit this when really necessary.
  changelogCollectionName: "changelog"

Creating a new migration script

To create a new database migration script, just run the migrate-mongo create [description] command.

For example:

$ migrate-mongo create blacklist_the_beatles
Created: migrations/20160608155948-blacklist_the_beatles.js

A new migration file is created in the 'migrations' directory:

module.exports = {
  up(db) {
    // TODO write your migration here. Return a Promise (and/or use async & await).
    // See https://github.com/seppevs/migrate-mongo/#creating-a-new-migration-script
    // Example:
    // return db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: true}});

  down(db) {
    // TODO write the statements to rollback your migration (if possible)
    // Example:
    // return db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: false}});

Edit this content so it actually performs changes to your database. Don't forget to write the down part as well. The db object contains the official MongoDB db object

There are 3 options to implement the up and down functions of your migration:

  1. Return a Promises
  2. Use async-await
  3. Call a callback (deprecated)

Always make sure the implementation matches the function signature:

  • function up(db) { /* */ } should return Promise
  • function async up(db) { /* */ } should contain await keyword(s) and return Promise
  • function up(db, next) { /* */ } should callback next

Example 1: Return a Promise

module.exports = {
  up(db) {
    return db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: true}});

  down(db) {
    return db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: false}});

Example 2: Use async & await

Async & await is especially useful if you want to perform multiple operations against your MongoDB in one migration.

module.exports = {
  async up(db) {
    await db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: true}});
    await db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Doors'}, {$set: {stars: 5}});

  async down(db) {
    await db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Doors'}, {$set: {stars: 0}});
    await db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: false}});

Example 3: Call a callback (deprecated)

Callbacks are supported for backwards compatibility. New migration scripts should be written using Promises and/or async & await. It's easier to read and write.

module.exports = {
  up(db, callback) {
    return db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: true}}, callback);

  down(db, callback) {
    return db.collection('albums').updateOne({artist: 'The Beatles'}, {$set: {blacklisted: false}}, callback);

Checking the status of the migrations

At any time, you can check which migrations are applied (or not)

$ migrate-mongo status
│ Filename                                │ Applied At │
│ 20160608155948-blacklist_the_beatles.js │ PENDING    │

Migrate up

This command will apply all pending migrations

$ migrate-mongo up
MIGRATED UP: 20160608155948-blacklist_the_beatles.js

If an an error occurred, it will stop and won't continue with the rest of the pending migrations

If we check the status again, we can see the last migration was successfully applied:

$ migrate-mongo status
│ Filename                                │ Applied At               │
│ 20160608155948-blacklist_the_beatles.js │ 2016-06-08T20:13:30.415Z │

Migrate down

With this command, migrate-mongo will revert (only) the last applied migration

$ migrate-mongo down
MIGRATED DOWN: 20160608155948-blacklist_the_beatles.js

If we check the status again, we see that the reverted migration is pending again:

$ migrate-mongo status
│ Filename                                │ Applied At │
│ 20160608155948-blacklist_the_beatles.js │ PENDING    │

Using a custom config file

All actions (except init) accept an optional -f or --file option to specify a path to a custom config file. By default, migrate-mongo will look for a migrate-mongo-config.js config file in of the current directory.


$ migrate-mongo status -f '~/configs/albums-migrations.js'
│ Filename                                │ Applied At │
│ 20160608155948-blacklist_the_beatles.js │ PENDING    │

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