@futpib/sparql-client
SPARQL Client for JavaScript
Last updated 2 years ago by futpib .
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sparql-client

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A SPARQL 1.1 client for JavaScript.

const {SparqlClient, SPARQL} = require('sparql-client-2');
const client =
  new SparqlClient('http://dbpedia.org/sparql')
    .register({
      db: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/',
      dbpedia: 'http://dbpedia.org/property/'
    });

function fetchCityLeader(cityName) {
  return client
    .query(SPARQL`
           SELECT ?leaderName
           WHERE {
             ${{db: cityName}} dbpedia:leaderName ?leaderName
           }`)
    .execute()
    // Get the item we want.
    .then(response => Promise.resolve(response.results.bindings[0].leaderName.value));
}

fetchCityLeader('Vienna')
  .then(leader => console.log(`${leader} is a leader of Vienna`));

Table of Contents

Use

Using SPARQL Tagged Template and Promises (ECMAScript 2015/ES 6)

You may use the SPARQL template tag to interpolate variables into the query. All values are automatically converted into their SPARQL literal form, and any unsafe strings are escaped.

const SparqlClient = require('sparql-client-2');
const SPARQL = SparqlClient.SPARQL;
const endpoint = 'http://dbpedia.org/sparql';

const city = 'Vienna';

// Get the leaderName(s) of the given city
const query =
  SPARQL`PREFIX db: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/>
         PREFIX dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/property/>
         SELECT ?leaderName
         FROM <http://dbpedia.org>
         WHERE {
           ${{db: city}} dbpedia:leaderName ?leaderName
         }
         LIMIT 10`;

const client = new SparqlClient(endpoint)
  .register({db: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/'})
  .register({dbpedia: 'http://dbpedia.org/property/'});

client.query(query)
  .execute()
  .then(function (results) {
    console.dir(results, {depth: null});
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    // Oh noes! ????
  });

Results in:

{ head: { link: [], vars: [ 'leaderName' ] },
  results:
   { distinct: false,
     ordered: true,
     bindings:
      [ { leaderName: { type: 'literal', 'xml:lang': 'en', value: 'Maria Vassilakou ,' } },
        { leaderName: { type: 'literal', 'xml:lang': 'en', value: 'Michael Häupl' } },
        { leaderName: { type: 'literal', 'xml:lang': 'en', value: 'Renate Brauner ;' } } ] } }

Using "Traditional" Node Callbacks

You are not forced to use promises; traditional (err, results) callbacks work too. You may also use #bind() to replace ?variables in the query with sanitized values:

// Get the leaderName(s) of the 10 cities
var query = "SELECT * FROM <http://dbpedia.org> WHERE { " +
  "?city <http://dbpedia.org/property/leaderName> ?leaderName " +
  "} LIMIT 10";
var client = new SparqlClient( 'http://dbpedia.org/sparql')
  .register({db: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/'});

client.query(query)
  .bind('city', {db: 'Vienna'})
  .execute(function(error, results) {
    console.dir(arguments, {depth: null});
});

Registering URI Prefixes

Registering common prefixes

Often, SPARQL queries have many prefixes to register.

Common prefixes include:

Prefix URI
rdf http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
xsd http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#
fn http://www.w3.org/2005/xpath-functions#
sfn http://www.w3.org/ns/sparql#

You may register any of the above by passing them to #registerCommon(). This may be done per-query:

new SparqlClient(endpoint)
  .query(`SELECT ...`)
  .registerCommon('xsd', 'sfn')
  // Will have PREFIX xsd and sfn to this query only.
  .execute();

Or on the client, affecting every subsequent query:

client
  .registerCommon('rdfs', 'xsd');
// Will add prefix rdfs and xsd.
client.query('...').execute();

Registering custom prefixes

Using #register() on either the client or the query, you can register any arbitrary prefix:

var client = new SparqlClient(endpoint)
  // Can register one at a time:
  .register('ns', 'http://example.org/ns#')
  // Can register in bulk, as an object:
  .register({
      db: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/',
      dbpedia: 'http://dbpedia.org/property/'
  })
  // Can register a BASE (empty prefix):
  .register('http://example.org/books/');

Binding variables

Explicitly, using #bind()

It's inadvisable to concatenate strings in order to write a query, especially if data is coming from untrusted sources. #bind() allows you to pass values to queries that will be converted into a safe SPARQL term.

Say you have a statement like this:

var text = 'INSERT DATA {' +
  ' [] rdfs:label ?creature ;' +
  '    dbfr:paws ?paws ;' +
  '    dbfr:netWorth ?netWorth ;' +
  '    dbfr:weight ?weight ;' +
  '    dbfr:grumpy ?grumpy ;' +
  '    dbfr:derrivedFrom ?derrivedFrom .' +
  '}';

Each of the ?questionMarked fields can be bound to JavaScript values while querying using #bind():

client.query(text)
  // Bind one at a time...
  .bind('grumpy', true)
  // Use a third argument to provide options.
  .bind('derrivedFrom', 'http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grumpy_Cat?oldid=94581698', {type:'uri'})
  // Or bind multiple values at once using an object:
  .bind({
    creature: {value: 'chat', lang: 'fr'},
    paws: {value: 4, type: 'integer'},
    netWorth: {value: '16777216.25', type: 'decimal'}, // francs
    weight: 3.18, // kg
  });

Using the SPARQL template tag

Any value that can be bound using #bind() can equally be interpolated using the SPARQL template tag: URIs, strings, booleans, language tagged strings, doubles, literals with custom types­anything! Note the doubled curly-braces (${{value: ...}}) when passing an object.

var text = SPARQL`
  INSERT DATA {
    ${{dc: 'eddieantonio'}} ns:favouriteGame ${{db: 'Super_Metroid'}} ;
                rdfs:label ${'@eddieantonio'} ;
                ns:prettyCheekyM8 ${true} ;
                rdfs:label ${{value: 'エディ', lang: 'jp'}} ;
                ns:favoriteConstant ${Math.PI} ;
                ns:favoriteColor ${{value: 'blue', datatype: {ns: 'Color'}}} .
  }`;

Then text would be the string:

  INSERT DATA {
    dc:eddieantonio ns:favouriteGame db:Super_Metroid ;
                rdfs:label '@eddieantonio' ;
                ns:prettyCheekyM8 true ;
                rdfs:label 'エディ'@jp ;
                ns:favoriteConstant 3.141592653589793e0 ;
                ns:favoriteColor 'blue'^^ns:Color .
  }

Updates

There's no need to specify anything special; LOAD, CLEAR, DROP, ADD, MOVE, COPY, INSERT DATA, and DELETE DATA are automatically requested as updates. Just write these statements like any other:

new SparqlClient(endpoint).query(SPARQL`
  INSERT DATA {
    ${{pkmn: 'Lotad'}} pkdx:evolvesTo ${{pkmn: 'Lombre'}}
    ${{pkmn: 'Lombre'}} pkdx:evolvesTo ${{pkmn: 'Ludicolo'}}
  }`)
  .execute();

Specifying a different update endpoint

Some servers have different endpoints for queries and updates. Specify the alternate options when starting the client:

var client = new SparqlClient('http://example.org/query', {
  updateEndpoint: 'http://example.org/update'
});

You may use the client subsequently:

// Will be sent to http://example.org/update
client.query(SPARQL`
  INSERT DATA {
    ${{pkmn: 'Lotad'}} pkdx:evolvesTo ${{pkmn: 'Lombre'}}
    ${{pkmn: 'Lombre'}} pkdx:evolvesTo ${{pkmn: 'Ludicolo'}}
  }`)
  .execute();

// Will be sent to http://example.org/query
client.query(SPARQL`
  SELECT {
    ${{pkmn: 'Lombre'}} pkdx:evolvesTo ?evolution
  }`)
  .execute()
  .then(response => {
    // Prints Ludicolo
    console.log(response.results.bindings[0].evolution.value)
  });

Overriding request defaults

You can override the request defaults by passing them in the options object of the constructor. defaultParams are the default parameters in the request, and requestsDefaults are the default request options. This distinction is a little confusing, so here are some examples:

For example, say you have a graph database that expects format: 'json' as a param rather than the default format: 'application/sparql-results+json'. You can override the default when constructing your client like so:

var client = new SparqlClient('http://example.org/query', {
  defaultParameters: {
    format: 'json'
  }
});

Similarly, let's say you want to specify your client's user agent string. You can pass this, and other headers, as part of a requestsDefaults option.

var client = new SparqlClient('http://example.org/query', {
  requestsDefaults: {
    headers: {
      'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
      'Accept': 'application/sparql-results+json,application/json',
      'User-Agent': 'My Totally Sweet App - 1.0'
    }
  }
});

Errors

If an error occurs, such as when submitting a query with a syntax error, the first argument to execute() will be an Error object and have the .httpStatus attribute with the associated HTTP status code. Usually this is 400 when there is a syntax error, or 500 when the server refuses to process the request (such as when a timeout occurs). This status code is defined by the particular SPARQL server used.

new SparqlClient(endpoint).query(`
    SELECT ?name
    WHERE { ?x foaf:name ?name
    ORDER BY ?name
  `)
  .execute(function (err, data) {
    console.log(err.httpStatus);
    // logs '400'
    console.log(err);
    // logs 'HTTP Error: 400 Bad Request'
  });

This also works with promises:

new SparqlClient(endpoint).query(`
    SELECT ?name
    WHERE { ?x foaf:name ?name
    ORDER BY ?name
  `)
  .execute()
  .then(function () {
    // will never reach here!
  })
  .catch(function (err) {
    console.log(err.httpStatus);
    // logs '400'
    console.log(err);
    // logs 'HTTP Error: 400 Bad Request'
  });

Result Formatting

We may want to execute the following query (to retrieve all books and their genres).

PREFIX dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/owl/>
SELECT ?book ?genre WHERE {
    ?book dbpedia-owl:literaryGenre ?genre
}

The default formatting (when no options are provided) results, for the bindings (limited to two results in our example), in

[
  {
    book: {
      type: 'uri',
      value: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/A_Game_of_Thrones'
    },
    genre: {
      type: 'uri',
      value: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fantasy'
    }
  },
  {
    book: {
      type: 'uri',
      value: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/A_Game_of_Thrones'
    },
    genre: {
      type: 'uri',
      value: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/Political_strategy'
    }
  }
]

Using the format option resource with the resource option set to book like so:

query.execute({format: {resource: 'book'}}, function(error, results) {
  // ...
});

Results in:

[
  {
    book: {
      type: 'uri',
      value: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/A_Game_of_Thrones'
    },
    genre: [
      {
        type: 'uri',
        value: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fantasy'
      },
      {
        type: 'uri',
        value: 'http://dbpedia.org/resource/Political_strategy'
      }
    ]
  }
]

This makes it easier to process the results later (in the callback), because all the genres are connected to one book (in one binding), and not spread over several bindings. Calling the execute function will look something like this

query.execute({format: {resource: 'book'}}, function(error, results) {
  console.dir(arguments, {depth: null});
});

License

The MIT License

Copyright © 2014 Thomas Fritz
Copyright © 2015, 2016 Eddie Antonio Santos

Contributors

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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