开发者社区> 韩曙亮> 正文

【Android 异步操作】Handler 机制 ( Android 提供的 Handler 源码解析 | Handler 构造与消息分发 | MessageQueue 消息队列相关方法 )

简介: 【Android 异步操作】Handler 机制 ( Android 提供的 Handler 源码解析 | Handler 构造与消息分发 | MessageQueue 消息队列相关方法 )
+关注继续查看

文章目录

一、Handler 构造函数

二、Handler 消息分发

三、MessageQueue 消息队列相关函数





一、Handler 构造函数


一般使用 Handler 时 , 调用 Handler 的普通 无参构造函数 ,


public class Handler {
    /**
     * 默认的构造函数 , 与当前线程相关联.
     * 如果该线程没有 Looper , 该 Handler 不能接受 Message 消息 , 并抛出异常
     */
    public Handler() {
        this(null, false);
    }
}



上面的无参构造函数调用了下面的构造方法 ,


第一个参数 Callback callback 是一个回调 , mCallback = callback , 该回调直接设置给了 mCallback 成员变量 ,


在该方法中 , 调用 mLooper = Looper.myLooper() 获取线程本地变量 Looper ;



获取 Looper 中的消息队列 MessageQueue , mQueue = mLooper.mQueue ;



主线程的 Looper 是在 ActivityThread 中的 main 函数 中 , 使用 Looper.prepareMainLooper() 创建的 ,


在 ActivityThread 的 main 函数最后调用了 Looper.loop() , 无限循环获取主线程 Looper 中封装的 MessageQueue 消息队列中的消息 ;


参考 : 【Android 异步操作】Handler ( 主线程中的 Handler 与 Looper | Handler 原理简介 ) ,


public class Handler {
    /**
     * Use the {@link Looper} for the current thread with the specified callback interface
     * and set whether the handler should be asynchronous.
     *
     * Handlers are synchronous by default unless this constructor is used to make
     * one that is strictly asynchronous.
     *
     * Asynchronous messages represent interrupts or events that do not require global ordering
     * with respect to synchronous messages.  Asynchronous messages are not subject to
     * the synchronization barriers introduced by {@link MessageQueue#enqueueSyncBarrier(long)}.
     *
     * @param callback The callback interface in which to handle messages, or null.
     * @param async If true, the handler calls {@link Message#setAsynchronous(boolean)} for
     * each {@link Message} that is sent to it or {@link Runnable} that is posted to it.
     *
     * @hide
     */
    public Handler(@Nullable Callback callback, boolean async) {
        if (FIND_POTENTIAL_LEAKS) {
            final Class<? extends Handler> klass = getClass();
            if ((klass.isAnonymousClass() || klass.isMemberClass() || klass.isLocalClass()) &&
                    (klass.getModifiers() & Modifier.STATIC) == 0) {
                Log.w(TAG, "The following Handler class should be static or leaks might occur: " +
                    klass.getCanonicalName());
            }
        }
        mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
        if (mLooper == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException(
                "Can't create handler inside thread " + Thread.currentThread()
                        + " that has not called Looper.prepare()");
        }
        mQueue = mLooper.mQueue;
        mCallback = callback;
        mAsynchronous = async;
    }
}



Handler 中的 Callack 回调 接口 ;


public class Handler {
    /**
     * Callback interface you can use when instantiating a Handler to avoid
     * having to implement your own subclass of Handler.
     */
    public interface Callback {
        /**
         * @param msg A {@link android.os.Message Message} object
         * @return True if no further handling is desired
         */
        boolean handleMessage(@NonNull Message msg);
    }
}





二、Handler 消息分发


Handler 中的消息分发 , 在 Looper 的 loop 方法中 , 调用该消息 dispatchMessage 分发消息的方法 ,


在该分发消息方法中 , 首先会查看 消息 Message 中 是否有 Callback 回调 ,


如果有执行该回调 , 就是构造函数中赋值的 mCallback ,


如果没有就调用 Handler 中的 handleMessage 方法 ;


public class Handler {
    /**
     * 在这里处理 Message 消息.
     */
    public void dispatchMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
        if (msg.callback != null) {
            handleCallback(msg);
        } else {
            if (mCallback != null) {
                if (mCallback.handleMessage(msg)) {
                    return;
                }
            }
            handleMessage(msg);
        }
    }
}


使用 Handler 发送消息时 , 会 调用各种发送消息的方法 , 如


public final boolean sendMessage(@NonNull Message msg)

public final boolean sendEmptyMessage(int what)

public final boolean sendEmptyMessageDelayed

public final boolean sendEmptyMessageAtTime

public final boolean sendMessageDelayed(@NonNull Message msg, long delayMillis)

等方法 , 所有的发送消息的方法 , 最终都会调用 public boolean sendMessageAtTime(@NonNull Message msg, long uptimeMillis) 方法 ,


在该方法中 , 调用 MessageQueue queue = mQueue , 获取 消息队列 MessageQueue ,


然后调用 enqueueMessage(queue, msg, uptimeMillis) 方法 , 将消息加入到 消息队列 MessageQueue 中 ;


public class Handler {
    /**
     * Enqueue a message into the message queue after all pending messages
     * before the absolute time (in milliseconds) <var>uptimeMillis</var>.
     * <b>The time-base is {@link android.os.SystemClock#uptimeMillis}.</b>
     * Time spent in deep sleep will add an additional delay to execution.
     * You will receive it in {@link #handleMessage}, in the thread attached
     * to this handler.
     * 
     * @param uptimeMillis The absolute time at which the message should be
     *         delivered, using the
     *         {@link android.os.SystemClock#uptimeMillis} time-base.
     *         
     * @return Returns true if the message was successfully placed in to the 
     *         message queue.  Returns false on failure, usually because the
     *         looper processing the message queue is exiting.  Note that a
     *         result of true does not mean the message will be processed -- if
     *         the looper is quit before the delivery time of the message
     *         occurs then the message will be dropped.
     */
    public boolean sendMessageAtTime(@NonNull Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
        MessageQueue queue = mQueue;
        if (queue == null) {
            RuntimeException e = new RuntimeException(
                    this + " sendMessageAtTime() called with no mQueue");
            Log.w("Looper", e.getMessage(), e);
            return false;
        }
        return enqueueMessage(queue, msg, uptimeMillis);
    }
}




三、MessageQueue 消息队列相关函数


下面的代码是将消息存储到消息队列中的 enqueueMessage 方法 ;


public final class MessageQueue {
    boolean enqueueMessage(Message msg, long when) {
        if (msg.target == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Message must have a target.");
        }
        if (msg.isInUse()) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(msg + " This message is already in use.");
        }
        synchronized (this) {
            if (mQuitting) {
                IllegalStateException e = new IllegalStateException(
                        msg.target + " sending message to a Handler on a dead thread");
                Log.w(TAG, e.getMessage(), e);
                msg.recycle();
                return false;
            }
            msg.markInUse();
            msg.when = when;
            Message p = mMessages;
            boolean needWake;
            // 如果当前消息为空 , 时间小于当前该消息的发送时间 , 需要马上将该消息发送出去
            // 将表头设置成发送进来的消息 
            if (p == null || when == 0 || when < p.when) {
                // New head, wake up the event queue if blocked.
                msg.next = p;
                mMessages = msg;
                needWake = mBlocked;
            } else {
                // 如果该消息不急着发送 , 那么将该消息放在消息队列列表尾部 
                // Inserted within the middle of the queue.  Usually we don't have to wake
                // up the event queue unless there is a barrier at the head of the queue
                // and the message is the earliest asynchronous message in the queue.
                needWake = mBlocked && p.target == null && msg.isAsynchronous();
                Message prev;
                for (;;) {
                    prev = p;
                    p = p.next;
                    if (p == null || when < p.when) {
                        break;
                    }
                    if (needWake && p.isAsynchronous()) {
                        needWake = false;
                    }
                }
                msg.next = p; // invariant: p == prev.next
                prev.next = msg;
            }
            // We can assume mPtr != 0 because mQuitting is false.
            if (needWake) {
                nativeWake(mPtr);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
}



从链表中取出数据 , 调用的是 消息队列 MessageQueue 的 next 方法 , 获取消息时 , 需要获取当前的时间 , 用于判定是否有需要延迟发送的消息 ;


public final class MessageQueue {
    @UnsupportedAppUsage
    Message next() {
        // Return here if the message loop has already quit and been disposed.
        // This can happen if the application tries to restart a looper after quit
        // which is not supported.
        final long ptr = mPtr;
        if (ptr == 0) {
            return null;
        }
        int pendingIdleHandlerCount = -1; // -1 only during first iteration
        int nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
        for (;;) {
            if (nextPollTimeoutMillis != 0) {
                Binder.flushPendingCommands();
            }
            nativePollOnce(ptr, nextPollTimeoutMillis);
            synchronized (this) {
              // 获取当前的时间 , 需要判定是否有需要延迟发送的消息 
                // Try to retrieve the next message.  Return if found.
                final long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
                Message prevMsg = null;
                Message msg = mMessages;
                if (msg != null && msg.target == null) {
                    // Stalled by a barrier.  Find the next asynchronous message in the queue.
                    do {
                        prevMsg = msg;
                        msg = msg.next;
                    } while (msg != null && !msg.isAsynchronous());
                }
                if (msg != null) {
                    if (now < msg.when) {
                        // Next message is not ready.  Set a timeout to wake up when it is ready.
                        nextPollTimeoutMillis = (int) Math.min(msg.when - now, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
                    } else {
                        // Got a message.
                        mBlocked = false;
                        if (prevMsg != null) {
                            prevMsg.next = msg.next;
                        } else {
                            mMessages = msg.next;
                        }
                        msg.next = null;
                        if (DEBUG) Log.v(TAG, "Returning message: " + msg);
                        msg.markInUse();
                        return msg;
                    }
                } else {
                    // No more messages.
                    nextPollTimeoutMillis = -1;
                }
                // Process the quit message now that all pending messages have been handled.
                if (mQuitting) {
                    dispose();
                    return null;
                }
                // If first time idle, then get the number of idlers to run.
                // Idle handles only run if the queue is empty or if the first message
                // in the queue (possibly a barrier) is due to be handled in the future.
                if (pendingIdleHandlerCount < 0
                        && (mMessages == null || now < mMessages.when)) {
                    pendingIdleHandlerCount = mIdleHandlers.size();
                }
                if (pendingIdleHandlerCount <= 0) {
                    // No idle handlers to run.  Loop and wait some more.
                    mBlocked = true;
                    continue;
                }
                if (mPendingIdleHandlers == null) {
                    mPendingIdleHandlers = new IdleHandler[Math.max(pendingIdleHandlerCount, 4)];
                }
                mPendingIdleHandlers = mIdleHandlers.toArray(mPendingIdleHandlers);
            }
            // Run the idle handlers.
            // We only ever reach this code block during the first iteration.
            for (int i = 0; i < pendingIdleHandlerCount; i++) {
                final IdleHandler idler = mPendingIdleHandlers[i];
                mPendingIdleHandlers[i] = null; // release the reference to the handler
                boolean keep = false;
                try {
                    keep = idler.queueIdle();
                } catch (Throwable t) {
                    Log.wtf(TAG, "IdleHandler threw exception", t);
                }
                if (!keep) {
                    synchronized (this) {
                        mIdleHandlers.remove(idler);
                    }
                }
            }
            // Reset the idle handler count to 0 so we do not run them again.
            pendingIdleHandlerCount = 0;
            // While calling an idle handler, a new message could have been delivered
            // so go back and look again for a pending message without waiting.
            nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
        }
    }
}




版权声明:本文内容由阿里云实名注册用户自发贡献,版权归原作者所有,阿里云开发者社区不拥有其著作权,亦不承担相应法律责任。具体规则请查看《阿里云开发者社区用户服务协议》和《阿里云开发者社区知识产权保护指引》。如果您发现本社区中有涉嫌抄袭的内容,填写侵权投诉表单进行举报,一经查实,本社区将立刻删除涉嫌侵权内容。

相关文章
【Android 异步操作】Handler 机制 ( Android 提供的 Handler 源码解析 | Handler 构造与消息分发 | MessageQueue 消息队列相关方法 )
【Android 异步操作】Handler 机制 ( Android 提供的 Handler 源码解析 | Handler 构造与消息分发 | MessageQueue 消息队列相关方法 )
15 0
【Android 异步操作】Handler 机制 ( Handler 常用用法 | HandlerThread 简介 | HandlerThread 源码注释分析 )
【Android 异步操作】Handler 机制 ( Handler 常用用法 | HandlerThread 简介 | HandlerThread 源码注释分析 )
19 0
Okhttp3源码解析(1)-OkHttpClient分析
前言 上篇文章我们讲了Okhttp的基本用法,今天根据上节讲到请求流程来分析源码,那么第一步就是实例化OkHttpClient对象,所以我们今天主要分析下OkHttpClient源码! 初始化-构造方式 创建 OkHttpClient实例的两种方式 1.
2644 0
共享内存操作类(C#源码)
原文 http://blog.csdn.net/yefanqiu/article/details/1717458   VC++的共享内存操作代码实现起来相对比较容易,但是用C#语言来实现,就有一定难度,由于工作需要,把以前VC开发的共享内存代码要用C#实现,别说,还费了不少周折,毕竟C#操作API函数和地址指针不是那么直接,还好,总算完成了,效果还不错。
504 0
SpringMVC源码剖析5:消息转换器HttpMessageConverter与@ResponseBody注解
SpringMVC关于json、xml自动转换的原理研究[附带源码分析] 目录 前言 现象 源码分析 实例讲解 关于配置 总结 参考资料 前言 SpringMVC是目前主流的Web MVC框架之一。
1754 0
Spring源码分析——JdbcTemplate执行批量insert操作
最近用到一个方法: @Override public int[] batchUpdate(String sql, final BatchPreparedStatementSetter pss) throws DataAccessException { if (logger.
1295 0
Spring Bean 注解注入命名源码分析
上篇文章讲到了XML配置方式在不指定ID的情况下,Spring的BeanName。今天来谈论下,现代Spring中Bean注册使用最多的方式—注解。注解方式生成的BeanName策略又是怎样的呢。
343 0
+关注
韩曙亮
专注 Android 领域
2605
文章
0
问答
文章排行榜
最热
最新
相关电子书
更多
JS零基础入门教程(上册)
立即下载
性能优化方法论
立即下载
手把手学习日志服务SLS,云启实验室实战指南
立即下载