【学习资料】第18期快速入门PostgreSQL应用开发与管理 - 8 PostgreSQL 管理-阿里云开发者社区

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【学习资料】第18期快速入门PostgreSQL应用开发与管理 - 8 PostgreSQL 管理

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背景

本章大纲

一、权限体系

1 逻辑结构

2 权限体系

3 schema使用 , 特别注意

4 用户

5 public

6 如何查看和解读一个对象的当前权限状态

二、索引介绍

1 索引有什么用?

2 索引的类型

3 索引合并扫描

4 表膨胀检查

5 检查膨胀

6 索引维护

三、系统配置

1 存储、文件系统规划

2 网络规划

3 CPU评估

4 内核配置

5 资源限制

6 防火墙配置

四、数据库初始化

1 initdb 介绍

2 postgresql.conf参数配置

3 pg_hba.conf数据库防火墙配置

五、PostgreSQL控制

1 环境变量配置

2 停库

3 重启

4 启动

5 Linux自启动服务

六、数据库备份和还原

1 逻辑备份

2 逻辑还原

3 配置归档、流复制

4 创建流复制用户

5 配置流复制防火墙

6 远程物理基础备份

7 物理增量备份

8 PITR(时间点恢复)

PITR 时间点恢复 例子

七、数据库性能

1 参数优化

2 性能视图 pg_stat*

3 TOP SQL

4 AWR

5 auto_explain

6 explain解读

八、数据库压测

1 pg_bench介绍

2 tpc-b测试

3 自定义测试

九、日常维护

第六章:PostgreSQL 管理

  1. 权限体系

逻辑结构

最上层是实例,实例中允许创建多个数据库,每个数据库中可以创建多个schema,每个schema下面可以创建多个对象。

对象包括表、物化视图、操作符、索引、视图、序列、函数、... 等等。

pic1

在数据库中所有的权限都和角色(用户)挂钩,public是一个特殊角色,代表所有人。

超级用户是有允许任意操作对象的,普通用户只能操作自己创建的对象。

另外有一些对象是有赋予给public角色默认权限的,所以建好之后,所以人都有这些默认权限。

权限体系

pic2

实例级别的权限由pg_hba.conf来控制,例如 :

TYPE DATABASE USER ADDRESS METHOD

"local" is for Unix domain socket connections only

local all all trust

IPv4 local connections:

host all all 127.0.0.1/32 trust
host all postgres 0.0.0.0/0 reject
host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5
配置解释

允许任何本地用户无密码连接任何数据库

不允许postgres用户从任何外部地址连接任何数据库

允许其他任何用户从外部地址通过密码连接任何数据库
数据库级别的权限,包括允许连接数据库,允许在数据库中创建schema。

默认情况下,数据库在创建后,允许public角色连接,即允许任何人连接。

默认情况下,数据库在创建后,不允许除了超级用户和owner之外的任何人在数据库中创建schema。

默认情况下,数据库在创建后,会自动创建名为public 的schema,这个schema的all权限已经赋予给public角色,即允许任何人在里面创建对象。

schema级别的权限,包括允许查看schema中的对象,允许在schema中创建对象。

默认情况下新建的schema的权限不会赋予给public角色,因此除了超级用户和owner,任何人都没有权限查看schema中的对象或者在schema中新建对象。

schema使用 , 特别注意

According to the SQL standard, the owner of a schema always owns all objects within it.

PostgreSQL allows schemas to contain objects owned by users other than the schema owner.

This can happen only if the schema owner grants the CREATE privilege on his schema to someone else,
or a superuser chooses to create objects in it.

schema的owner默认是该schema下的所有对象的owner,但是PostgreSQL又允许用户在别人的schema下创建对象,所以一个对象可能属于两个owner,而且schema 的owner有 drop对象的权限。

对于两个owner都有drop的权限,这个我个人认为是一个BUG。

所以千万不要把自己的对象创建到别人的schema下面,那很危险。
对象级别的权限,每种类型的对象权限属性都不一样,具体请参考

http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.5/static/sql-grant.html

以表为例,可以有SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | TRUNCATE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER这些权限。

GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | TRUNCATE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }

[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }    
ON { [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]    
     | ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] }    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | REFERENCES } ( column_name [, ...] )

[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] ( column_name [, ...] ) }    
ON [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { { USAGE | SELECT | UPDATE }

[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }    
ON { SEQUENCE sequence_name [, ...]    
     | ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] }    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { { CREATE | CONNECT | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON DATABASE database_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON DOMAIN domain_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER fdw_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON FOREIGN SERVER server_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON { FUNCTION function_name ( [ [ argmode ] [ arg_name ] arg_type [, ...] ] ) [, ...]    
     | ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] }    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON LANGUAGE lang_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { { SELECT | UPDATE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON LARGE OBJECT loid [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { { CREATE | USAGE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON SCHEMA schema_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON TABLESPACE tablespace_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }

ON TYPE type_name [, ...]    
TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]    

where role_specification can be:


[ GROUP ] role_name    

| PUBLIC
| CURRENT_USER
| SESSION_USER

GRANT role_name [, ...] TO role_name [, ...] [ WITH ADMIN OPTION ]
简单介绍一下grant的一些通用选项

WITH ADMIN OPTION表示被赋予权限的用户,拿到对应的权限后,还能将对应的权限赋予给其他人,否则只能自己有这个权限,但是不能再赋予给其他人。

用户

用户,角色在PostgreSQL是一个概念。

public

public角色,代表所有人的意思。

如何查看和解读一个对象的当前权限状态

以表为例 :

select relname,relacl from pg_class where relkind='r';
或者执行

SELECT n.nspname as "Schema",
c.relname as "Name",
CASE c.relkind WHEN 'r' THEN 'table' WHEN 'v' THEN 'view' WHEN 'm' THEN 'materialized view' WHEN 'S' THEN 'sequence' WHEN 'f' THEN 'foreign table' END as "Type",
pg_catalog.array_to_string(c.relacl, E'\n') AS "Access privileges",
pg_catalog.array_to_string(ARRAY(

SELECT attname || E':\n  ' || pg_catalog.array_to_string(attacl, E'\n  ')    
FROM pg_catalog.pg_attribute a    
WHERE attrelid = c.oid AND NOT attisdropped AND attacl IS NOT NULL    

), E'\n') AS "Column privileges",
pg_catalog.array_to_string(ARRAY(

SELECT polname    
|| CASE WHEN polcmd != '*' THEN    
       E' (' || polcmd || E'):'    
   ELSE E':'     
   END    
|| CASE WHEN polqual IS NOT NULL THEN    
       E'\n  (u): ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_expr(polqual, polrelid)    
   ELSE E''    
   END    
|| CASE WHEN polwithcheck IS NOT NULL THEN    
       E'\n  (c): ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_expr(polwithcheck, polrelid)    
   ELSE E''    
   END    || CASE WHEN polroles <> '{0}' THEN    
       E'\n  to: ' || pg_catalog.array_to_string(    
           ARRAY(    
               SELECT rolname    
               FROM pg_catalog.pg_roles    
               WHERE oid = ANY (polroles)    
               ORDER BY 1    
           ), E', ')    
   ELSE E''    
   END    
FROM pg_catalog.pg_policy pol    
WHERE polrelid = c.oid), E'\n')    
AS "Policies"    

FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c

 LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace    

WHERE c.relkind IN ('r', 'v', 'm', 'S', 'f')
AND n.nspname !~ '^pg_' AND pg_catalog.pg_table_is_visible(c.oid)
ORDER BY 1, 2;
得到权限说明如下

SchemaNameTypeAccess privilegesColumn privilegesPolicies
publicsbtest1tablepostgres=arwdDxt/postgres +
    |                 |          | digoal=a*r*w*d*D*x*t*/postgres |                   |     

public | sbtest10 | table | postgres=arwdDxt/postgres | |
public | sbtest10_id_seq | sequence | | |
public | sbtest11 | table | postgres=arwdDxt/postgres | |
public | sbtest11_id_seq | sequence | | |
public | sbtest12 | table | postgres=arwdDxt/postgres | |
public | sbtest12_id_seq | sequence | | |
解释一下 Access privileges

rolename=xxx 其中rolename就是被赋予权限的用户名,即权限被赋予给谁了?

=xxx 表示这个权限赋予给了public角色,即所有人

/yyyy 表示是谁赋予的这个权限?

权限的含义如下

rolename=xxxx -- privileges granted to a role

    =xxxx -- privileges granted to PUBLIC    

        r -- SELECT ("read")    
        w -- UPDATE ("write")    
        a -- INSERT ("append")    
        d -- DELETE    
        D -- TRUNCATE    
        x -- REFERENCES    
        t -- TRIGGER    
        X -- EXECUTE    
        U -- USAGE    
        C -- CREATE    
        c -- CONNECT    
        T -- TEMPORARY    
  arwdDxt -- ALL PRIVILEGES (for tables, varies for other objects)    
        * -- grant option for preceding privilege    

    /yyyy -- role that granted this privilege    

例子

赋予权限的人是postgres用户, sbtest2表的select权限被赋予给了digoal用户。

postgres=# grant select on sbtest2 to digoal;
GRANT
postgres=# \dp+ sbtest2

                              Access privileges    
SchemaNameTypeAccess privilegesColumn privilegesPolicies
publicsbtest2tablepostgres=arwdDxt/postgres+
    |         |       | digoal=r/postgres         |                   |     

(1 row)
回收权限一定要针对已有的权限来,如果你发现这里的权限还在,那照着权限回收即可。

例如

revoke select on sbtest2 from digoal;

  1. 索引介绍

索引有什么用?

加速TUPLE定位

主键, 唯一约束

排序
索引的类型

B-Tree:支持排序、范围查询、精确查询;适合所有数据类型,单个索引条目不能超过索引页的1/3。

hash:支持等值查询;适合超长字段。

gin:倒排索引,支持等值、包含、相交、等查询;适合多值类型(数组、全文检索等),任意字段组合查询。

gist:R-Tree索引,支持包含,相交,距离,点面判断等查询;适合几何类型、范围类型、全文检索、异构类型等。

sp-gist:空间分区(平衡)r-tree,支持包含,相交,距离,点面判断等查询;适合几何类型、范围类型、全文检索、异构类型等。

brin:块级索引,适合物理存储与列值存在较好相关性的字段。比如时序数据、物联网传感数据、FEED数据等。支持范围查询、等值查询。

rum:扩展索引接口,支持全文检索,支持附加标量类型的全文检索,支持带位置关系的全文检索。

索引合并扫描

多个索引,PostgreSQL会使用bitmapAnd或bitmapOr合并扫描。

pic

表膨胀检查

SELECT
current_database() AS db, schemaname, tablename, reltuples::bigint AS tups, relpages::bigint AS pages, otta,
ROUND(CASE WHEN otta=0 OR sml.relpages=0 OR sml.relpages=otta THEN 0.0 ELSE sml.relpages/otta::numeric END,1) AS tbloat,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN 0 ELSE relpages::bigint - otta END AS wastedpages,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN 0 ELSE bs*(sml.relpages-otta)::bigint END AS wastedbytes,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN $$0 bytes$$::text ELSE (bs*(relpages-otta))::bigint || $$ bytes$$ END AS wastedsize,
iname, ituples::bigint AS itups, ipages::bigint AS ipages, iotta,
ROUND(CASE WHEN iotta=0 OR ipages=0 OR ipages=iotta THEN 0.0 ELSE ipages/iotta::numeric END,1) AS ibloat,
CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN 0 ELSE ipages::bigint - iotta END AS wastedipages,
CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN 0 ELSE bs*(ipages-iotta) END AS wastedibytes,
CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN $$0 bytes$$ ELSE (bs*(ipages-iotta))::bigint || $$ bytes$$ END AS wastedisize,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN

CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN 0 ELSE bs*(ipages-iotta::bigint) END    
ELSE CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN bs*(relpages-otta::bigint)    
  ELSE bs*(relpages-otta::bigint + ipages-iotta::bigint) END    

END AS totalwastedbytes
FROM (
SELECT

nn.nspname AS schemaname,    
cc.relname AS tablename,    
COALESCE(cc.reltuples,0) AS reltuples,    
COALESCE(cc.relpages,0) AS relpages,    
COALESCE(bs,0) AS bs,    
COALESCE(CEIL((cc.reltuples*((datahdr+ma-    
  (CASE WHEN datahdr%ma=0 THEN ma ELSE datahdr%ma END))+nullhdr2+4))/(bs-20::float)),0) AS otta,    
COALESCE(c2.relname,$$?$$) AS iname, COALESCE(c2.reltuples,0) AS ituples, COALESCE(c2.relpages,0) AS ipages,    
COALESCE(CEIL((c2.reltuples*(datahdr-12))/(bs-20::float)),0) AS iotta -- very rough approximation, assumes all cols    

FROM

 pg_class cc    

JOIN pg_namespace nn ON cc.relnamespace = nn.oid AND nn.nspname <> $$information_schema$$
LEFT JOIN
(

SELECT    
  ma,bs,foo.nspname,foo.relname,    
  (datawidth+(hdr+ma-(case when hdr%ma=0 THEN ma ELSE hdr%ma END)))::numeric AS datahdr,    
  (maxfracsum*(nullhdr+ma-(case when nullhdr%ma=0 THEN ma ELSE nullhdr%ma END))) AS nullhdr2    
FROM (    
  SELECT    
    ns.nspname, tbl.relname, hdr, ma, bs,    
    SUM((1-coalesce(null_frac,0))*coalesce(avg_width, 2048)) AS datawidth,    
    MAX(coalesce(null_frac,0)) AS maxfracsum,    
    hdr+(    
      SELECT 1+count(*)/8    
      FROM pg_stats s2    
      WHERE null_frac<>0 AND s2.schemaname = ns.nspname AND s2.tablename = tbl.relname    
    ) AS nullhdr    
  FROM pg_attribute att     
  JOIN pg_class tbl ON att.attrelid = tbl.oid    
  JOIN pg_namespace ns ON ns.oid = tbl.relnamespace     
  LEFT JOIN pg_stats s ON s.schemaname=ns.nspname    
  AND s.tablename = tbl.relname    
  AND s.inherited=false    
  AND s.attname=att.attname,    
  (    
    SELECT    
      (SELECT current_setting($$block_size$$)::numeric) AS bs,    
        CASE WHEN SUBSTRING(SPLIT_PART(v, $$ $$, 2) FROM $$#"[0-9]+.[0-9]+#"%$$ for $$#$$)    
          IN ($$8.0$$,$$8.1$$,$$8.2$$) THEN 27 ELSE 23 END AS hdr,    
      CASE WHEN v ~ $$mingw32$$ OR v ~ $$64-bit$$ THEN 8 ELSE 4 END AS ma    
    FROM (SELECT version() AS v) AS foo    
  ) AS constants    
  WHERE att.attnum > 0 AND tbl.relkind=$$r$$    
  GROUP BY 1,2,3,4,5    
) AS foo    

) AS rs
ON cc.relname = rs.relname AND nn.nspname = rs.nspname
LEFT JOIN pg_index i ON indrelid = cc.oid
LEFT JOIN pg_class c2 ON c2.oid = i.indexrelid
) AS sml order by wastedbytes desc limit 5
检查膨胀

SELECT
current_database() AS db, schemaname, tablename, reltuples::bigint AS tups, relpages::bigint AS pages, otta,
ROUND(CASE WHEN otta=0 OR sml.relpages=0 OR sml.relpages=otta THEN 0.0 ELSE sml.relpages/otta::numeric END,1) AS tbloat,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN 0 ELSE relpages::bigint - otta END AS wastedpages,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN 0 ELSE bs*(sml.relpages-otta)::bigint END AS wastedbytes,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN $$0 bytes$$::text ELSE (bs*(relpages-otta))::bigint || $$ bytes$$ END AS wastedsize,
iname, ituples::bigint AS itups, ipages::bigint AS ipages, iotta,
ROUND(CASE WHEN iotta=0 OR ipages=0 OR ipages=iotta THEN 0.0 ELSE ipages/iotta::numeric END,1) AS ibloat,
CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN 0 ELSE ipages::bigint - iotta END AS wastedipages,
CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN 0 ELSE bs*(ipages-iotta) END AS wastedibytes,
CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN $$0 bytes$$ ELSE (bs*(ipages-iotta))::bigint || $$ bytes$$ END AS wastedisize,
CASE WHEN relpages < otta THEN

CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN 0 ELSE bs*(ipages-iotta::bigint) END    
ELSE CASE WHEN ipages < iotta THEN bs*(relpages-otta::bigint)    
  ELSE bs*(relpages-otta::bigint + ipages-iotta::bigint) END    

END AS totalwastedbytes
FROM (
SELECT

nn.nspname AS schemaname,    
cc.relname AS tablename,    
COALESCE(cc.reltuples,0) AS reltuples,    
COALESCE(cc.relpages,0) AS relpages,    
COALESCE(bs,0) AS bs,    
COALESCE(CEIL((cc.reltuples*((datahdr+ma-    
  (CASE WHEN datahdr%ma=0 THEN ma ELSE datahdr%ma END))+nullhdr2+4))/(bs-20::float)),0) AS otta,    
COALESCE(c2.relname,$$?$$) AS iname, COALESCE(c2.reltuples,0) AS ituples, COALESCE(c2.relpages,0) AS ipages,    
COALESCE(CEIL((c2.reltuples*(datahdr-12))/(bs-20::float)),0) AS iotta -- very rough approximation, assumes all cols    

FROM

 pg_class cc    

JOIN pg_namespace nn ON cc.relnamespace = nn.oid AND nn.nspname <> $$information_schema$$
LEFT JOIN
(

SELECT    
  ma,bs,foo.nspname,foo.relname,    
  (datawidth+(hdr+ma-(case when hdr%ma=0 THEN ma ELSE hdr%ma END)))::numeric AS datahdr,    
  (maxfracsum*(nullhdr+ma-(case when nullhdr%ma=0 THEN ma ELSE nullhdr%ma END))) AS nullhdr2    
FROM (    
  SELECT    
    ns.nspname, tbl.relname, hdr, ma, bs,    
    SUM((1-coalesce(null_frac,0))*coalesce(avg_width, 2048)) AS datawidth,    
    MAX(coalesce(null_frac,0)) AS maxfracsum,    
    hdr+(    
      SELECT 1+count(*)/8    
      FROM pg_stats s2    
      WHERE null_frac<>0 AND s2.schemaname = ns.nspname AND s2.tablename = tbl.relname    
    ) AS nullhdr    
  FROM pg_attribute att     
  JOIN pg_class tbl ON att.attrelid = tbl.oid    
  JOIN pg_namespace ns ON ns.oid = tbl.relnamespace     
  LEFT JOIN pg_stats s ON s.schemaname=ns.nspname    
  AND s.tablename = tbl.relname    
  AND s.inherited=false    
  AND s.attname=att.attname,    
  (    
    SELECT    
      (SELECT current_setting($$block_size$$)::numeric) AS bs,    
        CASE WHEN SUBSTRING(SPLIT_PART(v, $$ $$, 2) FROM $$#"[0-9]+.[0-9]+#"%$$ for $$#$$)    
          IN ($$8.0$$,$$8.1$$,$$8.2$$) THEN 27 ELSE 23 END AS hdr,    
      CASE WHEN v ~ $$mingw32$$ OR v ~ $$64-bit$$ THEN 8 ELSE 4 END AS ma    
    FROM (SELECT version() AS v) AS foo    
  ) AS constants    
  WHERE att.attnum > 0 AND tbl.relkind=$$r$$    
  GROUP BY 1,2,3,4,5    
) AS foo    

) AS rs
ON cc.relname = rs.relname AND nn.nspname = rs.nspname
LEFT JOIN pg_index i ON indrelid = cc.oid
LEFT JOIN pg_class c2 ON c2.oid = i.indexrelid
) AS sml order by wastedibytes desc limit 5
索引维护

1、新建索引

set maintenance_work_mem ='4GB'; -- 越大,创建索引越快
set lock_timeout = '1s'; -- 避免长时间锁等待

create index [CONCURRENTLY] xxx on xxx using xxx (colxxx); -- 根据实际情况,是否使用 CONCURRENTLY(不堵塞读写)。
2、删除旧索引

set lock_timeout = '1s'; -- 避免长时间锁等待

drop index oldindex;
3、PK\UK的维护,与之类似,增加一步骤。

ALTER TABLE tbl ADD

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]    
{ UNIQUE | PRIMARY KEY } USING INDEX index_name    
[ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]    
  1. 系统配置

1、存储、文件系统规划

索引盘:对应索引表空间。

空间评估、IOPS评估、带宽评估。建议采用SSD,文件系统采用ext4或xfs。

数据盘:对应数据文件表空间。

空间评估、IOPS评估、带宽评估。建议采用SSD,文件系统采用ext4或xfs。

重做日志盘:对应WAL目录。

空间评估、IOPS评估、带宽评估。建议采用SSD,文件系统采用ext4或xfs。

归档盘:对应WAL归档目录。

空间评估、IOPS评估、带宽评估。可以采用机械盘,文件系统采用ext4或xfs或ZFS,可以开启文件系统压缩功能。

备份盘:对应数据库备份目录。

空间评估、IOPS评估、带宽评估。可以采用机械盘,文件系统采用ext4或xfs或ZFS,可以开启文件系统压缩功能。

日志盘(pg_log):对应数据库审计、错误日志目录。

空间评估、IOPS评估、带宽评估。可以采用机械盘,文件系统采用ext4或xfs或ZFS,可以开启文件系统压缩功能。

2、网络规划

带宽评估,网段规划,防火墙规划。

不建议使用公网。

3、CPU评估

根据业务需求,评估CPU主频,核数。建议实测性能指标。

4、内核配置

/etc/sysctl.conf

add by digoal.zhou

fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 76724600
kernel.core_pattern= /data01/corefiles/core_%e_%u_%t_%s.%p

/data01/corefiles事先建好,权限777,如果是软链接,对应的目录修改为777

kernel.sem = 4096 2147483647 2147483646 512000

信号量, ipcs -l 或 -u 查看,每16个进程一组,每组信号量需要17个信号量。

kernel.shmall = 107374182

所有共享内存段相加大小限制(建议内存的80%)

kernel.shmmax = 274877906944

最大单个共享内存段大小(建议为内存一半), >9.2的版本已大幅降低共享内存的使用

kernel.shmmni = 819200

一共能生成多少共享内存段,每个PG数据库集群至少2个共享内存段

net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 10000
net.core.rmem_default = 262144

The default setting of the socket receive buffer in bytes.

net.core.rmem_max = 4194304

The maximum receive socket buffer size in bytes

net.core.wmem_default = 262144

The default setting (in bytes) of the socket send buffer.

net.core.wmem_max = 4194304

The maximum send socket buffer size in bytes.

net.core.somaxconn = 4096
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 4096
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_intvl = 20
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_probes = 3
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 60
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 8388608 12582912 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 5
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1

开启SYN Cookies。当出现SYN等待队列溢出时,启用cookie来处理,可防范少量的SYN攻击

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 1

减少time_wait

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 0

如果=1则开启TCP连接中TIME-WAIT套接字的快速回收,但是NAT环境可能导致连接失败,建议服务端关闭它

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

开启重用。允许将TIME-WAIT套接字重新用于新的TCP连接

net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 262144
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 8192 87380 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 8192 65536 16777216
net.nf_conntrack_max = 1200000
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 1200000
vm.dirty_background_bytes = 409600000

系统脏页到达这个值,系统后台刷脏页调度进程 pdflush(或其他) 自动将(dirty_expire_centisecs/100)秒前的脏页刷到磁盘

vm.dirty_expire_centisecs = 3000

比这个值老的脏页,将被刷到磁盘。3000表示30秒。

vm.dirty_ratio = 95

如果系统进程刷脏页太慢,使得系统脏页超过内存 95 % 时,则用户进程如果有写磁盘的操作(如fsync, fdatasync等调用),则需要主动把系统脏页刷出。

有效防止用户进程刷脏页,在单机多实例,并且使用CGROUP限制单实例IOPS的情况下非常有效。

vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs = 100

pdflush(或其他)后台刷脏页进程的唤醒间隔, 100表示1秒。

vm.mmap_min_addr = 65536
vm.overcommit_memory = 0

在分配内存时,允许少量over malloc, 如果设置为 1, 则认为总是有足够的内存,内存较少的测试环境可以使用 1 .

vm.overcommit_ratio = 90

当overcommit_memory = 2 时,用于参与计算允许指派的内存大小。

vm.swappiness = 0

关闭交换分区

vm.zone_reclaim_mode = 0

禁用 numa, 或者在vmlinux中禁止.

net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 40000 65535

本地自动分配的TCP, UDP端口号范围

fs.nr_open=20480000

单个进程允许打开的文件句柄上限

以下参数请注意

vm.extra_free_kbytes = 4096000

vm.min_free_kbytes = 2097152 # vm.min_free_kbytes 建议每32G内存分配1G vm.min_free_kbytes

如果是小内存机器,以上两个值不建议设置

vm.nr_hugepages = 66536

建议shared buffer设置超过64GB时 使用大页,页大小 /proc/meminfo Hugepagesize

vm.lowmem_reserve_ratio = 1 1 1

对于内存大于64G时,建议设置,否则建议默认值 256 256 32

sysctl -p

5、资源限制

/etc/security/limits.conf

  • soft nofile 1024000
  • hard nofile 1024000
  • soft nproc unlimited
  • hard nproc unlimited
  • soft core unlimited
  • hard core unlimited
  • soft memlock unlimited
  • hard memlock unlimited

6、防火墙配置

例子

私有网段

-A INPUT -s 192.168.0.0/16 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 172.16.0.0/16 -j ACCEPT

  1. 数据库初始化

1、initdb 介绍

initdb initializes a PostgreSQL database cluster.

Usage:
initdb [OPTION]... [DATADIR]

Options:
-A, --auth=METHOD default authentication method for local connections

  --auth-host=METHOD    default authentication method for local TCP/IP connections    
  --auth-local=METHOD   default authentication method for local-socket connections    

[-D, --pgdata=]DATADIR location for this database cluster
-E, --encoding=ENCODING set default encoding for new databases

  --locale=LOCALE       set default locale for new databases    
  --lc-collate=, --lc-ctype=, --lc-messages=LOCALE    
  --lc-monetary=, --lc-numeric=, --lc-time=LOCALE    
                        set default locale in the respective category for    
                        new databases (default taken from environment)    
  --no-locale           equivalent to --locale=C    
  --pwfile=FILE         read password for the new superuser from file    

-T, --text-search-config=CFG

                        default text search configuration    

-U, --username=NAME database superuser name
-W, --pwprompt prompt for a password for the new superuser
-X, --xlogdir=XLOGDIR location for the transaction log directory

Less commonly used options:
-d, --debug generate lots of debugging output
-k, --data-checksums use data page checksums
-L DIRECTORY where to find the input files
-n, --noclean do not clean up after errors
-N, --nosync do not wait for changes to be written safely to disk
-s, --show show internal settings
-S, --sync-only only sync data directory

Other options:
-V, --version output version information, then exit
-?, --help show this help, then exit

If the data directory is not specified, the environment variable PGDATA
is used.
例子

initdb -D $PGDATA -E UTF8 --locale=C -U postgres -X $PG_XLOG -W
2、postgresql.conf参数配置

例子

listen_addresses = '0.0.0.0'
port = 1921
max_connections = 200
tcp_keepalives_idle = 60
tcp_keepalives_interval = 10
tcp_keepalives_count = 6
shared_buffers = 512MB
maintenance_work_mem = 64MB
dynamic_shared_memory_type = windows
vacuum_cost_delay = 0
bgwriter_delay = 10ms
bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 1000
bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 5.0
bgwriter_flush_after = 0
old_snapshot_threshold = -1
wal_level = minimal
synchronous_commit = off
full_page_writes = on
wal_buffers = 64MB
wal_writer_delay = 10ms
wal_writer_flush_after = 4MB
checkpoint_timeout = 35min
max_wal_size = 2GB
min_wal_size = 80MB
checkpoint_completion_target = 0.1
checkpoint_flush_after = 0
random_page_cost = 1.5
log_destination = 'csvlog'
logging_collector = on
log_directory = 'pg_log'
log_truncate_on_rotation = on
log_checkpoints = on
log_connections = on
log_disconnections = on
log_error_verbosity = verbose
log_temp_files = 8192
log_timezone = 'Asia/Hong_Kong'
autovacuum = on
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0
autovacuum_naptime = 20s
autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.05
autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 1500000000
autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 1600000000
autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 0
vacuum_freeze_table_age = 1400000000
vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 1500000000
datestyle = 'iso, mdy'
timezone = 'Asia/Hong_Kong'
lc_messages = 'C'
lc_monetary = 'C'
lc_numeric = 'C'
lc_time = 'C'
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'
3、pg_hba.conf数据库防火墙配置

例子

host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5

  1. PostgreSQL控制

1、环境变量配置

/home/digoal/.bash_profile

export PGPORT=1921
export PGDATA=/home/digoal/pgdata
export LANG=en_US.utf8
export PGHOME=/home/digoal/pgsql9.6
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$PGHOME/lib:/lib64:/usr/lib64:/usr/local/lib64:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export PATH=$PGHOME/bin:$PATH:.
export MANPATH=$PGHOME/share/man:$MANPATH
export PGHOST=$PGDATA
export PGUSER=postgres
export PGDATABASE=postgres
2、停库

pg_ctl stop -m fast -D $PGDATA
3、重启

pg_ctl restart -m fast -D $PGDATA
4、启动

pg_ctl start -D $PGDATA
5、Linux自启动服务

vi /etc/rc.local

su - digoal -c "pg_ctl start -D $PGDATA"

  1. 数据库备份和还原

1、逻辑备份

pg_dump --help

pg_dump dumps a database as a text file or to other formats.

Usage:
pg_dump [OPTION]... [DBNAME]

General options:
-f, --file=FILENAME output file or directory name
-F, --format=c|d|t|p output file format (custom, directory, tar,

                           plain text (default))    

-j, --jobs=NUM use this many parallel jobs to dump
-v, --verbose verbose mode
-V, --version output version information, then exit
-Z, --compress=0-9 compression level for compressed formats
--lock-wait-timeout=TIMEOUT fail after waiting TIMEOUT for a table lock
-?, --help show this help, then exit

Options controlling the output content:
-a, --data-only dump only the data, not the schema
-b, --blobs include large objects in dump
-c, --clean clean (drop) database objects before recreating
-C, --create include commands to create database in dump
-E, --encoding=ENCODING dump the data in encoding ENCODING
-n, --schema=SCHEMA dump the named schema(s) only
-N, --exclude-schema=SCHEMA do NOT dump the named schema(s)
-o, --oids include OIDs in dump
-O, --no-owner skip restoration of object ownership in

                           plain-text format    

-s, --schema-only dump only the schema, no data
-S, --superuser=NAME superuser user name to use in plain-text format
-t, --table=TABLE dump the named table(s) only
-T, --exclude-table=TABLE do NOT dump the named table(s)
-x, --no-privileges do not dump privileges (grant/revoke)
--binary-upgrade for use by upgrade utilities only
--column-inserts dump data as INSERT commands with column names
--disable-dollar-quoting disable dollar quoting, use SQL standard quoting
--disable-triggers disable triggers during data-only restore
--enable-row-security enable row security (dump only content user has

                           access to)    

--exclude-table-data=TABLE do NOT dump data for the named table(s)
--if-exists use IF EXISTS when dropping objects
--inserts dump data as INSERT commands, rather than COPY
--no-security-labels do not dump security label assignments
--no-synchronized-snapshots do not use synchronized snapshots in parallel jobs
--no-tablespaces do not dump tablespace assignments
--no-unlogged-table-data do not dump unlogged table data
--quote-all-identifiers quote all identifiers, even if not key words
--section=SECTION dump named section (pre-data, data, or post-data)
--serializable-deferrable wait until the dump can run without anomalies
--snapshot=SNAPSHOT use given snapshot for the dump
--strict-names require table and/or schema include patterns to

                           match at least one entity each    

--use-set-session-authorization

                           use SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION commands instead of    
                           ALTER OWNER commands to set ownership    

Connection options:
-d, --dbname=DBNAME database to dump
-h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory
-p, --port=PORT database server port number
-U, --username=NAME connect as specified database user
-w, --no-password never prompt for password
-W, --password force password prompt (should happen automatically)
--role=ROLENAME do SET ROLE before dump

If no database name is supplied, then the PGDATABASE environment
variable value is used.
《PostgreSQL 最佳实践 - 在线逻辑备份与恢复介绍》

例子

备份digoal库, DDL中不包含表空间. 所以恢复时不需要提前创建对应的表空间.

pg_dump -f ./digoal.dmp -F p -C -E UTF8 --no-tablespaces -h 127.0.0.1 -p 1999 -U postgres digoal
2、逻辑还原

pg_restore --help

pg_restore restores a PostgreSQL database from an archive created by pg_dump.

Usage:
pg_restore [OPTION]... [FILE]

General options:
-d, --dbname=NAME connect to database name
-f, --file=FILENAME output file name
-F, --format=c|d|t backup file format (should be automatic)
-l, --list print summarized TOC of the archive
-v, --verbose verbose mode
-V, --version output version information, then exit
-?, --help show this help, then exit

Options controlling the restore:
-a, --data-only restore only the data, no schema
-c, --clean clean (drop) database objects before recreating
-C, --create create the target database
-e, --exit-on-error exit on error, default is to continue
-I, --index=NAME restore named index
-j, --jobs=NUM use this many parallel jobs to restore
-L, --use-list=FILENAME use table of contents from this file for

                           selecting/ordering output    

-n, --schema=NAME restore only objects in this schema
-O, --no-owner skip restoration of object ownership
-P, --function=NAME(args) restore named function
-s, --schema-only restore only the schema, no data
-S, --superuser=NAME superuser user name to use for disabling triggers
-t, --table=NAME restore named relation (table, view, etc.)
-T, --trigger=NAME restore named trigger
-x, --no-privileges skip restoration of access privileges (grant/revoke)
-1, --single-transaction restore as a single transaction
--disable-triggers disable triggers during data-only restore
--enable-row-security enable row security
--if-exists use IF EXISTS when dropping objects
--no-data-for-failed-tables do not restore data of tables that could not be

                           created    

--no-security-labels do not restore security labels
--no-tablespaces do not restore tablespace assignments
--section=SECTION restore named section (pre-data, data, or post-data)
--strict-names require table and/or schema include patterns to

                           match at least one entity each    

--use-set-session-authorization

                           use SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION commands instead of    
                           ALTER OWNER commands to set ownership    

Connection options:
-h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory
-p, --port=PORT database server port number
-U, --username=NAME connect as specified database user
-w, --no-password never prompt for password
-W, --password force password prompt (should happen automatically)
--role=ROLENAME do SET ROLE before restore

The options -I, -n, -P, -t, -T, and --section can be combined and specified
multiple times to select multiple objects.

If no input file name is supplied, then standard input is used.
如果备份为-F p格式,备份输出为文本,直接运行即可。

psql postgres postgres -f ./digoal.dmp
3、配置归档、流复制

要支持物理备份,务必打开归档,同时建议打开流复制。

配置归档目录

mkdir -p /disk1/digoal/arch

chown digoal:digoal /disk1/digoal/arch

配置流复制和归档

vi postgresql.conf

max_worker_processes = 16

max_wal_senders = 8

wal_level = replica

archive_command = 'test ! -f /disk1/digoal/arch/%f && cp %p /disk1/digoal/arch/%f'
重启数据库

pg_ctl restart -m fast -D $PGDATA
4、创建流复制用户

postgres=# create role rep replication login encrypted password 'rep123';
CREATE ROLE
5、配置流复制防火墙

vi $PGDATA/pg_hba.conf

host replication rep 0.0.0.0/0 md5
pg_ctl reload -D $PGDATA

6、远程物理基础备份

pg_basebackup --help
pg_basebackup takes a base backup of a running PostgreSQL server.

Usage:
pg_basebackup [OPTION]...

Options controlling the output:
-D, --pgdata=DIRECTORY receive base backup into directory
-F, --format=p|t output format (plain (default), tar)
-r, --max-rate=RATE maximum transfer rate to transfer data directory

                     (in kB/s, or use suffix "k" or "M")    

-R, --write-recovery-conf

                     write recovery.conf after backup    

-S, --slot=SLOTNAME replication slot to use
-T, --tablespace-mapping=OLDDIR=NEWDIR

                     relocate tablespace in OLDDIR to NEWDIR    

-x, --xlog include required WAL files in backup (fetch mode)
-X, --xlog-method=fetch|stream

                     include required WAL files with specified method    
  --xlogdir=XLOGDIR  location for the transaction log directory    

-z, --gzip compress tar output
-Z, --compress=0-9 compress tar output with given compression level

General options:
-c, --checkpoint=fast|spread

                     set fast or spread checkpointing    

-l, --label=LABEL set backup label
-P, --progress show progress information
-v, --verbose output verbose messages
-V, --version output version information, then exit
-?, --help show this help, then exit

Connection options:
-d, --dbname=CONNSTR connection string
-h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory
-p, --port=PORT database server port number
-s, --status-interval=INTERVAL

                     time between status packets sent to server (in seconds)    

-U, --username=NAME connect as specified database user
-w, --no-password never prompt for password
-W, --password force password prompt (should happen automatically)
创建备份目录,备份可以通过流复制协议,备份到远程。

mkdir -p /disk1/digoal/backup

chown digoal:digoal /disk1/digoal/backup

例子 1,通过流复制用户,以及流复制备份

export PGPASSWORD=rep123

pg_basebackup -D /disk1/digoal/backup -F t -z -h 数据库IP -p 数据库端口 -U rep
例子 2,使用cp备份

步骤如下

SQL:

select pg_start_backup('test');
OS:

copy 数据文件,表空间等目录
SQL:

select pg_stop_backup();
7、物理增量备份

物理增量备份分为两种,

一种是数据文件的增量备份,需要等10.0或者使用pg_rman, pg_probackup

https://github.com/postgrespro/pg_probackup

https://github.com/ossc-db/pg_rman

另一种是归档增量备份。

将归档文件拷贝到备份存储即可。

8、PITR(时间点恢复)

  1. 如果是异机备份,首先要部署PostgreSQL软件环境,建议部署的PostgreSQL软件版本与备份的数据文件一致。编译参数一致。

如何查看编译参数?在源库执行如下命令

pg_config
部署软件时,还需要部署源库所有的PostgreSQL插件,并且需要确保插件版本一致。

  1. 构建恢复目录,需要有足够的空间。
  2. 解压数据文件,归档到各自的目录。

如果有表空间,将表空间使用软链连接到$PGDATA/pg_tblspc,或者将表空间解压到$PGDATA/pg_tblspc。

  1. 修改postgresql.conf

主要修改参数,包括监听端口,shared buffer, preload library 等,防止端口冲突导致启动失败。

  1. 配置$PGDATA/recovery.conf,同时设置恢复目标

主要配置,restore_command。(如果是搭建流复制备库,则需要配置的是#primary_conninfo = '' # e.g. 'host=localhost port=5432'。)

restore_command = '' # e.g. 'cp /mnt/server/archivedir/%f %p'

设置恢复到哪个时间点、XID或者target name。(如果是搭建流复制备库,则需要配置recovery_target_timeline = 'latest')

recovery_target_name = '' # e.g. 'daily backup 2011-01-26'

recovery_target_time = '' # e.g. '2004-07-14 22:39:00 EST'

recovery_target_xid = ''

recovery_target_inclusive = true

  1. 启动恢复库

pg_ctl start -D 恢复库$PGDATA
PITR 时间点恢复 例子

数据变更操作(主库)

postgres=# select pg_create_restore_point('digoal');

pg_create_restore_point

1D6/FB17EC08
(1 row)
首先要创建一个记录还原点XID的表。记录XID,时间,以及描述信息。(来代替pg_create_restore_point 系统函数的功能)

postgres=> create table restore_point(id serial primary key, xid int8, crt_time timestamp default now(), point text);
CREATE TABLE
创建一个函数,代替pg_create_restore_point的功能,插入还原点。

postgres=> create or replace function create_restore_point(i_point text) returns void as $$
declare
begin
insert into restore_point(xid,point) values (txid_current(),i_point);
end;
$$ language plpgsql strict;
CREATE FUNCTION
插入一个还原点

postgres=> select create_restore_point('digoal');

create_restore_point

(1 row)
查询这个表的信息:

postgres=> select * from restore_point;

idxidcrt_timepoint
15614262015-06-19 09:18:57.525475digoal

(1 row)
postgres=> select * from restore_point where point='digoal';

idxidcrt_timepoint
15614262015-06-19 09:18:57.525475digoal

(1 row)
接下来要模拟一下还原:

postgres=> create table test(id int,info text);
CREATE TABLE
postgres=> insert into test select generate_series(1,1000),md5(random()::text);
INSERT 0 1000
记录当前哈希值。用于恢复后的比对。

postgres=> select sum(hashtext(t.*::text)) from test t;

 sum            

-69739904784
(1 row)
接下来我要做一笔删除操作,在删除前,我先创建一条还原点信息。

postgres=> select create_restore_point('before delete test');

create_restore_point

(1 row)
postgres=> delete from test;
DELETE 1000
postgres=> select * from restore_point where point='before delete test';

idxidcrt_timepoint
25615742015-06-19 09:45:28.030295before delete test

(1 row)
我只需要恢复到561574 即可。接下来就是模拟恢复了。

主动产生一些XLOG,触发归档。

postgres=> select pg_xlogfile_name(pg_current_xlog_location());

 pg_xlogfile_name           

000000010000000200000041
(1 row)
postgres=> insert into test select generate_series(1,100000);
INSERT 0 100000
postgres=> insert into test select generate_series(1,100000);
INSERT 0 100000
postgres=> select pg_xlogfile_name(pg_current_xlog_location());

 pg_xlogfile_name           

000000010000000200000042
(1 row)
下载阿里云RDS的备份和归档到本地。

在本地需要安装一个postgresql, 与阿里云RDS的编译配置参数一致(例如数据块的大小),最好使用的模块也一致,这里没有用到其他模块,所以无所谓。

通过pg_settings来看一下RDS的配置信息,版本信息,方便我们在本地进行恢复。

postgres=> select name,setting,unit from pg_settings where category='Preset Options';

     name          | setting | unit       
block_size8192
data_checksumson
integer_datetimeson
max_function_args100
max_identifier_length63
max_index_keys32
segment_size1310728kB
server_version9.4.1
server_version_num90401
wal_block_size8192
wal_segment_size20488kB

(11 rows)
postgres=> select version();

                                               version                                                          

PostgreSQL 9.4.1 on x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu, compiled by gcc (GCC) 4.4.6 20110731 (Red Hat 4.4.6-3), 64-bit
(1 row)
本地编译安装PostgreSQL 9.4.1,编译参数与RDS一致。阿里云RDS这几个参数都是默认的。

--with-blocksize=BLOCKSIZE

                      set table block size in kB [8]      

--with-segsize=SEGSIZE set table segment size in GB [1]
--with-wal-blocksize=BLOCKSIZE

                      set WAL block size in kB [8]      

--with-wal-segsize=SEGSIZE

                      set WAL segment size in MB [16]      
  
  

useradd digoal

su - digoal

$ vi .bash_profile

add by digoal

export PS1="$USER@/bin/hostname -s-> "
export PGPORT=1931
export PGDATA=/home/digoal/pg_root
export LANG=en_US.utf8
export PGHOME=/home/digoal/pgsql9.4.1
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$PGHOME/lib:/lib64:/usr/lib64:/usr/local/lib64:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export DATE=date +"%Y%m%d%H%M"
export PATH=$PGHOME/bin:$PATH:.
export MANPATH=$PGHOME/share/man:$MANPATH
export PGHOST=$PGDATA
export PGDATABASE=postgres
alias rm='rm -i'
alias ll='ls -lh'
unalias vi

wget https://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v9.4.1/postgresql-9.4.1.tar.bz2

tar -jxvf postgresql-9.4.1.tar.bz2

cd postgresql-9.4.1

./configure --prefix=/home/digoal/pgsql9.4.1 --with-pgport=1931 --with-perl --with-python --with-tcl --with-openssl --with-pam --with-ldap --with-libxml --with-libxslt --enable-thread-safety --enable-debug

gmake world && gmake install-world

下载备份和归档文件,解压:

基础备份选择需要恢复的时间点之前的一个备份,归档则选择在此之后的所有归档文件。

total 453M
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17M Jun 19 10:23 000000010000000200000040.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17M Jun 19 10:23 000000010000000200000041.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 404M Jun 19 10:23 hins668881_xtra_20150618232331.tar.gz

mkdir /home/digoal/pg_root

mv hins668881_xtra_20150618232331.tar.gz /home/digoal/pg_root

tar -zxvf hins668881_xtra_20150618232331.tar.gz

[root@db-172-16-3-150 ~]# tar -xvf 000000010000000200000040.tar.gz
000000010000000200000040
[root@db-172-16-3-150 ~]# tar -xvf 000000010000000200000041.tar.gz
000000010000000200000041
[root@db-172-16-3-150 ~]# mv 000000010000000200000040 /home/digoal/
[root@db-172-16-3-150 ~]# mv 000000010000000200000041 /home/digoal/
[root@db-172-16-3-150 ~]# chown -R digoal:digoal /home/digoal
[root@db-172-16-3-150 ~]# chmod -R 700 /home/digoal/pg_root
修改配置文件,注释掉阿里云RDS PG的一些定制参数。

$ vi postgresql.conf

port=1931

注释RDS自定义的GUC参数

rds_enable_proxy=on

rds_available_extensions='plpgsql,pg_stat_statements,btree_gin,btree_gist,chkpass,citext,cube,dblink,dict_int,earthdistance,hstore,intagg,intarray,isn,ltree,pgcrypto,pgrowlocks,pg_prewarm,pg_trgm,postgres_fdw,sslinfo,tablefunc,tsearch2,unaccent,postgis,postgis_topology,fuzzystrmatch,postgis_tiger_geocoder,plperl,pltcl,plv8,plls,plcoffee,"uuid-ossp"'

rds_enable_admin_user_as_super=on

配置recovery.conf

打开hot_standby,恢复到目标点后暂停,如果确认已经到达,使用resume激活。

$ vi recovery.conf
standby_mode = 'on'
restore_command = 'cp /home/digoal/%f %p'
recovery_target_xid='561574' # 使用我们自建的恢复点的XID
recovery_target_inclusive=true
pause_at_recovery_target=true
启动数据库

$ pg_ctl start
检查是否恢复到指定XID

digoal@db-172-16-3-150-> psql -h 127.0.0.1 -p 1931
psql (9.4.1)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=> \dt

         List of relations      
SchemaNameTypeOwner
publicha_health_checktableaurora
publiclogin_logtabledigoal
publicrestore_pointtabledigoal
publicsessiontabledigoal
publictbl_smalltabledigoal
publictesttabledigoal
publicuserinfotabledigoal

(7 rows)
检查,已经恢复到DELETE test表的数据之前了。

postgres=> select count(*) from test;

count

1000
(1 row)
postgres=> select sum(hashtext(t.*::text)) from test t;

 sum            

-69739904784
(1 row)

  1. 数据库性能

1、参数优化

假设 512GB 内存, SSD.

listen_addresses = '0.0.0.0'
port = 1921
max_connections = 5000
unix_socket_directories = '.' # 确保unix socket处于安全目录
tcp_keepalives_idle = 60 # 避免网络层设备主动断开空闲连接的问题
tcp_keepalives_interval = 10 # 避免网络层设备主动断开空闲连接的问题
tcp_keepalives_count = 10 # 避免网络层设备主动断开空闲连接的问题
shared_buffers = 128GB # 1/4 物理内存
maintenance_work_mem = 4GB # 加速创建索引,VACUUM垃圾回收,平时最多消耗 maintenance_work_mem * autovacuum_max_workers 内存
dynamic_shared_memory_type = posix
vacuum_cost_delay = 0 # SSD, 建议设置为0, 不打断vacuum
bgwriter_delay = 10ms # 快速刷shared buffer脏页
bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 1000
bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 10.0
bgwriter_flush_after = 0 # IO很好的机器,不需要考虑平滑调度。否则建议设置为大于0
max_worker_processes = 128
max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 0
old_snapshot_threshold = -1
backend_flush_after = 0 # IO很好的机器,不需要考虑平滑调度
wal_level = replica
synchronous_commit = off # 异步提交
full_page_writes = on # COW文件系统,或者对齐并支持BLOCK_SIZE大小原子写的SSD,可以关闭,提高性能,减少WAL的写入量。
wal_buffers = 1GB
wal_writer_delay = 10ms
wal_writer_flush_after = 0 # IO很好的机器,不需要考虑平滑调度
checkpoint_timeout = 30min # 不建议频繁做检查点,否则XLOG会产生很多的FULL PAGE WRITE。
max_wal_size = 256GB # 建议设置为SHARED BUFFER的2倍
min_wal_size = 32GB
checkpoint_completion_target = 0.05 # 硬盘好的情况下,可以让检查点快速结束,恢复时也可以快速达到一致状态。
checkpoint_flush_after = 0 # IO很好的机器,不需要考虑平滑调度
archive_mode = on
archive_command = '/bin/date' # 后期再修改,如 'test ! -f /disk1/digoal/arch/%f && cp %p /disk1/digoal/arch/%f'
max_wal_senders = 8
random_page_cost = 1.3 # IO很好的机器,不需要考虑离散和顺序扫描的成本差异
parallel_tuple_cost = 0
parallel_setup_cost = 0
min_parallel_relation_size = 0
effective_cache_size = 300GB # 看着办,减掉数据库shared buffer, maintenance work mem, work mem, wal shared buffer,剩下的都是OS可用的CACHE。
force_parallel_mode = off
log_destination = 'csvlog'
logging_collector = on
log_truncate_on_rotation = on
log_checkpoints = on
log_connections = on
log_disconnections = on
log_error_verbosity = verbose
log_timezone = 'PRC'
autovacuum = on
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0
autovacuum_max_workers = 16 # CPU核多,并且IO好的情况下,可多点,但是注意 16*autovacuum mem ,会消耗较多内存,所以内存也要有基础。
autovacuum_naptime = 20s
autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.05 # 垃圾版本超过5%时,触发垃圾回收
vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000 # 年龄超过5000万的记录,都设置为冻结年龄
vacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age = 5000000
autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 1600000000 # 表的年龄超过16亿时,强制触发vacuum freeze(即使没有开启autovacuum)
vacuum_freeze_table_age = 1200000000 # 表的年龄超过12亿时,autovacuum 触发vacuum freeze
vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 1100000000
datestyle = 'iso, mdy'
timezone = 'PRC'
lc_messages = 'C'
lc_monetary = 'C'
lc_numeric = 'C'
lc_time = 'C'
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'
shared_preload_libraries='pg_stat_statements'
2、性能视图 pg_stat*

                 List of relations    
SchemaNameTypeOwner
pg_catalogpg_stat_activityviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_all_indexesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_all_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_archiverviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_bgwriterviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_databaseviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_database_conflictsviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_progress_vacuumviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_replicationviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_sslviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_sys_indexesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_sys_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_user_functionsviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_user_indexesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_user_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_wal_receiverviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_xact_all_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_xact_sys_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_xact_user_functionsviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_stat_xact_user_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_all_indexesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_all_sequencesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_all_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_sys_indexesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_sys_sequencesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_sys_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_user_indexesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_user_sequencesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statio_user_tablesviewpostgres
pg_catalogpg_statsviewpostgres

(30 rows)
3、TOP SQL

pg_stat_statements插件,统计SQL调用的资源消耗。

postgresql.conf

shared_preload_libraries = 'pg_stat_statements';
创建extension:

create extension pg_stat_statements;
TOP 5 CPU_TIME SQL

select c.rolname,b.datname,a.total_time/a.calls per_call_time,a.* from pg_stat_statements a, pg_database b, pg_authid c where a.userid=c.oid and a.dbid=b.oid order by a.total_time desc limit 5;
4、AWR

《PostgreSQL AWR报告(for 阿里云ApsaraDB PgSQL)》

5、auto_explain

打印超时SQL当时的执行计划。

shared_preload_libraries = 'auto_explain'

配置
auto_explain.log_analyze = on
auto_explain.log_nested_statements = on
auto_explain.log_buffers = on
auto_explain.log_min_duration = '1s'
auto_explain.log_timing = on
auto_explain.log_verbose = on
6、explain解读

explain 语法

pic

explain 例子

pic

explain 节点

pic

  1. 数据库压测

pg_bench介绍

pgbench --help

pgbench is a benchmarking tool for PostgreSQL.

Usage:
pgbench [OPTION]... [DBNAME]

Initialization options:
-i, --initialize invokes initialization mode
-F, --fillfactor=NUM set fill factor
-n, --no-vacuum do not run VACUUM after initialization
-q, --quiet quiet logging (one message each 5 seconds)
-s, --scale=NUM scaling factor
--foreign-keys create foreign key constraints between tables
--index-tablespace=TABLESPACE

                       create indexes in the specified tablespace    

--tablespace=TABLESPACE create tables in the specified tablespace
--unlogged-tables create tables as unlogged tables

Options to select what to run:
-b, --builtin=NAME[@W] add builtin script NAME weighted at W (default: 1)

                       (use "-b list" to list available scripts)    

-f, --file=FILENAME[@W] add script FILENAME weighted at W (default: 1)
-N, --skip-some-updates skip updates of pgbench_tellers and pgbench_branches

                       (same as "-b simple-update")    

-S, --select-only perform SELECT-only transactions

                       (same as "-b select-only")    

Benchmarking options:
-c, --client=NUM number of concurrent database clients (default: 1)
-C, --connect establish new connection for each transaction
-D, --define=VARNAME=VALUE

                       define variable for use by custom script    

-j, --jobs=NUM number of threads (default: 1)
-l, --log write transaction times to log file
-L, --latency-limit=NUM count transactions lasting more than NUM ms as late
-M, --protocol=simple|extended|prepared

                       protocol for submitting queries (default: simple)    

-n, --no-vacuum do not run VACUUM before tests
-P, --progress=NUM show thread progress report every NUM seconds
-r, --report-latencies report average latency per command
-R, --rate=NUM target rate in transactions per second
-s, --scale=NUM report this scale factor in output
-t, --transactions=NUM number of transactions each client runs (default: 10)
-T, --time=NUM duration of benchmark test in seconds
-v, --vacuum-all vacuum all four standard tables before tests
--aggregate-interval=NUM aggregate data over NUM seconds
--progress-timestamp use Unix epoch timestamps for progress
--sampling-rate=NUM fraction of transactions to log (e.g., 0.01 for 1%)

Common options:
-d, --debug print debugging output
-h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory
-p, --port=PORT database server port number
-U, --username=USERNAME connect as specified database user
-V, --version output version information, then exit
-?, --help show this help, then exit
tpc-b测试

\set aid random(1, 100000 * :scale)
\set bid random(1, 1 * :scale)
\set tid random(1, 10 * :scale)
\set delta random(-5000, 5000)
BEGIN;
UPDATE pgbench_accounts SET abalance = abalance + :delta WHERE aid = :aid;
SELECT abalance FROM pgbench_accounts WHERE aid = :aid;
UPDATE pgbench_tellers SET tbalance = tbalance + :delta WHERE tid = :tid;
UPDATE pgbench_branches SET bbalance = bbalance + :delta WHERE bid = :bid;
INSERT INTO pgbench_history (tid, bid, aid, delta, mtime) VALUES (:tid, :bid, :aid, :delta, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);
END;
初始化数据, 1000万记录。

export PGPASSWORD=密码

pgbench -i -s 100
测试

export PGPASSWORD=密码

pgbench -M prepared -n -r -P 1 -c 连接数 -j 线程数 -h 主机IP -p 端口 -U 用户 数据库名 -T 时间(秒)
自定义测试

创建测试表

create table test(id int primary key, info text, crt_time timestamp);
创建脚本

vi test.sql

\set id random(1,100000000)
insert into test (id,info,crt_time) values (:id, md5(random()::text), now()) on conflict (id) do update set info=excluded.info, crt_time=excluded.crt_time;
压测

pgbench -M prepared -n -r -P 1 -f ./test.sql -c 32 -j 32 -T 100
progress: 1.0 s, 246533.1 tps, lat 0.128 ms stddev 0.536
progress: 2.0 s, 254653.8 tps, lat 0.125 ms stddev 0.333
progress: 3.0 s, 232433.6 tps, lat 0.137 ms stddev 0.812
progress: 4.0 s, 258225.7 tps, lat 0.123 ms stddev 0.250

  1. 日常维护

1、AWR健康报告

2、垃圾回收

3、膨胀索引重建

4、TOP SQL性能优化

5、错误日志分析

6、安全风险评估(SQL注入、暴力破解、密码周期修改)

7、备份可用性校验

8、历史备份和归档清理

9、历史数据清理

10、实时监控系统建设

11、HA建设、监控、演练

12、容灾建设、监控、演练

13、审计系统建设

14、业务逻辑优化

15、内核优化

16、版本升级、BUG FIX

17、社区交流

版权声明:本文内容由阿里云实名注册用户自发贡献,版权归原作者所有,阿里云开发者社区不拥有其著作权,亦不承担相应法律责任。具体规则请查看《阿里云开发者社区用户服务协议》和《阿里云开发者社区知识产权保护指引》。如果您发现本社区中有涉嫌抄袭的内容,填写侵权投诉表单进行举报,一经查实,本社区将立刻删除涉嫌侵权内容。

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