JavaMail学习笔记(七)、帐号激活与忘记密码 实例-阿里云开发者社区

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JavaMail学习笔记(七)、帐号激活与忘记密码 实例

简介:

一、帐户激活


          在很多时候,在某些网站注册一个用户之后,网站会给这个用户注册时填写的email地址发送一封帐户激活邮件,这封邮件的内容就是一个激活帐户链接和一段简短的文字描述,如果用户没有去邮箱将帐户激活,可能在使用网站的某些功能时就会受到限制,比如不能发贴、下载资料、评论等限制。这么做的原因应该是为了保证帐户的安全性和邮箱的有效性,以后网站如果有什么活动、资讯或系统安全通知等,可以在第一时间通知到用户。比如我在奇艺视频网站注册一个帐号之后,它就会往我注册时填写的邮箱中发一封帐户激活的邮件,邮件中有一个激活的链接,点击它就可以将你的帐户激活。如下图所示:


这个功能是怎么做到的呢,其实实现也是很简单的,说白了就是一个Update操作。

实现思路:当一个用户注册成功之后,系统向用户注册时提供的email地址发送一封邮件,邮件的内容是一个激活帐户的链接和一段简短的文字描述,这个链接的功能就是将这个帐户的状态修改成激活状态。这个功能的重点在于如何生成这个激活帐户的链接。直接可以联想到的方法就是建一个Servlet,Servlet接收一个用户名参数,Servlet拿到用户名参数之后,到数据库把这条记录load出来,做一次update操作即可。但是这样做会有风险,比如有人想在你的网站上搞破坏,注册时他填的email地址就是乱填的,这个Email地址可能根本就收不到邮件(但符合email格式),注册完成之后,然后在浏览器地址栏输入网站之前发送的帐户激活链接,并加上新注册的用户名参数,这样一来就跳过了去邮箱激活的步聚,时间久了,库中可能会留下许多无效的email地址和帐户。为了避免这个问题,解决方案是在用户注册成功之后,在发送激活帐户的链接中加一个随机码,这个随机码是将用户名和一个随机数用md5加密后的一串16进制字符串,每次用户在激活帐户的时候,都验证这个随机码是否和注册时发送的一致,这样就可以避免人为的修改激活链接达到帐户激活的功能。


二、忘记密码


          当你在某网站注册一个帐户之后,发现这个帐户很久没用了,密码也忘记了,如果还记得之前注册时填写的Email,那就可以向你的email中发一个重设密码的链接,就可以重新设置你的密码。大部份网站一般都提供了根据Email找回密码的功能。实现此功能的思路:在登录界面添加一个“忘记密码的链接,用户点击进去之后,输入用户名或Email,系统根据用户名或Email找出用户信息,并生成一个重新设置密码的链接发送到用户的邮箱中(生成链接的方式和生成帐户激活链接的方式一样),用户在邮箱中点击重设密码的链接,根据提示进入密码重设页面,重新输入新的密码即可。

功能实现步聚(帐号激活):

1、用户注册页面

<form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/register" method="post">
	用户名:<input type="text" name="userName" value="${param.userName}"><span class="error">${errors.userName}</span><br/>
	密码:<input type="password" name="password" ><span class="error">${errors.password}</span><br/>
	确认密码:<input type="password" name="password2"><span class="error">${errors.password2}</span><br/>
	email:<input type="text" name="email" value="${param.email}"><span class="error">${errors.email}</span><br/>
	<input type="submit" value="注册">
</form>

2、处理注册请求的Servlet(RegisterServlet)

package org.study.accountactivate.web.servlet;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.study.accountactivate.dao.UserDao;
import org.study.accountactivate.dao.impl.UserDaoImpl;
import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;
import org.study.accountactivate.util.EmailUtils;

/**
 * 用户注册
 */
public class RegisterServlet extends HttpServlet {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
	
	private UserDao userDao = UserDaoImpl.getInstance();
       
	protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		doPost(request, response);
	}

	protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		String userName = request.getParameter("userName");
		String password = request.getParameter("password");
		String password2 = request.getParameter("password2");
		String email = request.getParameter("email");
		
		Map<String, String> errors = new HashMap<String,String>();
		if (userName == null || "".equals(userName)) {
			errors.put("userName", "用户名不能为空!");
		} else if (userName != null && userDao.findUserByName(userName) != null) {
			errors.put("userName", "该用户已注册!");
		}
		
		if (password == null || "".equals(password)) {
			errors.put("password","密码不能为空!");
		} else if (password != null && password.length() < 3) {
			errors.put("password","密码长度不能低于3位!");
		}
		
		if (password2 == null || "".equals(password2)) {
			errors.put("password2", "确认密码不能为空!");
		} else if (password2 != null && !password2.equals(password)) {
			errors.put("password2", "两次输入的密码不一致!");
		}
		
		if (email == null || "".equals(email)) {
			errors.put("email", "email不能为空!");
			
		} else if (email != null && !email.matches("[0-9a-zA-Z_-]+@[0-9a-zA-Z_-]+\\.[0-9a-zA-Z_-]+(\\.[0-9a-zA-Z_-])*")) {
			errors.put("email", "email格式不正确!");
		}
		
		if (!errors.isEmpty()) {
			request.setAttribute("errors", errors);
			request.getRequestDispatcher("/registerUI").forward(request, response);
			return;
		}
		
		User user = new User();
		user.setUserName(userName);
		user.setPassword(password);
		user.setEmail(email);
		user.setActivated(false);
		
		userDao.addUser(user);
		
		// 注册成功后,发送帐户激活链接
		EmailUtils.sendAccountActivateEmail(user);
		
		// 注册成功直接将当前用户保存到session中
		request.getSession().setAttribute("user", user);
		request.getRequestDispatcher("/WEB-INF/pages/registerSuccess.jsp").forward(request,response);
	}
}

3、激活帐户的Servlet(ActivateAccountServle)

package org.study.accountactivate.web.servlet;

import java.io.IOException;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.study.accountactivate.dao.UserDao;
import org.study.accountactivate.dao.impl.UserDaoImpl;
import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;
import org.study.accountactivate.util.GenerateLinkUtils;

/**
 * 帐户激活
 */
public class ActivateAccountServlet extends HttpServlet {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
       
	protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		String idValue = request.getParameter("id");
		int id = -1;
		try {
			id = Integer.parseInt(idValue);
		} catch (NumberFormatException e) {
			throw new RuntimeException("无效的用户!");
		}
		UserDao userDao = UserDaoImpl.getInstance();
		User user = userDao.findUserById(id);// 得到要激活的帐户
		user.setActivated(GenerateLinkUtils.verifyCheckcode(user, request));// 校验验证码是否和注册时发送的一致,以此设置是否激活该帐户
		userDao.updateUser(user);
		
		request.getSession().setAttribute("user", user);
		
		request.getRequestDispatcher("/accountActivateUI").forward(request, response);
	}

	protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		doGet(request, response);
	}
}
4、操作用户的DAO接口与实现类(UserDao和UserDaoImpl类)

package org.study.accountactivate.dao;

import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;

public interface UserDao {

	void addUser(User user);
	
	void updateUser(User user);
	
	User findUserById(int id);
	
	User findUserByName(String userName);
	
	User findUserByNameOrEmail(String nameOrEmail);
}

package org.study.accountactivate.dao.impl;

import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.UUID;

import org.study.accountactivate.dao.UserDao;
import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;

public class UserDaoImpl implements UserDao {
	
	private static UserDaoImpl instance = new UserDaoImpl();
	
	private UserDaoImpl() {}
	
	public static UserDaoImpl getInstance() {
		return instance;
	}
	
	Map<Integer,User> users = new HashMap<Integer, User>();
	
	int nextId = 1;

	@Override
	public void addUser(User user) {
		user.setId(nextId++);
		user.setRandomCode(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
		users.put(user.getId(), user);
	}

	@Override
	public void updateUser(User user) {
		users.put(user.getId(), user);
	}

	@Override
	public User findUserById(int id) {
		return users.get(id);
	}

	@Override
	public User findUserByName(String userName) {
		Collection<User> userValues = users.values();
		for (Iterator<User> iterator = userValues.iterator();iterator.hasNext();) {
			User user = iterator.next();
			if (user.getUserName().equals(userName)) {
				return user;
			}
		}
		return null;
	}

	@Override
	public User findUserByNameOrEmail(String nameOrEmail) {
		Collection<User> userValues = users.values();
		for(Iterator<User> iterator = userValues.iterator();iterator.hasNext();) {
			User user = iterator.next();
			if (user.getEmail().equals(nameOrEmail) || user.getUserName().equals(nameOrEmail)) {
				return user;
			}
		}
		return null;
	}
}
5、发送Email的工具类(EmailUtils,用于发送帐户激活链接和密码重置链接)

package org.study.accountactivate.util;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Properties;

import javax.mail.Authenticator;
import javax.mail.Message.RecipientType;
import javax.mail.PasswordAuthentication;
import javax.mail.Session;
import javax.mail.Transport;
import javax.mail.internet.InternetAddress;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage;

import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;

public class EmailUtils {
	
	private static final String FROM = "xyang81@163.com";

	/**
	 * 注册成功后,向用户发送帐户激活链接的邮件
	 * @param user 未激活的用户
	 */
	public static void sendAccountActivateEmail(User user) {
		Session session = getSession();
		MimeMessage message = new MimeMessage(session);
		try {
			message.setSubject("帐户激活邮件");
			message.setSentDate(new Date());
			message.setFrom(new InternetAddress(FROM));
			message.setRecipient(RecipientType.TO, new InternetAddress(user.getEmail()));
			message.setContent("<a href='" + GenerateLinkUtils.generateActivateLink(user)+"'>点击激活帐户</a>","text/html;charset=utf-8");
			// 发送邮件
			Transport.send(message);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}
	
	/**
	 * 发送重设密码链接的邮件
	 */
	public static void sendResetPasswordEmail(User user) {
		Session session = getSession();
		MimeMessage message = new MimeMessage(session);
		try {
			message.setSubject("找回您的帐户与密码");
			message.setSentDate(new Date());
			message.setFrom(new InternetAddress(FROM));
			message.setRecipient(RecipientType.TO, new InternetAddress(user.getEmail()));
			message.setContent("要使用新的密码, 请使用以下链接启用密码:<br/><a href='" + GenerateLinkUtils.generateResetPwdLink(user) +"'>点击重新设置密码</a>","text/html;charset=utf-8");
			// 发送邮件
			Transport.send(message);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}
	
	public static Session getSession() {
		Properties props = new Properties();
		props.setProperty("mail.transport.protocol", "smtp");
		props.setProperty("mail.smtp.host", "smtp.163.com");
		props.setProperty("mail.smtp.port", "25");
		props.setProperty("mail.smtp.auth", "true");
		Session session = Session.getInstance(props, new Authenticator() {
			@Override
			protected PasswordAuthentication getPasswordAuthentication() {
				String password = null;
				InputStream is = EmailUtils.class.getResourceAsStream("password.dat");
				byte[] b = new byte[1024];
				try {
					int len = is.read(b);
					password = new String(b,0,len);
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				return new PasswordAuthentication(FROM, password);
			}
			
		});
		return session;
	}
}

6、生成帐户激活、密码重设链接的工具类(GenerateLinkUtils)

package org.study.accountactivate.util;

import java.security.MessageDigest;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;

import javax.servlet.ServletRequest;

import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;

/**
 * 生成帐户激活、重新设置密码的链接
 */
public class GenerateLinkUtils {
	
	private static final String CHECK_CODE = "checkCode";
	
	/**
	 * 生成帐户激活链接
	 */
	public static String generateActivateLink(User user) {
		return "http://localhost:8080/AccountActivate/activateAccount?id=" 
				+ user.getId() + "&" + CHECK_CODE + "=" + generateCheckcode(user);
	}
	
	/**
	 * 生成重设密码的链接
	 */
	public static String generateResetPwdLink(User user) {
		return "http://localhost:8080/AccountActivate/resetPasswordUI?userName=" 
				+ user.getUserName() + "&" + CHECK_CODE + "=" + generateCheckcode(user);
	}
	
	/**
	 * 生成验证帐户的MD5校验码
	 * @param user  要激活的帐户
	 * @return 将用户名和密码组合后,通过md5加密后的16进制格式的字符串
	 */
	public static String generateCheckcode(User user) {
		String userName = user.getUserName();
		String randomCode = user.getRandomCode();
		return md5(userName + ":" + randomCode);
	}
	
	/**
	 * 验证校验码是否和注册时发送的验证码一致
	 * @param user 要激活的帐户
	 * @param checkcode 注册时发送的校验码
	 * @return 如果一致返回true,否则返回false
	 */
	public static boolean verifyCheckcode(User user,ServletRequest request) {
		String checkCode = request.getParameter(CHECK_CODE);
		return generateCheckcode(user).equals(checkCode);
	}

	private static String md5(String string) {
		MessageDigest md = null;
		try {
			md = MessageDigest.getInstance("md5");
			md.update(string.getBytes());
			byte[] md5Bytes = md.digest();
			return bytes2Hex(md5Bytes);
		} catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		
		return null;
	}
	
	private static String bytes2Hex(byte[] byteArray)
	{
		StringBuffer strBuf = new StringBuffer();
		for (int i = 0; i < byteArray.length; i++)
		{
			if(byteArray[i] >= 0 && byteArray[i] < 16)
			{
				strBuf.append("0");
			}
			strBuf.append(Integer.toHexString(byteArray[i] & 0xFF));
		}
		return strBuf.toString();
	}
}

7、实体类(User)

package org.study.accountactivate.domail;

public class User {
	// 编号
	private int id;
	// 用户名
	private String userName;
	// 密码
	private String password;
	// email
	private String email;
	// 是否激活
	private boolean activated;
	// 随机码(激活帐户与生成重设密码链接时使用)
	private String randomCode;
	
	public int getId() {
		return id;
	}
	public void setId(int id) {
		this.id = id;
	}
	public String getUserName() {
		return userName;
	}
	public void setUserName(String userName) {
		this.userName = userName;
	}
	public String getPassword() {
		return password;
	}
	public void setPassword(String password) {
		this.password = password;
	}
	public boolean isActivated() {
		return activated;
	}
	public void setActivated(boolean activated) {
		this.activated = activated;
	}
	public String getRandomCode() {
		return randomCode;
	}
	public void setRandomCode(String randomCode) {
		this.randomCode = randomCode;
	}
	public String getEmail() {
		return email;
	}
	public void setEmail(String email) {
		this.email = email;
	}

}

功能实现步骤(忘记密码):

1、登录页面

<form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/login" method="post">
	<span class="error" style="display: block;">${errors.loginError}</span>
	用户名:<input type="text" name="userName" value="${param.userName}"><span class="error">${errors.userName}</span><br/>
	密码:<input type="password" name="password"><span class="error">${errors.password}</span><br/>
	<input type="submit" value="登录"> 
	<a href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/forgotPwdUI">忘记密码?</a> 
	<a href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/registerUI">注册</a>
</form>

2、发送重设密码申请的页面

<form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/forgotPwd" method="post">
	<span style="color: red">${requestScope.sendMailMsg}</span>
	用户名/邮箱:<input type="text" name="userNameOrEmail" /><span style="color: red">${requestScope.errorMsg}</span><br/>
	<input type="submit" value="提交" /><a href=""></a>
</form>

3、处理“发送重设密码链接“请求的Servlet(ForgotPwdServlet)

package org.study.accountactivate.web.servlet;

import java.io.IOException;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.study.accountactivate.dao.UserDao;
import org.study.accountactivate.dao.impl.UserDaoImpl;
import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;
import org.study.accountactivate.util.EmailUtils;

/**
 * 发送重设密码申请的链接
 */
public class ForgotPwdServlet extends HttpServlet {
	
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

	protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		String userNameOrEmail = request.getParameter("userNameOrEmail");
		UserDao userDao = UserDaoImpl.getInstance();
		User user = userDao.findUserByNameOrEmail(userNameOrEmail);
		if (user == null) {
			request.setAttribute("errorMsg", userNameOrEmail + ",不存在!");
			request.getRequestDispatcher("/forgotPwdUI").forward(request, response);
			return;
		}
		
		// 发送重新设置密码的链接
		EmailUtils.sendResetPasswordEmail(user);
		
		request.setAttribute("sendMailMsg", "您的申请已提交成功,请查看您的"+user.getEmail()+"邮箱。");
		
		request.getRequestDispatcher("/WEB-INF/pages/forgotPwdSuccess.jsp").forward(request, response);
	}

	protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		doGet(request, response);
	}
}
4、重新设置密码的页面

<form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/resetPassword" method="post">
	<span class="error" style="display: block;">${errors.passwordError}</span>
	用户名:<input type="text" name="userName" value="${userName}" readonly="readonly"/><br/>
	新密码:<input type="password" name="newPassword" /><span class="error">${errors.newPassword }</span><br/>
	确认新密码:<input type="password" name="newPassword2"/><span class="error">${errors.newPassword2 }</span><br/>
	<input type="submit" value="修改" />
</form>
5、处理重新设置密码请求的Servlet(ResetPasswordServlet)
package org.study.accountactivate.web.servlet;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.study.accountactivate.dao.UserDao;
import org.study.accountactivate.dao.impl.UserDaoImpl;
import org.study.accountactivate.domail.User;

/**
 * 重新设置密码
 */
public class ResetPasswordServlet extends HttpServlet {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
       
	protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		String userName = request.getParameter("userName");
		String newPassword = request.getParameter("newPassword");
		String newPassword2 = request.getParameter("newPassword2");
		Map<String,String> errors = new HashMap<String, String>();
		if (newPassword == null || "".equals(newPassword)) {
			errors.put("newPassword", "新密码不能为空!");
		}
		
		if (newPassword2 == null || "".equals(newPassword2)) {
			errors.put("newPassword2", "确认新密码不能为空!");
		}
		
		if (!newPassword.equals(newPassword2)) {
			errors.put("passwordError", "两次输入的密码不一致!");
		}
		
		if (!errors.isEmpty()) {
			request.setAttribute("errors", errors);
			request.getRequestDispatcher("/resetPasswordUI?userName=" + userName).forward(request, response);
			return;
		}
		
		UserDao userDao = UserDaoImpl.getInstance();
		User user = userDao.findUserByName(userName);
		user.setPassword(newPassword);
		
		request.getRequestDispatcher("/WEB-INF/pages/resetPasswordSuccess.jsp").forward(request, response);
		
	}

	protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		doGet(request, response);
	}
}

帐户激活操作流程:

1)、注册页面

  

2)、注册成功页面

 

3)、帐户未激活,登录后的界面


4)、前往邮箱中激活帐户


5)、激活成功


6)、帐户已激活,登录后的界面



忘记密码操作流程:

1)、登录页面(点击“忘记密码”链接,进入重设密码页面)

2、重设密码申请页面(输入用户名或邮箱,点击“提交”按钮)


3、重设密码申请成功页面


4、邮箱中重设密码的链接


5、重新设置密码页面


6、密码重新设置成功页面


源码下载地址:http://download.csdn.net/detail/xyang81/4510396

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