云MSP技本功|基于OGG 实现Oracle到Kafka增量数据实时同步-阿里云开发者社区

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云MSP技本功|基于OGG 实现Oracle到Kafka增量数据实时同步

简介: 在大数据时代,存在大量基于数据的业务。数据需要在不同的系统之间流动、整合。通常,核心业务系统的数据存在OLTP数据库系统中,其它业务系统需要获取OLTP系统中的数据。传统的数仓通过批量数据同步的方式,定期从OLTP系统中抽取数据。

背景

在大数据时代,存在大量基于数据的业务。数据需要在不同的系统之间流动、整合。通常,核心业务系统的数据存在OLTP数据库系统中,其它业务系统需要获取OLTP系统中的数据。传统的数仓通过批量数据同步的方式,定期从OLTP系统中抽取数据。但是随着业务需求的升级,批量同步无论从实时性,还是对在线OLTP系统的抽取压力,都无法满足要求。需要实时从OLTP系统中获取数据变更,实时同步到下游业务系统。

本文基于Oracle OGG,介绍一种将Oracle数据库的数据实时同步到Kafka消息队列的方法。

Kafka是一种高效的消息队列实现,通过订阅kafka的消息队列,下游系统可以实时获取在线Oracle系统的数据变更情况,实现业务系统。

环境介绍

组件版本

o0
整体架构图

o1

名词解释

1.OGG Manager

OGG Manager用于配置和管理其它OGG组件,配置数据抽取、数据推送、数据复制,启动和停止相关组件,查看相关组件的运行情况。

2.数据抽取(Extract)

抽取源端数据库的变更(DML, DDL)。数据抽取主要分如下几种类型:

本地抽取
从本地数据库捕获增量变更数据,写入到本地Trail文件

数据推送(Data Pump)
从本地Trail文件读取数据,推送到目标端。

初始数据抽取
从数据库表中导出全量数据,用于初次数据加载

3.数据推送(Data Pump)

Data Pump是一种特殊的数据抽取(Extract)类型,从本地Trail文件中读取数据,并通过网络将数据发送到目标端OGG

4.Trail文件

数据抽取从源端数据库抓取到的事物变更信息会写入到Trail文件。

5.数据接收(Collector)

数据接收程序运行在目标端机器,用于接收Data Pump发送过来的Trail日志,并将数据写入到本地Trail文件。

6.数据复制(Replicat)

数据复制运行在目标端机器,从Trail文件读取数据变更,并将变更数据应用到目标端数据存储系统。本案例中,数据复制将数据推送到kafka消息队列。

7.检查点(Checkpoint)

检查点用于记录数据库事物变更。

 

操作步骤

源端Oracle配置

1.检查归档

使用OGG,需要在源端开启归档日志

SQL> archive log list;
 
    Database log mode              Archive Mode
 
    Automatic archival             Enabled
 
    Archive destination            /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch
 
    Oldest online log sequence     2576
 
    Next log sequence to archive   2577
 
    Current log sequence           2577

2.检查数据库配置

SQL> select force_logging, supplemental_log_data_min from v$database;
 
FORCE_LOGG SUPPLEMENTAL_LOG_DATA_MI
 
---------- ------------------------
 
YES        YES

如果没有开启辅助日志,需要开启:

SQL> alter database force logging;
 
SQL> alter database add supplemental log data;

3.开启goldengate复制参数

SQL> alter system set enable_goldengate_replication = true;

4.创建源端Oracle账号

SQL> create tablespace tbs_ogg datafile '/oradata/dtstack/tbs_ogg.dbf' size 1024M autoextend on;
 
SQL> create user ggsadmin identified by oracle default tablespace tbs_ogg;
 
SQL> grant dba to ggsadmin;

5.创建测试表   

SQL> create table baiyang.ora_to_kfk as select OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, SUBOBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_ID, DATA_OBJECT_ID, OBJECT_TYPE from all_objects where object_id < 500;
 
SQL> alter table baiyang.ora_to_kfk add constraint pk_kfk_obj primary key(object_id);
 
SQL> select count(*) from baiyang.ora_to_kfk;
    COUNT(*)
 
----------
 
        436

 源端OGG配置

1.检查源端OGG环境

cd /oradata/oggorcl/ogg
 
./ggsci
 
GGSCI (dtproxy) 1> info all
 
Program     Status      Group       Lag at Chkpt  Time Since Chkpt

MANAGER     STOPPED

2.创建相关文件夹    

GGSCI (dtproxy) 2> create subdirs
 
    Creating subdirectories under current directory /oradata/oggorcl/ogg
 
   
    Parameter file                 /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirprm: created.
 
    Report file                    /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirrpt: created.
 
    Checkpoint file                /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirchk: created.
 
    Process status files           /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirpcs: created.
 
    SQL script files               /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirsql: created.
 
    Database definitions files     /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirdef: created.
 
    Extract data files             /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirdat: created.
 
    Temporary files                /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirtmp: created.
 
    Credential store files         /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dircrd: created.
 
    Masterkey wallet files         /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirwlt: created.
 
    Dump files                     /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirdmp: created

3.配置源端Manager

GGSCI (dtproxy) 4> dblogin userid ggsadmin password oracle
 
    Successfully logged into database.
 
GGSCI (dtproxy as ggsadmin@dtstack) 5> edit param ./globals

添加

oggschema ggsadmin
 
GGSCI (dtproxy as ggsadmin@dtstack) 6> edit param mgr

添加

PORT 7810 --默认监听端口
 
DYNAMICPORTLIST  7811-7820 --动态端口列表
 
AUTORESTART EXTRACT *,RETRIES 5,WAITMINUTES 3 --进程有问题,每3分钟重启一次,一共重启五次
 
PURGEOLDEXTRACTS ./dirdat/*, USECHECKPOINTS, MINKEEPDAYS 7  --*/
 
LAGREPORTHOURS 1 --每隔一小时检查一次传输延迟情况
 
LAGINFOMINUTES 30 --传输延时超过30分钟将写入错误日志
 
LAGCRITICALMINUTES 45 --传输延时超过45分钟将写入警告日志
 
PURGEMARKERHISTORY MINKEEPDAYS 3, MAXKEEPDAYS 7 --定期清理trail文件
 
ACCESSRULE, PROG *, IPADDR 172.*.*.*, ALLOW --设定172网段可连接

添加同步的表

GGSCI (dtproxy as ggsadmin@dtstack) 9> add trandata baiyang.ora_to_kfk
 
Oracle Goldengate marked following column as key columns on table BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK: OBJECT_ID.
 
GGSCI (dtproxy as ggsadmin@dtstack) 10> info trandata baiyang.ora_to_kfk
 
Prepared CSN for table BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK: 192881239

目标端OGG配置
1.目标端检查环境

GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 1> info all
 
    Program     Status      Group       Lag at Chkpt  Time Since Chkpt
 
    MANAGER     STOPPED 

 2.创建目录    

GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 2> create subdirs
 
    Creating subdirectories under current directory /app/ogg
 
    Parameter file                 /app/ogg/dirprm: created.
 
    Report file                    /app/ogg/dirrpt: created.
 
    Checkpoint file                /app/ogg/dirchk: created.
 
    Process status files           /app/ogg/dirpcs: created.
 
    SQL script files               /app/ogg/dirsql: created.
 
    Database definitions files     /app/ogg/dirdef: created.
 
    Extract data files             /app/ogg/dirdat: created.
 
    Temporary files                /app/ogg/dirtmp: created.
 
    Credential store files         /app/ogg/dircrd: created.
 
    Masterkey wallet files         /app/ogg/dirwlt: created.
 
Dump files                     /app/ogg/dirdmp: created.

3.目标端Manager配置

GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 3> edit params mgr

添加

PORT 7810
 
    DYNAMICPORTLIST 7811-7820
 
    AUTORESTART EXTRACT *,RETRIES 5,WAITMINUTES 3
 
    PURGEOLDEXTRACTS ./dirdat/*,usecheckpoints, minkeepdays 3
    
    GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 4> edit  param  ./GLOBALS
CHECKPOINTTABLE ggsadmin.checkpoint

    
全量数据同步

1.配置源端数据初始化

 配置源端初始化进程

GGSCI (dtproxy as ggsadmin@dtstack) 15> add extract initkfk,sourceistable
 

配置源端初始化参数

GGSCI (dtproxy as ggsadmin@dtstack) 16> edit params initkfk

 添加

EXTRACT initkfk
    SETENV (NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8)
    USERID ggsadmin,PASSWORD oracle
    RMTHOST 172.16.101.242, MGRPORT 7810
    RMTFILE ./dirdat/ekfk,maxfiles 999, megabytes 500
table baiyang.ora_to_kfk;

  
2.源端生成表结构define文件

GGSCI (dtproxy as ggsadmin@dtstack) 17> edit param define_kfk

添加

defsfile /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirdef/define_kfk.txt
 
    userid ggsadmin,password oracle
 
    table baiyang.ora_to_kfk;

执行

$./defgen paramfile dirprm/define_kfk.prm
 
-- Definitions generated for 1 table in /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirdef/define_kfk.txt

将此文件传输到目标段dirdef文件夹

scp /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirdef/define_kfk.txt 172.16.101.242:/app/ogg/dirdef/define_kfk.txt

3.配置目标端数据初始化进程

 配置目标端初始化进程

GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 3> ADD replicat initkfk,specialrun
 
GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 6> edit params initkfk

添加

SPECIALRUN
 
    end runtime
 
    setenv(NLS_LANG="AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8")
 
    targetdb libfile libggjava.so set property=./dirprm/kafka.props
 
    SOURCEDEFS ./dirdef/define_kfk.txt
 
    EXTFILE ./dirdat/ekfk000000
 
    reportcount every 1 minutes, rate
 
    grouptransops 10000
 
map baiyang.ora_to_kfk,target baiyang.ora_to_kfk;

    
4.配置kafka相关参数
vi ./dirprm/kafka.props

添加

gg.handlerlist=kafkahandler
gg.handler.kafkahandler.type=kafka
gg.handler.kafkahandler.KafkaProducerConfigFile=custom_kafka_producer.properties
gg.handler.kafkahandler.topicMappingTemplate=test_ogg
gg.handler.kafkahandler.format=json
gg.handler.kafkahandler.mode=op
gg.classpath=dirprm/:/data/kafka_2.12-2.2.0/libs/*:/app/ogg/:/app/ogg/lib/*  --*/

vi custom_kafka_producer.properties

 添加

bootstrap.servers=172.16.101.242:9092
 
acks=1
 
compression.type=gzip
 
reconnect.backoff.ms=1000
 
value.serializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.ByteArraySerializer
 
key.serializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.ByteArraySerializer
 
batch.size=102400
 
linger.ms=10000

    
5.源端开启全量数据抽取
源端

GGSCI (dtproxy) 20>  start mgr
 
GGSCI (dtproxy) 21>  start initkfk

6.目标端全量数据应用

GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 13> start mgr
 
./replicat paramfile ./dirprm/initkfk.prm reportfile ./dirrpt/init01.rpt -p INITIALDATALOAD

7.kafka数据验证

使用kafka客户端工具查看topic的数据

bin/kafka-console-consumer.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --topic test_ogg --from-beginning
 
{"table":"BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK","op_type":"I","op_ts":"2019-11-11 20:23:19.703779","current_ts":"2019-11-11T20:48:55.946000","pos":"-0000000000000000001","after":{"OWNER":"SYS","OBJECT_NAME":"C_OBJ#","SUBOBJECT_NAME":null,"OBJECT_ID":2,"DATA_OBJECT_ID":2,"OBJECT_TYPE":"CLUSTER"}}
 
{"table":"BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK","op_type":"I","op_ts":"2019-11-11 20:23:19.703779","current_ts":"2019-11-11T20:48:56.289000","pos":"-0000000000000000001","after":{"OWNER":"SYS","OBJECT_NAME":"I_OBJ#","SUBOBJECT_NAME":null,"OBJECT_ID":3,"DATA_OBJECT_ID":3,"OBJECT_TYPE":"INDEX"}}

全量数据已经同步到目标kafka topic
增量数据同步

1.源端抽取进程配置

GGSCI (dtproxy) 9> edit param extkfk

添加

dynamicresolution
 
SETENV (ORACLE_SID = "dtstack")
 
SETENV (NLS_LANG = "american_america.AL32UTF8")
 
userid ggsadmin,password oracle
 
exttrail ./dirdat/to
 
table baiyang.ora_to_kfk;

添加extract进程

GGSCI (dtproxy) 10> add extract extkfk,tranlog,begin now

添加trail文件的定义与extract进程绑定

GGSCI (dtproxy) 11> add exttrail ./dirdat/to,extract extkfk

2.源端数据推送进程配置

配置源端推送进程

GGSCI (dtproxy) 12> edit param pupkfk

添加

extract pupkfk
 
passthru
 
dynamicresolution
 
userid ggsadmin,password oracle
 
rmthost 172.16.101.242 mgrport 7810
 
rmttrail ./dirdat/to
 
table baiyang.ora_to_kfk;

添加extract进程

GGSCI (dtproxy) 13>  add extract pupkfk,exttrailsource /oradata/oggorcl/ogg/dirdat/to

添加trail文件的定义与extract进程绑定

GGSCI (dtproxy) 14>  add rmttrail ./dirdat/to,extract pupkfk

3.配置目标端恢复进程

配置目标端恢复进程

edit param repkfk

添加

REPLICAT repkfk
 
SOURCEDEFS ./dirdef/define_kfk.txt
 
targetdb libfile libggjava.so set property=./dirprm/kafka.props
 
REPORTCOUNT EVERY 1 MINUTES, RATE
 
GROUPTRANSOPS 10000
 
MAP baiyang.ora_to_kfk, TARGET baiyang.ora_to_kfk;

添加trail文件到replicate进程

add replicat repkfk exttrail ./dirdat/to,checkpointtable ggsadmin.checkpoint

4.源端开启实时数据抓取

./ggsci
 
GGSCI (dtproxy) 5> start extkfk
 
Sending START request to MANAGER ...
 
EXTRACT EXTKFK starting

GGSCI (dtproxy) 6> start pupkfk
 
Sending START request to MANAGER ...
 
EXTRACT PUPKFK starting
  
GGSCI (dtproxy) 7> status all
 
Program     Status      Group       Lag at Chkpt  Time Since Chkpt
 
MANAGER     RUNNING
 
EXTRACT     RUNNING     EXTKFK      00:00:00      00:00:10
 
EXTRACT     RUNNING     PUPKFK      00:00:00      00:00:00

5.目标端开启实时数据同步

./ggsci
 
GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 7> start replicat repkfk
 
Sending START request to MANAGER ...
 
REPLICAT REPKFK starting
  
GGSCI (172-16-101-242) 8> info all
 
Program     Status      Group       Lag at Chkpt  Time Since Chkpt
  
MANAGER     RUNNING
 
REPLICAT    RUNNING     REPKFK      00:00:00      00:00:00

6.测试增量数据同步

Oracle插入增量数据

SQL> insert into baiyang.ora_to_kfk  select OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, SUBOBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_ID, DATA_OBJECT_ID, OBJECT_TYPE from all_objects where object_id >500 and  object_id < 1000;
 
SQL> commit;
 
SQL> select count(*) from baiyang.ora_to_kfk;
COUNT(*)
 
----------
 
    905

查看Kafka消息队列消费数据

{"table":"BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK","op_type":"I","op_ts":"2019-11-11 21:04:11.158786","current_ts":"2019-11-11T21:10:54.042000","pos":"00000000000000075298","after":{"OWNER":"SYS","OBJECT_NAME":"APPLY$_READER_STATS","SUBOBJECT_NAME":null,"OBJECT_ID":998,"DATA_OBJECT_ID":998,"OBJECT_TYPE":"TABLE"}}
 
{"table":"BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK","op_type":"I","op_ts":"2019-11-11 21:04:11.158786","current_ts":"2019-11-11T21:10:54.042001","pos":"00000000000000075459","after":{"OWNER":"SYS","OBJECT_NAME":"APPLY$_READER_STATS_I","SUBOBJECT_NAME":null,"OBJECT_ID":999,"DATA_OBJECT_ID":999,"OBJECT_TYPE":"INDEX"}}

 源端Oracle删除数据

SQL> delete from baiyang.ora_to_kfk ;
 
906 rows deleted.
 
SQL> commit;

查看kafka消息队列消费数据

{"table":"BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK","op_type":"D","op_ts":"2019-11-11 21:13:11.166184","current_ts":"2019-11-11T21:13:17.449007","pos":"00000000000000216645","before":{"OWNER":"x1","OBJECT_NAME":"SSSSS","SUBOBJECT_NAME":"z1","OBJECT_ID":111000,"DATA_OBJECT_ID":2000,"OBJECT_TYPE":"x1"}}

源端插入数据 

SQL> insert into  baiyang.ora_to_kfk values('汉字', 'y1', 'z1', 111000,2000,'x1');
 
1 row created.
 
SQL> commit;

查看kafka消息队列消费数据

{"table":"BAIYANG.ORA_TO_KFK","op_type":"I","op_ts":"2019-11-11 21:14:21.167454","current_ts":"2019-11-11T21:14:26.497000","pos":"00000000000000216794","after":{"OWNER":"汉字","OBJECT_NAME":"y1","SUBOBJECT_NAME":"z1","OBJECT_ID":111000,"DATA_OBJECT_ID":2000,"OBJECT_TYPE":"x1"}}

总结

使用OGG可以方便地将Oracle的数据变更情况实时同步到Kafka消息队列。下游业务系统通过订阅kafka的消息队列,能方便地实现各类实时数据的应用。

更多数据库问题请了解云掣运维中台
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