PostgreSQL dblink异步调用实践,跑并行多任务 - 例如开N个并行后台任务创建索引, 开N个后台任务跑若干SQL-阿里云开发者社区

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PostgreSQL dblink异步调用实践,跑并行多任务 - 例如开N个并行后台任务创建索引, 开N个后台任务跑若干SQL

简介: 标签 PostgreSQL , 后台任务 , DBLINK 异步调用 背景 使用DBLINK异步接口,可以非常方便的实现跑后台任务,如果要让数据库执行若干条SQL,开N个并行执行,同样可以使用DBLINK封装成API进行调用。

标签

PostgreSQL , 后台任务 , DBLINK 异步调用


背景

使用DBLINK异步接口,可以非常方便的实现跑后台任务,如果要让数据库执行若干条SQL,开N个并行执行,同样可以使用DBLINK封装成API进行调用。

例如,结合我前面的一些文字,可以实现自动选择索引接口、指定并行度、指定表空间、给所有字段创建索引。

《自动选择正确索引访问接口(btree,hash,gin,gist,sp-gist,brin,bitmap...)的方法》

《PostgreSQL 快速给指定表每个字段创建索引》

《阿里云RDS PostgreSQL OSS 外部表实践 - (dblink异步调用封装并行) 从OSS并行导入数据》

《在PostgreSQL中跑后台长任务的方法 - 使用dblink异步接口》

并行后台任务接口实现

接口效果:

select run_sqls_parallel (  
  参数1:并行度,  
  参数2:要执行的SQLs(数组呈现)  
);  

实现

1、创建dblink插件

create extension if not exists dblink;    

2、创建一个建立连接函数,不报错

create or replace function conn(      
  name,   -- dblink名字      
  text    -- 连接串,URL      
) returns void as $$        
declare        
begin        
  perform dblink_connect($1, $2);       
  return;        
exception when others then        
  return;        
end;        
$$ language plpgsql strict;    

3、创建跑多任务的接口函数

create or replace function run_sqls_parallel(   
  parallels int,    -- 并行度  
  sqls text[],      -- 需要执行的SQLs  
  conn text    default format('hostaddr=%s port=%s user=%s dbname=%s application_name=', '127.0.0.1', current_setting('port'), current_user, current_database())       -- 连接串     
)  
returns setof record as $$  
declare  
  app_prefix_stat text := md5(random()::text);   -- 用来获取pg_stat_activity的实时内容 (由于pg_stat_activity的函数是stable的,无法在事务中获取到被其他会话变更的内容)  
  app_prefix text := md5(random()::text);        -- application, dblink name prefix   
  i int := 1;       -- 任务ID变量,1累加  
  app_conn_name text;  -- application_name, dblink conn name = app_prefix+i   
  sql text;       -- SQL 元素   
  current_conns int := 0;  -- 当前活跃的异步调用   
begin  
  -- 建立获取实时pg_stat_activity内容连接    
  perform conn(app_prefix_stat,  conn||app_prefix_stat);              
  
  foreach sql in array sqls  
  loop  
    -- 当前是否有空闲异步连接   
    select application_name into app_conn_name from   
      dblink(app_prefix_stat, format($_$ select application_name from pg_stat_activity where application_name ~ '^%s' and state='idle' limit 1 $_$, app_prefix))  
    as t(application_name text);   
    -- 有空闲异步连接  
    if found then  
      -- 消耗掉上一次异步连接的结果,否则会报错。  
      return query select a from dblink_get_result(app_conn_name, false) as t(a text);      
      return query select a from dblink_get_result(app_conn_name, false) as t(a text);    
  
      -- 发送异步DBLINK调用      
      perform dblink_send_query(app_conn_name, sql);   
      
    -- 无空闲异步连接  
    else  
      -- 当前已建立的异步连接数  
      select cn into current_conns from   
        dblink(app_prefix_stat, format($_$ select count(*) from pg_stat_activity where application_name ~ '^%s' $_$, app_prefix))  
      as t(cn int);      
      loop  
        -- 达到并行度  
        if current_conns >= parallels then   
          -- 是否有空闲异步连接  
          select application_name into app_conn_name from   
            dblink(app_prefix_stat, format($_$ select application_name from pg_stat_activity where application_name ~ '^%s' and state='idle' limit 1 $_$, app_prefix))  
          as t(application_name text);   
          -- 有  
          if found then  
            -- 消耗掉上一次异步连接的结果,否则会报错。  
            return query select a from dblink_get_result(app_conn_name, false) as t(a text);    
            return query select a from dblink_get_result(app_conn_name, false) as t(a text);    
  
            -- 发送异步DBLINK调用      
            perform dblink_send_query(app_conn_name, sql);   
              
            -- 退出循环  
            exit;  
          -- 没有,等  
          else  
            perform pg_sleep(1);  
            raise notice 'current running tasks: %, waiting idle conns.', current_conns;  
          end if;  
        -- 未达到并行度  
        else  
          -- 建立连接  
          perform conn(app_prefix||i,  conn||app_prefix||i);             -- 建立连接。  
  
          -- 发送异步DBLINK调用      
          perform dblink_send_query(app_prefix||i, sql);   
            
          -- 连接suffix序号 递增  
          i := i+1;  
            
          -- 退出循环  
          exit;  
        end if;  
      end loop;  
    end if;  
  end loop;  
  
  loop  
    -- 当前已建立的异步连接数  
    select cn into current_conns from   
      dblink(app_prefix_stat, format($_$ select count(*) from pg_stat_activity where application_name ~ '^%s' and state <> 'idle' $_$, app_prefix))  
    as t(cn int);      
    if current_conns=0 then   
      raise notice 'whole tasks done.';  
      for app_conn_name in 
        select application_name from   
          dblink(app_prefix_stat, format($_$ select application_name from pg_stat_activity where application_name ~ '^%s' $_$, app_prefix))  
        as t(application_name text)
      loop
        return query select a from dblink_get_result(app_conn_name, false) as t(a text);   
      end loop;
      return;  
    else  
      raise notice 'the last % tasks running.', current_conns;  
      perform pg_sleep(1);  
    end if;  
  end loop;  
  
end;  
$$ language plpgsql strict;  

试用

1、运行5条SQL,开2个并行任务

select * from run_sqls_parallel(  
 2, -- 并行度  
 -- 执行如下SQL数组  
 array['select pg_sleep(10)', 'select pg_sleep(10)', 'select pg_sleep(10)', 'select count(*) from pg_class where relname ~ ''t''', 'select pg_sleep(10)', 'select pg_sleep(10)']  
)
as t(a text);   
  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  current running tasks: 2, waiting idle conns.  
NOTICE:  the last 2 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 1 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  whole tasks done.  
 run_sqls_parallel   
-------------------  
   
(1 row)  
  
Time: 30070.275 ms (00:30.070)  

2、运行10个并行任务,跑6条SQL

postgres=# select * from run_sqls_parallel(  
 10, -- 并行度  
 -- 执行如下SQL数组  
 array['select pg_sleep(10)', 'select pg_sleep(10)', 'select pg_sleep(10)', 'select count(*) from pg_class where relname ~ ''t''', 'select pg_sleep(10)', 'select pg_sleep(10)']  
)
as t(a text);   

NOTICE:  the last 6 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  the last 5 tasks running.  
NOTICE:  whole tasks done.  
 run_sqls_parallel   
-------------------  
   
(1 row)  
  
Time: 10050.064 ms (00:10.050)  

完全符合预期。

3、结合前面写的文档,我们如果要创建很多索引,可以使用同样的方法实现并行任务

create table t1(id int, c1 int,c2 int, c3 int, c4 int, c5 int,c6 int, c7 int, c8 int);  
create table t2(id int, c1 int,c2 int, c3 int, c4 int, c5 int,c6 int, c7 int, c8 int);  
create table t3(id int, c1 int,c2 int, c3 int, c4 int, c5 int,c6 int, c7 int, c8 int);  
do language plpgsql $$    
declare    
  tables name[] := array['t1','t2','t3'];     -- 表名  
  n name;   -- 表名  
  x name;   -- 字段名  
  i int;    -- LOOP值  
  sql text;        
  sqls text[];      
  tbs name := 'tbs1';    -- 索引表空间  
begin    
  set maintenance_work_mem='2GB';    
    
  foreach n in array tables loop    
    i := 1;      
    for x in select attname from pg_attribute where attrelid=n::regclass and attnum>=1 and not attisdropped   
    loop    
      -- 结合自动选择索引接口(btree,hash,gin,gist等)的功能,可以实现更完美的全字段创建索引  
      sql := format('create index IF NOT EXISTS idx_%s__%s on %s (%s) tablespace %s', n, i, n, x, tbs);      -- 封装创建索引的SQL    
      sqls := array_append(sqls, sql);   
      i:=i+1;    
    end loop;    
  end loop;    
  
  perform * from run_sqls_parallel(  
    10,   -- 并行度  
    sqls  -- 执行index SQL数组  
  ) as t(a text);   
  
  foreach n in array tables loop    
    execute format('analyze %s', n);     
  end loop;    
end;    
$$;    

完全符合预期。

小结

本文使用dblink异步调用的功能,增加了一个API函数,可以用于开启N个并行,跑若干条长SQL,例如用来创建索引非常给力。

接口效果:

select * from run_sqls_parallel (  
  参数1:并行度,   
  参数2:要后台并行执行的SQLs(数组呈现)     
)
as t(a text);

参考

《自动选择正确索引访问接口(btree,hash,gin,gist,sp-gist,brin,bitmap...)的方法》

《PostgreSQL 快速给指定表每个字段创建索引》

《阿里云RDS PostgreSQL OSS 外部表实践 - (dblink异步调用封装并行) 从OSS并行导入数据》

《在PostgreSQL中跑后台长任务的方法 - 使用dblink异步接口》

《PostgreSQL AB表切换最佳实践 - 提高切换成功率,杜绝雪崩 - 珍藏级》

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