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Linux kernel release 2.6.xx
Linux内核2.6.xx发行版

These are the release notes for Linux version 2.6.  Read them carefully,
as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong.

WHAT IS LINUX?

Linux is a Unix clone written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with
assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net.
It aims towards POSIX compliance.
Linux是Liuns Torvalds在一些来自网络的电脑爱好者团队的帮助下从头开始写的unix克隆版，它致力于POSIX标准。

It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged
Unix, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries,
management and TCP/IP networking.

accompanying COPYING file for more details.

ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN?

Linux was first developed for 386/486-based PCs.  These days it also
runs on ARMs, DEC Alphas, SUN Sparcs, M68000 machines (like Atari and
Amiga), MIPS and PowerPC, and others.

Linux起初是为386/486架构的pc机开发的，但是现在他也可以运行在 ARMs, DEC Alphas, SUN Sparcs, M68000 machines (像 Atari and
Amiga), MIPS ， PowerPC和其他架构的机器上。

DOCUMENTATION:

- There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
general UNIX questions.  I'd recommend looking into the documentation
subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation
Project) books.  This README is not meant to be documentation on the
system: there are much better sources available.

- There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory:
these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some
drivers for example. See ./Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what
is contained in each file.  Please read the Changes file, as it

- The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for
kernel developers and users.  These guides can be rendered in a
number of formats:  PostScript (.ps), PDF, and HTML, among others.
After installation, "make psdocs", "make pdfdocs", or "make htmldocs"
will render the documentation in the requested format.

INSTALLING the kernel:

- If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a
directory where you have permissions (eg. your home directory) and
unpack it:

gzip -cd linux-2.6.XX.tar.gz | tar xvf -

Replace "XX" with the version number of the latest kernel.

gzip -cd linux-2.6.XX.tar.gz | tar xvf -

Do NOT use the /usr/src/linux area! This area has a (usually
incomplete) set of kernel headers that are used by the library header
files.  They should match the library, and not get messed up by
whatever the kernel-du-jour happens to be.

- You can also upgrade between 2.6.xx releases by patching.  Patches are
distributed in the traditional gzip and the new bzip2 format.  To
install by patching, get all the newer patch files, enter the
top level directory of the kernel source (linux-2.6.xx) and execute:

gzip -cd ../patch-2.6.xx.gz | patch -p1

or
bzip2 -dc ../patch-2.6.xx.bz2 | patch -p1

(repeat xx for all versions bigger than the version of your current
source tree, _in_order_) and you should be ok.  You may want to remove
the backup files (xxx~ or xxx.orig), and make sure that there are no
failed patches (xxx# or xxx.rej). If there are, either you or me has

gzip -cd ../patch-2.6.xx.gz | patch -p1
或者是
bzip2 -dc ../patch-2.6.xx.bz2 | patch -p1
（重复的XX是比你当前内核版本号要高的版本号，按顺序进行排列），你应该可以。应可能想要去除备份文件（xxx~ 或者是 xxx.reg），一定要确认你没有失败的补丁（xxx# 或者是 xxx.reg）.如果有的话，你和我都已经犯了错误。

Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
process.  It determines the current kernel version and applies any
patches found.

linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux

The first argument in the command above is the location of the
kernel source.  Patches are applied from the current directory, but
an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument.

linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux

- Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around:

cd linux
make mrproper

You should now have the sources correctly installed.

cd linux
make mrproper

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Compiling and running the 2.6.xx kernels requires up-to-date
versions of various software packages.  Consult
./Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required
and how to get updates for these packages.  Beware that using
excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
build or operation.

BUILD directory for the kernel:

When compiling the kernel all output files will per default be
stored together with the kernel source code.
Using the option "make O=output/dir" allow you to specify an alternate
place for the output files (including .config).
Example:
kernel source code: /usr/src/linux-2.6.N
build directory: /home/name/build/kernel

To configure and build the kernel use:
cd /usr/src/linux-2.6.N
make O=/home/name/build/kernel
sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel install_modules install

Please note: If the 'O=output/dir' option is used then it must be
used for all invocations of make.

Kernel source code: /usr/src/linux-2.6.N
build directory:    /home/name/build/kernel

cd /usr/src/linux-2.6.N
make O=/home/name/build/kernel
sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel install_modules install

CONFIGURING the kernel:

Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
version.  New configuration options are added in each release, and
odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
as expected.  If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
new version with minimal work, use "make oldconfig", which will

，这个命令将会仅仅问你一下新的问题的答案。

- Alternate configuration commands are:
"make xconfig"     X windows (Qt) based configuration tool.
"make gconfig"     X windows (Gtk) based configuration tool.
"make oldconfig"   Default all questions based on the contents of

"make xconfig"     带有配置工具的X窗体（Qt）
"make gconfig"     带有配置工具的X窗体(Gtk)

NOTES on "make config":
"make config"的注意事项：
- having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can
under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a
nonexistent controller card may confuse your other controllers
- 配置不必要的驱动将会是内核更大，并且在一些环境下可能会导致一些问题：
配置一个不存在的控制器卡可能会影响其他控制器
- compiling the kernel with "Processor type" set higher than 386
will result in a kernel that does NOT work on a 386.  The
kernel will detect this on bootup, and give up.
- 编译内核的时候，将"professor type"设置的比386要高的话，将会导致内核在
386机器上不能运行。内核将在启动时检测这个配置，并且放弃启动。
- A kernel with math-emulation compiled in will still use the
coprocessor if one is present: the math emulation will just
never get used in that case.  The kernel will be slightly larger,
but will work on different machines regardless of whether they
have a math coprocessor or not.
- 将数学仿真编译进内核将会使用存在的协处理器，如果协处理器不存在，那么
数学仿真将永远不会被使用。内核将会非常大，但是无论该机器有没有协处理器
内核将会在不同的机器上工作。
- the "kernel hacking" configuration details usually result in a
bigger or slower kernel (or both), and can even make the kernel
less stable by configuring some routines to actively try to
break bad code to find kernel problems (kmalloc()).  Thus you
should probably answer 'n' to the questions for
"development", "experimental", or "debugging" features.
- "kernel hacking"的配置细节通常会导致内核更大或者是更慢（或者是两者
都想存在），如果你配置一些例程尝试取通过坏的代码来找到内核问题的话，
甚至会使你的内核更不稳定。所以对一些"development","experiment",或者
是"debugging"特征的问题，你应该回答"n"。
- Check the top Makefile for further site-dependent configuration
(default SVGA mode etc).
- 检查顶层的Makefile文件来获取更多的依赖配置（默认的SVGA模式等）。
COMPILING the kernel:

- Make sure you have gcc 2.95.3 available.
gcc 2.91.66 (egcs-1.1.2), and gcc 2.7.2.3 are known to miscompile
some parts of the kernel, and are *no longer supported*.
- 确定你有gcc 2.95.3编译器。
gcc 2.91.66(还有-1.1.10)和gcc 2.7.2.3编译器可能会错误的编译内核的一部分
程序，所以以不再被支持。如果必要的话也要记着取更新你的二进制包（例如 as/ld/
nm等）。查看./Documentation/Changes目录下的文件获取更多信息。

Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this kernel.
请注意你可以在这个内核下运行a.out用户程序。

- Do a "make bzImage" to create a compressed kernel image.  If you want
to make a boot disk (without root filesystem or LILO), insert a floppy
in your A: drive, and do a "make bzdisk".  It is also possible to do
"make install" if you have lilo installed to suit the kernel makefiles,
but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first.
- 使用命令"make bzImage"来创建一个压缩的内核镜像文件。如果你想制作一个启动盘
（没有根文件系统或者是LILO启动）（译者注：LILO是linux的一个启动程式）,在你
的A驱下插入一个软盘，并且使用命令"make bzdisk"进行制作。如果你有安装好的lilo
与内核文件相适应的话，命令"make install"也是可以的，但是首先你应该先检查你的
特别的lilo步骤。

------------------------------//！！！这一段的翻译有问题！！！//----------------------------------------------
To do the actual install you have to be root, but none of the normal
build should require that. Don't take the name of root in vain.
如果真正要去安装的话，你必须要有切换到root下，但是正常的构建是不需要那个的。不要起root名字。
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- In the unlikely event that your system cannot boot bzImage kernels you
can still compile your kernel as zImage. However, since zImage support
will be removed at some point in the future in favor of bzImage we
encourage people having problems with booting bzImage kernels to report
these, with detailed hardware configuration information, to the
linux-kernel mailing list and to H. Peter Anvin <hpa+linux@zytor.com>.
- 存在一些不太可能的事件，例如你的系统不能启动bzImage内核但是依然能够编译内核为bzImage文件。 然而尽管在未来zImage支持可能会被移除，但是为了支持bzImage.我们鼓励人们遇到启动bzImage问题的时候能够上传这些问题，同时上传具体的硬件配置信息。将这些信息以邮件的形式发送给Peter Anvin <hpa+linux@zytor.com>。

- If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as modules', you
will have to do "make modules" followed by "make modules_install".
- 如果你将内核的一些部分配置成'modules'，你必须使用"make modules"和"make
modules_install"命令进行配置。

- Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong.  This is
especially true for the development releases, since each new release
contains new code which has not been debugged.  Make sure you keep a
backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well.  If you
are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your
working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you
do a "make modules_install".
- 为了防止出现错误，一定要对内核进行备份。对一些开发发行版这种做法是尤其正确
的。因为一些新的发行版包含一些新的代码，但这些代码可能还没有被调试。还要备份一些与内核相对应的模块。如果你安装一个具有相同版本号的新内核作为你的运行内核，在你使用命令"make modules_install"之前备份你的模块目录。

- In order to boot your new kernel, you'll need to copy the kernel
image (found in .../linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage after compilation)
to the place where your regular bootable kernel is found.
- 为了启动你的新内核，你需要将内核镜像（编译完成后，在目录.../linux/arch/i386
/boot/bzImage下面找）复制到可启动的内核文件夹中。

For some, this is on a floppy disk, in which case you can copy the
kernel bzImage file to /dev/fd0 to make a bootable floppy.
对有些时候，这是在软盘中，在这种情况下，你可以复制内核bzImage文件到/dev/fd0下来制作可启动软盘。

If you boot Linux from the hard drive, chances are you use LILO which
uses the kernel image as specified in the file /etc/lilo.conf.  The
kernel image file is usually /vmlinuz, /boot/vmlinuz, /bzImage or
/boot/bzImage.  To use the new kernel, save a copy of the old image
and copy the new image over the old one.  Then, you MUST RERUN LILO
to update the loading map!! If you don't, you won't be able to boot
the new kernel image.
如果你从硬盘中启动linux，你可能使用LILO启动，在文件/etc/lilo.config文件中
LILO使用内核镜像进行启动。内核镜像文件通是/vmlinuz,/boot/vmlinuz,/bzImage
或者是/boot/bzImage.为了使用新的内核，保存一个旧镜像文件的副本，并且用新的
镜像文件覆盖旧的镜像文件。然后，你一定要重新运行LILO来重新加载内核。如果不
这样做的话，你将不能启动新的内核镜像。

Reinstalling LILO is usually a matter of running /sbin/lilo.
You may wish to edit /etc/lilo.conf to specify an entry for your
old kernel image (say, /vmlinux.old) in case the new one does not
重新安装LILO通常的做法是运行 /sbin/lilo命令。你可能希望便器 /etc/lilo.conf
文件来指定一个旧版内核镜像的入口以防止新内核不能运行。查看LILO文件来获取更多的信息。

After reinstalling LILO, you should be all set.  Shutdown the system,
reboot, and enjoy!
重新安装LILO之后，你应该重新设置一下。关闭系统，重启然后愉快的玩耍吧！

If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode,
ramdisk size, etc.  in the kernel image, use the 'rdev' program (or
alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate).  No need to
recompile the kernel to change these parameters.
如果你需要改变默认的启动设备，视频模式，内存磁盘大小等等，在内核镜像中，
使用'rdev'程序（或者是适当的时候使用LILO启动选项）进行设置。不需要重新编译
内核来改变这些参数。

- Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy.
重新启动新内核然后愉快的玩耍吧。

IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:

- If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check
the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated
with the part of the kernel that you are having trouble with. If there
isn't anyone listed there, then the second best thing is to mail
them to me (torvalds@osdl.org), and possibly to any other relevant
mailing-list or to the newsgroup.
- 如果你遇到了一些问题，并且这些问题看上去像是内核bug，请查找文件MAINTAINGS来查看是否有与你所遇到问题的这部分内核相关的人，如果人物列表中没有，那么最好的方式就是给我发邮件（torvalds@osdl.org），或者是给其他相关人员发送邮件。

- In all bug-reports, *please* tell what kernel you are talking about,
how to duplicate the problem, and what your setup is (use your common
sense).  If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is
old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it.
- 在所有的上传的bugs中，请告诉我们你正在讨论的是哪一个版本的内核，如何重复
这个问题，你的安装程序是什么（使用你的常识）。如果问题是新的，这样告诉我。
如果问题是旧的，请告诉我你什么时候注意到这个问题的。

- If the bug results in a message like
- 如果一个bug导致了像以下类似的消息

unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010
Oops: 0002
EIP:   0010:XXXXXXXX
eax: xxxxxxxx   ebx: xxxxxxxx   ecx: xxxxxxxx   edx: xxxxxxxx
esi: xxxxxxxx   edi: xxxxxxxx   ebp: xxxxxxxx
ds: xxxx  es: xxxx  fs: xxxx  gs: xxxx
Pid: xx, process nr: xx
xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
不能够在地址 C0000010处处理内核页请求
Oops: 0002
EIP:   0010:XXXXXXXX
eax: xxxxxxxx   ebx: xxxxxxxx   ecx: xxxxxxxx   edx: xxxxxxxx
esi: xxxxxxxx   edi: xxxxxxxx   ebp: xxxxxxxx
ds: xxxx  es: xxxx  fs: xxxx  gs: xxxx
Pid: xx, process nr: xx
xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

or similar kernel debugging information on your screen or in your
system log, please duplicate it *exactly*.  The dump may look
incomprehensible to you, but it does contain information that may
help debugging the problem.  The text above the dump is also
important: it tells something about why the kernel dumped code (in
on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt
或者是在你的屏幕上显示类似的内核调试信息或者是在你的系统日志中，请确切的重复这些调试信息给我们。转储对你来说可能不是很理解，但是她确实包含着一些能够帮助调试问题的信息。上述转储文本也确实很重要：他告诉我们为什么内核放弃代码（在上述例子中，他是由于错误的内核指针导致的）。要想获取更多的能够理解转储的信息，请查看文档 /oops-tracing.txt.

- You can use the "ksymoops" program to make sense of the dump.  This
ftp://ftp.<country>.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops.
Alternately you can do the dump lookup by hand:
- 你可以使用"ksymoops"程序来理解转储。这个工具可以从
ftp://ftp.<country>.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops
上下载。你可以亲自查看转储信息。

- In debugging dumps like the above, it helps enormously if you can
look up what the EIP value means.  The hex value as such doesn't help
me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular
kernel setup.  What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP
line (ignore the "0010:"), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
see which kernel function contains the offending address.
- 像上述方式调试内核的时候，如果你能够查看EIP值代表什么，那么他的帮助是巨大
的。十六进制值不会帮助我或者是其他任何一个人很多：因为它依赖于你特定的内核
安装程序。你应该做的是将十六进制值从EIP行中（忽略“0010:”）拿出来，在内核
名字列表中进行查找什么内核函数包含这个地址。

To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system
binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom.  This is
the file 'linux/vmlinux'.  To extract the namelist and match it against
the EIP from the kernel crash, do:

nm vmlinux | sort | less
为了找到内核函数名字，你需要去查找显示该症状的内核的二进制文件。就是文件"
linux/vmlinuz".为了提取姓名列表，并且从崩溃的内核中与EIP向匹配出来，使用
下面命令：
nm vmlinuz | sort | less

-------------------//！！！这一段也有一些不确定----------------------------------------------------------
This will give you a list of kernel addresses sorted in ascending
order, from which it is simple to find the function that contains the
debugging messages will not necessarily match exactly with the
function addresses (in fact, that is very unlikely), so you can't
just 'grep' the list: the list will, however, give you the starting
point of each kernel function, so by looking for the function that
has a starting address lower than the one you are searching for but
is followed by a function with a higher address you will find the one
you want.  In fact, it may be a good idea to include a bit of
"context" in your problem report, giving a few lines around the
interesting one.
这会给你一个按升序排列的内核地址列表，在这个列表中，找到包含该地址的函数
是非常简单的。注意内核调试信息给出的地址不必要与该地址精确匹配（事实上，
这是不可能的），所以你不能仅仅'grep'这个列表：这个列表将会给你每一个内核
函数的开始指针，所以通过查找带有开始地址的函数要比查找带有更高地址的函数
要慢，你将会找到你想要的函数。事实上，在你的问题报告中包含一些"context"
将会更好一些，你可以给我们一些你感兴趣的几行。
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled
kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as
possible will help.
可能由于某些原因你无法作上述事情（你已经预编译了内核镜像或类似现象），尽可能多的告诉我们一些关于你的安装程序的信息也是有帮助的。

- Alternately, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you
cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the
kernel with -g; edit arch/i386/Makefile appropriately, then do a "make
clean". You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via "make config").
- 除此之后，在运行着的内核中你也可以使用gdb调试程序。（只读的；你不能改变值或者是设置断点。）为了能够实现调试，初次编译内核的时候使用参数 -g;适当的编辑 arch/i386/Makefile文件，然后使用命令"make clean".你也需要是CONFIG_PROC_FS可用（通过"make config"）。

After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do "gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore".
You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the
point where your system crashed is "l *0xXXXXXXXX". (Replace the XXXes
with the EIP value.)
在你重新启动新内核之后，使用命令"gdb vmlimuz /proc/kcore".现在你可以使用所有的常用的gdb命令。在你系统崩溃的地方使用命令"l *0xXXXXXXXX"来查看指针。（使用EIP值替换掉XXXes）

gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because gdb (wrongly)
disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.
使用gdb调试一个当前没有运行的内核会导致失败，因为gdb将会忽略内核被编译之后的
开始偏移量。


`

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