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linux命令:DNS域名解析,bind

简介:
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DNS:Domain Name Service  域名服务


DNS服务器的软件bind:berkeley internet name domain


 named-checkconf:检查配置文件是否有语法错误命令

 named-checkzone:检查区域文件是否有语法错误命令

 dig:domain information groper 

    dig -t NS . 查找根域的所有DNS服务器

bind97:
    /etc/named.conf  主配置文件
        BIND进程的工作属性
        区域的定义
    /etc/rndc.key
        rndc: Remote Name Domain Controller
        密钥文件 
        配置信息:/etc/rndc.conf
        
    /var/named/    区域数据文件
   /etc/rc.d/init.d/named    {start|stop|restart|status|reload}
        
    二进制程序:named
bind-chroot:
    默认:named
        用户:named
        组:named
        
/var/named/chroot/
        etc/named.conf
        etc/rdnc.key
        sbin/named
        var/named/

[root@test ~]# yum list all |grep bind
This system is not registered with RHN.
RHN support will be disabled.
bind-libs.i386        30:9.3.6-4.P1.el5         installed 
bind-utils.i386       30:9.3.6-4.P1.el5         installed 

[root@test ~]# rpm -e bind-libs bind-utils   #rpm -e 卸载软件包
[root@test ~]# yum list all |grep bind
This system is not registered with RHN.
RHN support will be disabled.
bind.i386          30:9.3.6-4.P1.el5         Media 
bind-chroot.i386     30:9.3.6-4.P1.el5         Media  


实验环境:CentOS6.5

一、bind安装

bind98下载地址:http://mirrors.ctyun.cn/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/

[root@johntest ~]# rpm -ivh bind97-libs-9.8.0-21.P2.el5.i386.rpm 
warning: bind98-libs-9.8.0-21.P2.el5.i386.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID e8562897
Preparing...    ################################### [100%]
   1:bind98-libs   ################################# [100%]

[root@johntest ~]# bind98-utils-9.8.0-21.P2.el5.i386.rpm 
warning: bind98-utils-9.8.0-21.P2.el5.i386.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID e8562897
Preparing...       ############################## [100%]
   1:bind98-utils     ############################ [100%]

[root@johntest ~]# rpm -ivh bind98-9.8.0-21.P2.el5.x86_64.rpm 

warning: bind98-9.8.0-21.P2.el5.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID e8562897

Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]

   1:bind97                 ########################################### [100%]


  1. 二、编辑DNS主配置文件:


    vim /etc/named.conf修改主配置文件,如下图:

    修改三个红色地方,保存退出


  2. wKioL1h0TWXhGVtcAAJcyQ0gF3w847.jpg-wh_50


  3. 接着修改named.rfc1912.zones文件,vim /etc/named.rfc1912.zones,如下图:


  4. wKiom1h0T-7yi5USAAFkbLOHniU519.jpg-wh_50


  5. 三、添加设置DNS正向解析

     

    修改zone配置文件,正向解析:

    [root@xuelinux etc]#cd /var/named/

    [root@xuelinux etc]#cp named.localhost xuelinux.cn.zone #复制并改名修改里面的内容

    [root@xuelinux etc]#vim xuelinux.cn.zone  #("xuelinux.cn.zone"名称要和主配置文件[/etc/named.rfc1912.zones]里面定义的zone文件名一致)


   wKioL1h0kS2Cl0SuAAHxkecqaPs957.jpg-wh_50


  1. 5、修改zone配置文件,反向解析:

    [root@xuelinux etc]#cd /var/named/

    [root@xuelinux named]#cp named.localhost 1.168.192.zone

    [root@xuelinux named]#vim 1.168.192.zone(1.168.192.zone名称要和主配置[/etc/named.rfc1912.zones]文件里面定义的zone文件名一致)


  wKioL1h0kGnySXPqAAFCwjg-zx4829.jpg-wh_50


  1. 6、更改防火墙设置和selinux设置

    [root@xuelinux named]#getenforce  #查看selinux是否开启

    setenforce 0

    [root@xuelinux named]#vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables #配置防火墙端口

    -AINPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT

    -AINPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT

    -AINPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 953 -j ACCEPT

    [root@xuelinux named]#service iptables restart #重启防火墙,使规则生效


  2. 7、启动DNS服(注意DNS服务名称在linux是叫做bind)

    [root@xuelinux named]#service named start  #启动DNS服务

  wKioL1h0Wn7Q8Ag0AABM9ZHxFv0062.jpg-wh_50


  1. 8、测试检测域信息是否正常(重要)

    检查之前先看下 配置文件有没有读取权限 ll /var/named 

    (如果没有读取权限, chmod +r /var/named/*  即可)

    Linux下搭建DNS教程,怎么\如何搭建DNS服务器


  2. 9、检查bind文件配置过程中容易出错

    以下命令用以检查bind配置文件及zone文件语法是否错误

    [root@xuelinux named]#named-checkconf /etc/named.conf

    [root@xuelinux named]#named-checkzone xuelinux.cn /var/named/ xuelinux.cn.zone


  3. 10、启动重启DNS服务,查看服务状态

    [root@xuelinux named]#service named restart

    [root@xuelinux named]#service network restart



  4. 测试:

  5. 通过其他PC用户端测试解析,通过nslookup进行测试,

  6. 登录到192.168.1.10客户端进行如下测试:

  7. wKiom1h0iwfxR2I6AAFongW8vOI892.jpg-wh_50

  8. wKioL1h0iwiQ4zHuAABYhixmEjA182.jpg-wh_50

五、更改配制文件后即可限定查询段

[root@xuelinux etc]# vi named.conf
options {
    directory    "/var/named";

    allow-recursion    { 192.168.1.0/24; };    //只允许此IP段递归查询 

};

zone "." IN {
    type hint;
    file "named.ca";
};

zone "localhost" IN {
    type master;
    file "named.localhost";
    allow-transfer { none; };     //none不允许所有客户端发出传送请求  
};

zone "0.0.127.in-addr.arpa" IN {
    type master;
    file "named.loopback";
    allow-transfer { none; };
};

zone "jacktest.com" IN {
        type master;
        file "jacktest.com.zone";
    allow-transfer { 192.168.1.5; };    //只允许此IP发出传送请求 
};

zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" IN {
    type master;
    file "192.168.1.zone";
    allow-transfer { 192.168.1.5; };
};

[root@johntest etc]# tail /var/log/messages

Dec 15 14:11:41 test named[7276]: zone 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 2016121401
Dec 15 14:11:41 test named[7276]: zone jacktest.com/IN: loaded serial 20161214
Dec 15 14:11:41 test named[7276]: zone localhost/IN: loaded serial 0
Dec 15 14:11:41 test named[7276]: running
Dec 15 14:13:31 test named[7276]: client 192.168.1.5#58423: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR started
Dec 15 14:13:31 test named[7276]: client 192.168.1.5#58423: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR ended


六、设置从DNS服务器

[root@jacktest named]# setenforce 0
setenforce: SELinux is disabled

[root@jacktest named]# scp 192.168.1.3:/etc/named.conf /etc/
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.3 (192.168.1.3)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is c2:f2:75:5c:ab:4a:43:d3:e1:76:bc:d2:0f:c7:d6:32.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.3' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@192.168.1.3's password: 
named.conf               

[root@johntest etc]# vi /etc/named.conf

...

zone "jacktest.com" IN {
        type slave;
        file "slaves/jacktest.com.zone";
        allow-transfer { 192.168.1.5; };
};

zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" IN {
        type slave;
        file "slaves/192.168.1.zone";
        allow-transfer { 192.168.1.5; };
};

验证:

[root@johntest slaves]# tail /var/log/messages      #192.168.1.3主
Dec 15 15:43:35 test named[7595]: zone 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 2016121401
Dec 15 15:43:35 test named[7595]: zone jacktest.com/IN: loaded serial 20161214
Dec 15 15:43:35 test named[7595]: zone localhost/IN: loaded serial 0
Dec 15 15:43:35 test named[7595]: running
Dec 15 15:44:12 test named[7595]: client 192.168.1.5#47432: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR started
Dec 15 15:44:12 test named[7595]: client 192.168.1.5#47432: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR ended
Dec 15 17:25:29 test named[7595]: client 192.168.1.5#34268: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR started
Dec 15 17:25:29 test named[7595]: client 192.168.1.5#34268: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR ended
Dec 15 17:25:29 test named[7595]: client 192.168.1.5#59389: transfer of '1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN': AXFR started    #传送开始 
Dec 15 17:25:29 test named[7595]: client 192.168.1.5#59389: transfer of '1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN': AXFR ended   #传送结果

[root@johntest named]# tail /var/log/messages      #192.168.1.5 
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: zone localhost/IN: loaded serial 0
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: running
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: zone jacktest.com/IN: Transfer started.
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN' from 192.168.1.3#53: connected using 192.168.1.5#34268
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: zone jacktest.com/IN: transferred serial 20161214
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN' from 192.168.1.3#53: Transfer completed: 1 messages, 9 records, 233 bytes, 0.004 secs (58250 bytes/sec)
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: zone 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN: Transfer started.
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: transfer of '1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN' from 192.168.1.3#53: connected using 192.168.1.5#59389
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: zone 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN: transferred serial 2016121401
Dec 15 17:28:13 jacktest named[10089]: transfer of '1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN' from 192.168.1.3#53: Transfer completed: 1 messages, 7 records, 219 bytes, 0.002 secs (109500 bytes/sec)


七、测试NS自动更新到从服务器

[root@johntest named]# vi jacktest.com.zone     #192.168.1.3主 
$TTL 600
jacktest.com.    IN    SOA    ns1.jacktest.com.    admin.jacktest.com. (
     2016121404     #3改成4
...
imap        IN    A    192.168.1.6

haha        IN    A    192.168.1.7    #新增一条记录
[root@test named]# service named reload
Reloading named:                                           [  OK  ]
[root@johntest named]# tail /var/log/messages    #192.168.1.3主NS 
Dec 16 10:05:53 test named[10112]: reloading configuration succeeded
Dec 16 10:05:53 test named[10112]: reloading zones succeeded
Dec 16 10:05:53 test named[10112]: zone jacktest.com/IN: loaded serial 2016121404
Dec 16 10:05:53 test named[10112]: zone jacktest.com/IN: sending notifies (serial 2016121404)
Dec 16 10:05:53 test named[10112]: client 192.168.1.5#50038: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR-style IXFR started
Dec 16 10:05:53 test named[10112]: client 192.168.1.5#50038: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN': AXFR-style IXFR ended
[root@johntest named]# tail /var/log/messages    #192.168.1.5从NS 
Dec 16 10:08:38 jacktest named[12536]: client 192.168.1.3#6791: received notify for zone 'jacktest.com'
Dec 16 10:08:38 jacktest named[12536]: zone jacktest.com/IN: Transfer started.
Dec 16 10:08:38 jacktest named[12536]: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN' from 192.168.1.3#53: connected using 192.168.1.5#50038
Dec 16 10:08:38 jacktest named[12536]: zone jacktest.com/IN: transferred serial 2016121404
Dec 16 10:08:38 jacktest named[12536]: transfer of 'jacktest.com/IN' from 192.168.1.3#53: Transfer completed: 1 messages, 13 records, 309 bytes, 0.002 secs (154500 bytes/sec)
Dec 16 10:08:38 jacktest named[12536]: zone jacktest.com/IN: sending notifies (serial 2016121404)

[root@johntest slaves]# cat jacktest.com.zone     #192.168.1.5从NS 
jacktest.com  IN SOA    ns1.jacktest.com. admin.jacktest.com. (
         2016121404 ; serial
...
ftp       CNAME    www
haha       A    192.168.1.7    #自动学习成功


八、开放远程访问DC

Remote Name Daemon Control    # [di:mn]守护进程

[root@johntest ~]# rndc-confgen > /etc/rndc.conf
[root@johntest ~]# cat /etc/rndc.conf
# Start of rndc.conf
key "rndc-key" {
    algorithm hmac-md5;
    secret "PElKGniJbHk/esQ9zpN+xg==";
};
options {
    default-key "rndc-key";
    default-server 127.0.0.1;
    default-port 953;
};
# End of rndc.conf
# Use with the following in named.conf, adjusting the allow list as needed:
# key "rndc-key" {
#     algorithm hmac-md5;
#     secret "PElKGniJbHk/esQ9zpN+xg==";
# };

# controls {
#     inet 127.0.0.1 port 953
#         allow { 127.0.0.1; } keys { "rndc-key"; };
# };   
# End of named.conf   
 #绿色部分复制添加到named.conf  
[root@johntest ~]# rndc -c /etc/rndc.conf status
rndc: connection to remote host closed
This may indicate that
* the remote server is using an older version of the command protocol,
* this host is not authorized to connect,
* the clocks are not synchronized, or
* the key is invalid.
[root@johntest ~]# rm /etc/rndc.key 
rm: remove regular file `/etc/rndc.key'? y
[root@test ~]# rndc -c /etc/rndc.conf status
rndc: connection to remote host closed
This may indicate that
* the remote server is using an older version of the command protocol,
* this host is not authorized to connect,
* the clocks are not synchronized, or
* the key is invalid.
[root@test ~]# service named restart
Stopping named: .                  [  OK  ]
Generating /etc/rndc.key:                 [  OK  ]
Starting named:                     [  OK  ]
[root@johntest ~]# rndc -c /etc/rndc.conf status
version: 9.7.0-P2-RedHat-9.7.0-21.P2.el5
CPUs found: 8
worker threads: 8
number of zones: 16
debug level: 0
xfers running: 0
xfers deferred: 0
soa queries in progress: 0
query logging is OFF
recursive clients: 0/0/1000
tcp clients: 0/100
server is up and running
[root@johntest ~]# rndc -c /etc/rndc.conf notify "jacktest.com"
zone notify queued
[root@johntest ~]# tail /var/log/messages
Dec 16 10:36:32 test named[10285]: received control channel command 'notify jacktest.com'
Dec 16 10:36:32 test named[10285]: zone jacktest.com/IN: sending notifies (serial 2016121404)
[root@test ~]# rndc -c /etc/rndc.conf flush

[root@test ~]# rndc -c /etc/rndc.conf stop

...

controls {
        inet 192.168.1.3 port 953                  #监听地址
                allow { 192.168.1.5; } keys { "rndc-key"; };       #允许访问192.168.1.3的IP 
};

[root@johntest ~]# scp /etc/rndc.conf 192.168.1.5:/root/

[root@johntest ~]# vi /etc/rndc.conf      #192.168.1.5从NS 

# Start of rndc.conf
key "rndc-key" {
        algorithm hmac-md5;
        secret "PElKGniJbHk/esQ9zpN+xg==";
};

options {
        default-key "rndc-key";
        default-server 192.168.1.3;
        default-port 953;
};

[root@johntest ~]# rndc -c rndc.conf status    #192.168.1.5从NS,已可远程访问 
version: 9.7.0-P2-RedHat-9.7.0-21.P2.el5      #一般不开放远程允许访问,非常危险 
CPUs found: 8
worker threads: 8
number of zones: 16
debug level: 0
xfers running: 0
xfers deferred: 0
soa queries in progress: 0
query logging is OFF
recursive clients: 0/0/1000
tcp clients: 0/100
server is up and running

[root@test ~]#


九、子域及子域转发(forward)

forward {only|first}
forwarders {};
zone "ZONE_NAME" IN {
    type forward;
    forward first;
    forwarders {172.168.1.3};

};


新增子域服务器192.168.1.8 

[root@test2 ~]# vi fin.jacktest.com.zone    #192.168.1.8 子DNS 

$TTL 600     ; 10 minutes
@  IN SOA  ns1.fin.jacktest.com. admin.fin.jacktest.com. (
                      2016121701 ; serial
                      3600       ; refresh (1 hour)
                      300        ; retry (5 minutes)
                     172800     ; expire (2 days)
                      21600      ; minimum (6 hours)
                       )
          NS      ns1.fin.jacktest.com.
           MX      10 mail.fin.jacktest.com.
ns1           A       192.168.1.8
mail         A       192.168.1.9
www        A       192.168.1.10

[root@test2 ~]# service named restart
Stopping named: .                [  OK  ]
Starting named:                 [  OK  ]


验证子域

[root@johntest named]# dig -t A ns1.fin.jacktest.com @192.168.1.3  #通过主域可解析子域IP

; <<>> DiG 9.7.0-P2-RedHat-9.7.0-21.P2.el5 <<>> -t A ns1.fin.jacktest.com @192.168.1.3
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 57664
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 0

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;ns1.fin.jacktest.com.      IN    A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
ns1.fin.jacktest.com.   600   IN    A    192.168.1.8

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
fin.jacktest.com.   600   IN   NS    ns1.fin.jacktest.com.

;; Query time: 3 msec
;; SERVER: 192.168.1.3#53(192.168.1.3)
;; WHEN: Sat Dec 17 11:11:13 2016
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 68

[root@johntest named]# dig -t A ns1.fin.jacktest.com @192.168.1.8   #通过子域可解析子域IP 

; <<>> DiG 9.7.0-P2-RedHat-9.7.0-21.P2.el5 <<>> -t A ns1.fin.jacktest.com @192.168.1.8
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 53646
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 0

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;ns1.fin.jacktest.com.    IN    A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
ns1.fin.jacktest.com.   600    IN    A    192.168.1.8

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
fin.jacktest.com.   600   IN    NS    ns1.fin.jacktest.com.

;; Query time: 2 msec
;; SERVER: 192.168.1.8#53(192.168.1.8)
;; WHEN: Sat Dec 17 11:12:39 2016
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 68

[root@johntest named]# nslookup 
> server 192.168.1.3
Default server: 192.168.1.3
Address: 192.168.1.3#53
> set q=A
www.jacktest.com
Server:        192.168.1.3      #通过服务器192.168.1.3查找
Address:    192.168.1.3#53
Name:    www.jacktest.com      #查找出两条记录 
Address: 192.168.1.3
Name:    www.jacktest.com
Address: 192.168.1.5

> set q=A
> www.fin.jacktest.com
Server:        192.168.1.3     #通过此服务器查找 
Address:    192.168.1.3#53
Non-authoritative answer:     #查找出一条记录,有为非官方记录 
Name:    www.fin.jacktest.com
Address: 192.168.1.10

> server 192.168.1.8
Default server: 192.168.1.8
Address: 192.168.1.8#53
> set q=A         
www.fin.jacktest.com
Server:        192.168.1.8     #通过服务器192.168.1.8查找 
Address:    192.168.1.8#53

Name:    www.fin.jacktest.com     #查找出一条记录   
Address: 192.168.1.10

> set q=A  
www.jacktest.com    #通过子域服务器192.168.1.8查找父域的A记录  
Server:        192.168.1.8
Address:    192.168.1.8#53

** server can't find www.jacktest.com.localdomain: SERVFAIL    #子域无法查找父域的A记录  


默认子域无法查找父域信息,定义转发即可告诉子域

[root@jacktest2 ~]# vi /etc/rndc.conf      #192.168.1.8 子DNS 中新增以下部分

zone "jacktest.com" IN {
        type forward;
        forward first;
        forwarders { 192.168.1.3; };
 };

验证:

[root@test named]# nslookup

> set q=A
> www.jacktest.com
Server:        192.168.1.8     #通过服务器192.168.1.8查找 
Address:    192.168.1.8#53
Non-authoritative answer:
Name:    www.jacktest.com    #新增forward后查找出两条记录    
Address: 192.168.1.5
Name:    www.jacktest.com
Address: 192.168.1.3










本文转自wang650108151CTO博客,原文链接: http://blog.51cto.com/woyaoxuelinux/1890312,如需转载请自行联系原作者



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