Centos 6.4 KVM安装-阿里云开发者社区

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Centos 6.4 KVM安装

简介:

第一步:修改网卡配置文件并重启网络服务:

cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/

[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-br0 
DEVICE="br0"
ONBOOT="yes"
TYPE=Bridge
BOOTPROTO=static
#HWADDR=F0:1F:AF:DA:7A:55
#IPADDR=0.0.0.0
#NETMASK=255.255.255.0
[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-br1
DEVICE="br1"
ONBOOT="yes"
TYPE=Bridge
BOOTPROTO=static
#HWADDR=F0:1F:AF:DA:7A:56
IPADDR=192.168.20.248
NETMASK=255.255.255.0

[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
BRIDGE=br0
[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-eth1
DEVICE=eth1
ONBOOT=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
BRIDGE=br1
[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# /etc/init.d/network  restart 

查看网卡配置

[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether f0:1f:af:da:7a:55 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet6 fe80::f21f:afff:feda:7a55/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether f0:1f:af:da:7a:56 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet6 fe80::f21f:afff:feda:7a56/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
4: br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/ether f0:1f:af:da:7a:55 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet6 fe80::f21f:afff:feda:7a55/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
5: br1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/ether f0:1f:af:da:7a:56 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.20.248/24 brd 192.168.20.255 scope global br1
    inet6 fe80::f21f:afff:feda:7a56/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

第二步:配置Centos6官方的yum源,

[root@KVM3 yum.repos.d-bak]# ls
CentOS-Base.repo  CentOS-Debuginfo.repo  CentOS-Media.repo  CentOS-Vault.repo
[root@KVM3 yum.repos.d-bak]# cat CentOS-Base.repo 
# CentOS-Base.repo
#
# The mirror system uses the connecting IP address of the client and the
# update status of each mirror to pick mirrors that are updated to and
# geographically close to the client.  You should use this for CentOS updates
# unless you are manually picking other mirrors.
#
# If the mirrorlist= does not work for you, as a fall back you can try the 
# remarked out baseurl= line instead.
#
#

[base]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Base
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#released updates 
[updates]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Updates
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#additional packages that may be useful
[extras]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
[centosplus]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Plus
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#contrib - packages by Centos Users
[contrib]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Contrib
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=contrib
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/contrib/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
[root@KVM3 yum.repos.d-bak]# cat CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
# CentOS-Debug.repo
#
# The mirror system uses the connecting IP address of the client and the
# update status of each mirror to pick mirrors that are updated to and
# geographically close to the client.  You should use this for CentOS updates
# unless you are manually picking other mirrors.
#

# All debug packages from all the various CentOS-5 releases
# are merged into a single repo, split by BaseArch
#
# Note: packages in the debuginfo repo are currently not signed
#

[debug]
name=CentOS-6 - Debuginfo
baseurl=http://debuginfo.centos.org/6/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Debug-6
enabled=0
[root@KVM3 yum.repos.d-bak]# cat CentOS-Media.repo
# CentOS-Media.repo
#
#  This repo can be used with mounted DVD media, verify the mount point for
#  CentOS-6.  You can use this repo and yum to install items directly off the
#  DVD ISO that we release.
#
# To use this repo, put in your DVD and use it with the other repos too:
#  yum --enablerepo=c6-media [command]
#  
# or for ONLY the media repo, do this:
#
#  yum --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=c6-media [command]
 
[c6-media]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Media
baseurl=file:///media/CentOS/
        file:///media/cdrom/
        file:///media/cdrecorder/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
[root@KVM3 yum.repos.d-bak]# cat CentOS-Vault.repo
# CentOS-Vault.repo
#
# CentOS Vault holds packages from previous releases within the same CentOS Version
# these are packages obsoleted by the current release and should usually not 
# be used in production
#-----------------

[C6.0-base]
name=CentOS-6.0 - Base
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.0/os/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.0-updates]
name=CentOS-6.0 - Updates
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.0/updates/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.0-extras]
name=CentOS-6.0 - Extras
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.0/extras/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.0-contrib]
name=CentOS-6.0 - Contrib
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.0/contrib/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.0-centosplus]
name=CentOS-6.0 - CentOSPlus
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.0/centosplus/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0
#-----------------

[C6.1-base]
name=CentOS-6.1 - Base
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.1/os/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.1-updates]
name=CentOS-6.1 - Updates
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.1/updates/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.1-extras]
name=CentOS-6.1 - Extras
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.1/extras/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.1-contrib]
name=CentOS-6.1 - Contrib
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.1/contrib/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.1-centosplus]
name=CentOS-6.1 - CentOSPlus
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.1/centosplus/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0
#-----------------

[C6.2-base]
name=CentOS-6.2 - Base
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.2/os/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.2-updates]
name=CentOS-6.2 - Updates
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.2/updates/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.2-extras]
name=CentOS-6.2 - Extras
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.2/extras/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.2-contrib]
name=CentOS-6.2 - Contrib
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.2/contrib/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.2-centosplus]
name=CentOS-6.2 - CentOSPlus
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.2/centosplus/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0
#-----------------

[C6.3-base]
name=CentOS-6.3 - Base
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.3/os/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.3-updates]
name=CentOS-6.3 - Updates
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.3/updates/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.3-extras]
name=CentOS-6.3 - Extras
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.3/extras/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.3-contrib]
name=CentOS-6.3 - Contrib
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.3/contrib/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0

[C6.3-centosplus]
name=CentOS-6.3 - CentOSPlus
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/6.3/centosplus/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=0
[root@KVM3 yum.repos.d-bak]# yum clean all

第三步:安装所需要的虚拟化包

[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# yum grouplist

[root@KVM3 network-scripts]# yum groupinstall -y 'Virtualization' 'Virtualization Client' 'Virtualization Platform' 'Virtualization Tools'

第四步:ntsysv 管理开机自启动服务

第五步:关闭selinux服务

[root@KVM3 yum.repos.d-bak]# cat /etc/selinux/config 
# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#       enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.
#       permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#       disabled - SELinux is fully disabled.
SELINUX=disabled
# SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use. Possible values are:
#       targeted - Only targeted network daemons are protected.
#       strict - Full SELinux protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted

第六步:拷贝KVM虚拟主机镜像文件

mkdir -p /home/kvm/kvm_image/

cd /home/kvm/kvm_image/

nc -l 5555 | tar xf -

第七步:拷贝KVM虚拟主机的XML文件

cd  /etc/libvirt/qemu

nc -l 5555 | tar xf -

[root@KVM3 ~]# cat /etc/libvirt/qemu/base.xml 
<!--
WARNING: THIS IS AN AUTO-GENERATED FILE. CHANGES TO IT ARE LIKELY TO BE 
OVERWRITTEN AND LOST. Changes to this xml configuration should be made using:
  virsh edit base
or other application using the libvirt API.
-->

<domain type='kvm'>
  <name>base</name>
  <uuid>2befffc9-356e-0c7a-3355-30c0f69a2cd5</uuid>   #更改一下uuid
  <memory unit='KiB'>8388608</memory>                 #内存可调的最大值
  <currentMemory unit='KiB'>4194304</currentMemory>   #当前的内存
  <vcpu placement='static' current='2'>4</vcpu>
  <os>
    <type arch='x86_64' machine='rhel6.6.0'>hvm</type>
    <boot dev='hd'/>
  </os>
  <features>
    <acpi/>
    <apic/>
    <pae/>
  </features>
  <clock offset='utc'/>
  <on_poweroff>destroy</on_poweroff>
  <on_reboot>restart</on_reboot>
  <on_crash>restart</on_crash>
  <devices>
    <emulator>/usr/libexec/qemu-kvm</emulator>
    <disk type='file' device='disk'>
      <driver name='qemu' type='raw'/>
      <source file='/home/kvm/kvm_image/base.img'/>   #镜像的位置
      <target dev='vda' bus='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x04' function='0x0'/>
    </disk>
    <disk type='file' device='disk'>
      <driver name='qemu' type='qcow2'/>
      <source file='/home/kvm/kvm_image/base-2.img'/> #镜像的位置
      <target dev='vdb' bus='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x07' function='0x0'/>
    </disk>
    <controller type='usb' index='0'>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x01' function='0x2'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='ide' index='0'>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x01' function='0x1'/>
    </controller>
    <interface type='bridge'>
      <mac address='52:54:e0:a0:34:40'/>             #修改一下mac,避免冲突
      <source bridge='br0'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x03' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>
    <interface type='bridge'>
      <mac address='82:34:00:08:24:ce'/>             #修改一下mac,避免冲突
      <source bridge='br1'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x06' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>
    <serial type='pty'>
      <target port='0'/>
    </serial>
    <console type='pty'>
      <target type='serial' port='0'/>
    </console>
    <input type='tablet' bus='usb'/>
    <input type='mouse' bus='ps2'/>
    <graphics type='vnc' port='-1' autoport='yes'/>
    <video>
      <model type='cirrus' vram='9216' heads='1'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x0'/>
    </video>
    <memballoon model='virtio'>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x05' function='0x0'/>
    </memballoon>
  </devices>
</domain>
[root@KVM3 ~]# 

重启服务:/etc/init.d/libvirtd  restart

第八步:克隆虚拟主机

virt-clone  -o base  --name=web20-203 -f /home/kvm/kvm_image/web20-203-sys.img -f /home/kvm/kvm_image/web20-203-data.img


如果不想挂在data盘,需做如下操作:

1,假设90.169是一块有data盘的虚拟机,

virsh # edit test_90_169

将如下行注释掉:

    </disk>
    <disk type='file' device='disk'>
      <driver name='qemu' type='qcow2'/>
      <source file='/home/kvm/kvm_image/test90_164-data.img'/>
      <target dev='vdb' bus='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x07' function='0x0'/>
    </disk>

在90.169上

umount /home/

修改/etc/fstab,注释掉如下行:

#UUID=5aecd5f9-47ac-435c-b59b-6ef991aded21 /home                   ext4    defaults        1 2

userdel  -r wuxy #如果有其他用户,类似删除然后重建

useradd -m wuxy

shutdown  -h now

2,使用90.169作为模板clone新的模板base2

virt-clone -o test_90_169 -n base2 -f /home/kvm/kvm_image/base2-system.img


附录KVM的命令行基本操作:

virsh
克隆VM
1.克隆vm
virt-clone  -o vm1  --name=vm5 -f /home/kvm/kvm_image/vm5.img -f /home/kvm/kvm_image/vm-data.img

2.
virsh:
shutdown  vm5
需要虚拟机启动acpi

console vm5
需要虚拟机终端从定向道serial,配置方法(如下是base模板主机的grub.conf):

[root@20-net ~]# cat /etc/grub.conf
# grub.conf generated by anaconda
#
# Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file
# NOTICE:  You have a /boot partition.  This means that
#          all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/, eg.
#          root (hd0,0)
#          kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/vda3
#          initrd /initrd-[generic-]version.img
#boot=/dev/vda
default=0
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title CentOS (2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64)
        root (hd0,0)
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 ro root=UUID=5f0ec9a4-b564-410b-a36a-663c1156c89a rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 crashkernel=auto  KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet rd_NO_DM biosdevname=0 serial=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8
        initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64.img


destroy vm5
强制关闭虚拟机,不启动acpi,也可以关掉

start vm5
启动虚拟机

edit vm5
编辑虚拟机配置文件

dominfo vm5
查看虚拟机信息


setmem vm5  512
开机状态设置内存

list --all
虚拟机
###########
define  xml
undefine  vm5  会同时删除虚拟机对应的xml配置文件
#####
qemu-img info  vm5.img  查看映像格式
qemu-img create -f raw  vm5.img 4G
qemu-img create -f qcow2 vm5.img 4G
raw 转换qcow2
 qemu-img convert -f raw centos.img -O qcow2 centos.qcow2




      本文转自Tenderrain 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/tenderrain/1635788,如需转载请自行联系原作者




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