MySQL(五):MMM高可用

本文涉及的产品
云数据库 RDS SQL Server,独享型 2核4GB
云数据库 RDS MySQL Serverless,0.5-2RCU 50GB
简介:

一、MMM概述

MMM (Master-Master Replication Manager for MySQL) is a set of flexible scripts to perform monitoring/failover and management of MySQL Master-Master replication configurations (with only one node writable at any time). The toolset also has the ability to read balance standard master/slave configurations with any number of slaves, so you can use it to move virtual IP addresses around a group of servers depending on whether they are behind in replication. In addition to that, it also has scripts for data backups, resynchronization between nodes etc.

二、MMM的模式

分两种典型模式

  • 两个节点的设置

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  • two masters + one/many slaves

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下面以第二种模式介绍:

大致规划:

服务器列表:

服务器
IP
主机名 server id
monitoring host 192.168.0.100
monitor -
master 1 192.168.0.111 db1 111
master 2 192.168.0.112 db2 112
slave 1 192.168.0.113 db3 113
slave 2 192.168.0.114 db4 114


虚拟IP列表:

IP role description
192.168.0.5 writer 应用程序连接的VIP进行写操作
192.168.0.6 reader


应用程序连接的VIP进行读操作

192.168.0.7 reader

三、安装mysql

  • 首先在master1上安装

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[root@db1 ~] # tar xf mysql-5.5.33-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
[root@db1 ~] # ln -sv /usr/local/mysql-5.5.33-linux2.6-x86_64 /usr/local/mysql
[root@db1 ~] # groupadd -r mysql && useradd -r -g mysql -s /sbin/nologin mysql
[root@db1 ~] # cd /usr/local/mysql
[root@db1 mysql] # chown -R root.mysql ./*
[root@db1 mysql] # scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/mydata/data/
[root@db1 mysql] # cp support-files/my-large.cnf /etc/my.cnf
[root@db1 mysql] # cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
[root@db1 mysql] # chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
#
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
#修改配置文件
[root@db1 mysql] # vim /etc/my.cnf
#需要添加和修改的内容;其他内容不变
datadir  =  / mydata / data              #指定数据位置
log - bin = / mydata / logs / master - bin     #指定二进制日志位置
binlog_format = mixed                 #
server - id        =  111               #server ID
relay_log            =  / var / log / mysql - relay - bin     #中继日志
expire_logs_days     =  10  
max_binlog_size      =  100M
log_slave_updates    =  1
auto_increment_increment  =  2        #自动增长步长
auto_increment_offset = 1             #起始值
#
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
#配置完成后对应的拷贝配置文件到其他的三台主机上并相应的对其修改即可
#注意的是server ID和自动增长值(只需更改master2);slave的不需要添加
[root@db1 ~] # service mysqld start
Starting MySQL.............                                [  OK  ]
  • 创建用户

用户 description privileges
monitor user 用于mmm检查mysql服务器健康状况的用户 replication client
agent user 用于mmm代理为只读模式和复制等的用户 super,replication client,process
replication user 复制的用户 replication slave
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mysql> grant replication client on  * . *  to  '3m_mon' @ '192.168.0.%'  identified by  '123456' ;
mysql> grant  super ,replication client,process on  * . *  to  '3m_agent' @ '192.168.0.%'  identified by  '123456' ;
mysql> grant replication slave on  * . *  to  'rp_user' @ '192.168.0.%'  identified by  '123456' ;


四、同步数据

  • 复制到各数据库

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[root@db1 ~] # mysqldump -uroot --lock-all-tables \
- - all - databases  - - flush - logs \
- - master - data = 2  \
- - events >  / tmp / all - databases.sql
#备份master1的数据库
[root@db1 ~] # scp /tmp/all-databases.sql db2:/tmp
[root@db1 ~] # scp /tmp/all-databases.sql db3:/tmp
[root@db1 ~] # scp /tmp/all-databases.sql db4:/tmp
#将备份传送到其他三台主机
#
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
#在其他三台主机导入数据库
[root@db2 ~] # mysql < /tmp/all-databases.sql
[root@db3 ~] # mysql < /tmp/all-databases.sql
[root@db4 ~] # mysql < /tmp/all-databases.sql
  • 设置master1/master2为双主;slave1/slave2为master1的从

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#(db2)
mysql> change master to master_host = '192.168.0.111' ,\
     - > master_user = 'rp_user' ,\
     - > master_password = '123456' ,\
     - > master_log_file = 'master-bin.000002' ,\
     - > master_log_pos = 107 ;
Query OK,  0  rows affected ( 0.03  sec)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
#(db3)
mysql> change master to master_host = '192.168.0.111' ,\
     - > master_user = 'rp_user' ,\
     - > master_password = '123456' ,\
     - > master_log_file = 'master-bin.000002' ,\
     - > master_log_pos = 107 ;
Query OK,  0  rows affected ( 0.03  sec)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
#(db4)
mysql> change master to master_host = '192.168.0.111' ,\
     - > master_user = 'rp_user' ,\
     - > master_password = '123456' ,\
     - > master_log_file = 'master-bin.000002' ,\
     - > master_log_pos = 107 ;
Query OK,  0  rows affected ( 0.03  sec)
#
#
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
#三台均启动并查看;注意是每台都需要查看是否正常
mysql> start slave;
mysql> show slave status\G
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  1.  row  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
                Slave_IO_State: Waiting  for  master to send event
                   Master_Host:  192.168 . 0.111
                   Master_User: rp_user
                   Master_Port:  3306
                 Connect_Retry:  60
               Master_Log_File: master - bin . 000002
           Read_Master_Log_Pos:  703
                Relay_Log_File: mysql - relay - bin . 000003
                 Relay_Log_Pos:  850
         Relay_Master_Log_File: master - bin . 000002
              Slave_IO_Running: Yes             #这里为yes就说明正常
             Slave_SQL_Running: Yes             #这里为yes就说明正常
  • 配置db1的主为db2

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#查看master2的master_log_file and master_log_pos:
(db2)
mysql> show master status;
+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
File               | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
| master - bin . 000001  |       191  |              |                  |
+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
1  row  in  set  ( 0.00  sec)
#这里的数字跟上面的可能有出入;是因为这步出了点故障;后来重新装的;步骤是没有问题的
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
#在db1上配置
(db1)
mysql> change master to master_host = '192.168.0.112' ,\
     - > master_user = 'rp_uer' ,
     - > master_password = '123456' ,\
     - > master_log_file = 'master-bin.000001' ,\
     - > master_log_pos = 191 ;
Query OK,  0  rows affected ( 0.09  sec)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
mysql> show slave status\G
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  1.  row  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
                Slave_IO_State: Waiting  for  master to send event
                   Master_Host:  192.168 . 0.112
                   Master_User: rp_user
                   Master_Port:  3306
                 Connect_Retry:  60
               Master_Log_File: master - bin . 000001
           Read_Master_Log_Pos:  191
                Relay_Log_File: mysql - relay - bin . 000002
                 Relay_Log_Pos:  254
         Relay_Master_Log_File: master - bin . 000001
              Slave_IO_Running: Yes
             Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

五、安装MMM

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#在monitor主机上安装
[root@montior ~] # yum -y install mysql-mmm-*
[root@montior ~] # rpm -ql mysql-mmm-*
/ etc / logrotate.d / mysql - mmm
/ etc / mysql - mmm
/ etc / mysql - mmm / mmm_common.conf
/ usr / share / doc / mysql - mmm - 2.2 . 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
#各db主机上安装:
[root@db1 ~] # yum -y install mysql-mmm-agent
  • 配置MMM

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[root@montior ~] # cat /etc/mysql-mmm/mmm_common.conf
active_master_role      writer
<host default>
     cluster_interface       eth0
     pid_path                 / var / run / mysql - mmm / mmm_agentd.pid
     bin_path                 / usr / libexec / mysql - mmm /
     replication_user        rp_user
     replication_password     123456
     agent_user               3m_agent
     agent_password           123456
< / host>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
<host db1>
     ip       192.168 . 0.111
     mode    master
     peer    db2                 #peer表示db1,db2是同等级别的
< / host>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
<host db2>
     ip       192.168 . 0.112
     mode    master
     peer    db1
< / host>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
<host db3>
     ip       192.168 . 0.113
     mode    slave
< / host>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
<host db4>
     ip       192.168 . 0.114
     mode    slave
< / host>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
<role writer>
     hosts   db1, db2
     ips      192.168 . 0.5
     mode    exclusive         #exclusive表示排它
< / role>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
<role reader>
     hosts   db3,db4
     ips      192.168 . 0.6 192.168 . 0.7
     mode    balanced         #balanced表示可以共用
< / role>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
#配置完成后拷贝到其他主机上各一份
  • monitor还需配置mmm_mon.conf

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[root@montior ~] # vim /etc/mysql-mmm/mmm_mon.conf
include mmm_common.conf
<monitor>
     ip                   127.0 . 0.1
     pid_path             / var / run / mysql - mmm / mmm_mond.pid
     bin_path             / usr / libexec / mysql - mmm
     status_path          / var / lib / mysql - mmm / mmm_mond.status
     ping_ips             192.168 . 0.111 , 192.168 . 0.112 , 192.168 . 0.113 , 192.168 . 0.114
     auto_set_online      60
     # The kill_host_bin does not exist by default, though the monitor will
     # throw a warning about it missing.  See the section 5.10 "Kill Host
     # Functionality" in the PDF documentation.
     #
     # kill_host_bin     /usr/libexec/mysql-mmm/monitor/kill_host
     #
< / monitor>
<host default>
     monitor_user         3m_mon
     monitor_password     123456
< / host>
debug  0
  • 对应的各个db上需要更改/etc/mysql-mmm/mmm_agent.conf

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#(db1)
include mmm_common.conf
# The 'this' variable refers to this server.  Proper operation requires
# that 'this' server (db1 by default), as well as all other servers, have the
# proper IP addresses set in mmm_common.conf.
this db1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
#db2就更改为this db2;以此类推

六、启动测试

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[root@db1 ~] # chkconfig mysql-mmm-agent on    #每个db都执行
[root@db1 ~] # service mysql-mmm-agent start
Starting MMM Agent Daemon:                                 [  OK  ]
[root@db1 ~] #
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[root@db2 ~] # service mysql-mmm-agent start
Starting MMM Agent Daemon:                                 [  OK  ]
[root@db2 ~] #
#依次启动
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
#启动monitor
[root@montior ~] # service mysql-mmm-monitor start
Starting MMM Monitor Daemon:                               [  OK  ]
  • 查看状态加测试下

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[root@montior ~] # mmm_control show
   db1( 192.168 . 0.111 ) master / ONLINE. Roles: writer( 192.168 . 0.5 )
   db2( 192.168 . 0.112 ) master / ONLINE. Roles:
   db3( 192.168 . 0.113 ) slave / ONLINE. Roles: reader( 192.168 . 0.6 )
   db4( 192.168 . 0.114 ) slave / ONLINE. Roles: reader( 192.168 . 0.7 )
#启动查看是正常的。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
#现在把master1离线;测试看下
[root@montior ~] # mmm_control set_offline db1    #为设置离线的
OK: State of  'db1'  changed to ADMIN_OFFLINE. Now you can wait some time  and  check  all  roles!
[root@montior ~] # mmm_control show
   db1( 192.168 . 0.111 ) master / ADMIN_OFFLINE. Roles:
   db2( 192.168 . 0.112 ) master / ONLINE. Roles: writer( 192.168 . 0.5 )
   db3( 192.168 . 0.113 ) slave / ONLINE. Roles: reader( 192.168 . 0.6 )
   db4( 192.168 . 0.114 ) slave / ONLINE. Roles: reader( 192.168 . 0.7 )
#查看转移正常。

七、常用选项

  • 默认check包含:

ping 服务器是否可以ping通
rep_backlog 检查复制延迟(replication behind)
rep_threads 检查复制线程是否运行正常
Mysql 检测mysql是否可以连接

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[root@montior ~] # mmm_
mmm_agentd   mmm_backup   mmm_clone    mmm_control  mmm_mond     mmm_restore
#有很多命令可以使用
              
[root@montior ~] # mmm_control --help    查看每个命令帮助信息和选项
Invalid command  '--help'
Valid commands are:
     help                               -  show this message
     ping                               -  ping monitor
     show                               -  show status
     checks [<host>| all  [<check>| all ]]  -  show checks status
     set_online <host>                  -  set  host <host> online
     set_offline <host>                 -  set  host <host> offline
     mode                               -  print  current mode.
     set_active                         -  switch into active mode.
     set_manual                         -  switch into manual mode.
     set_passive                        -  switch into passive mode.
     move_role [ - - force] <role> <host>  -  move exclusive role <role> to host <host>
                                         (Only use  - - force  if  you know what you are doing!)
     set_ip <ip> <host>                 -  set  role with ip <ip> to host <host>
              
#以检测为例
[root@montior ~] # mmm_control checks
db4  ping         [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db4  mysql        [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db4  rep_threads  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db4  rep_backlog  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK: Backlog  is  null
db2  ping         [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db2  mysql        [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db2  rep_threads  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db2  rep_backlog  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK: Backlog  is  null
db3  ping         [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db3  mysql        [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db3  rep_threads  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db3  rep_backlog  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK: Backlog  is  null
db1  ping         [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db1  mysql        [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK
db1  rep_threads  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 28 : 49 ]  OK
db1  rep_backlog  [last change:  2014 / 04 / 21  19 : 20 : 38 ]  OK: Backlog  is  null
#可以看出检测的选项和结果
  • Agent states

   ONLINE

       -All is peachy, only state in which a node can have a role assigned.

   REPLICATION_DELAY

       -Replication backlog is too big(Check rep_backlog failed)

   REPLICATION_FAIL

       -Replication threads are not running(Check rep_threads and rep_backlog failed)

   AWAITING_RECOVERY

       -Host is awaiting recovery Entered after HARD_OFFLINE -> all is ok


   HARD_OFFLINE

       -Host is offline (Check ping and/or mysql failed)

   ADMIN_OFFLINE

       -Host was set to offline manually

   UNKNOWN

       -Host is in unknown state



本文转自Mr_陈 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/chenpipi/1399841,如需转载请自行联系原作者
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