【移动开发】Android中WIFI开发总结(一)

简介:

    WIFI就是一种无线联网技术,常见的是使用无线路由器。那么在这个无线路由器的信号覆盖的范围内都可以采用WIFI连接的方式进行联网。如果无线路由器连接了一个ADSL线路或其他的联网线路,则又被称为“热点”。


     在Android中对Wifi操作,android本身提供了一些有用的包,在android.net.wifi包下面,主要包括以下几个类和接口:


1.ScanResult

   主要用来描述已经检测出的接入点,包括接入点的地址,接入点的名称,身份认证,频率,信号强度等信息。其实就是通过wifi 硬件的扫描来获取一些周边的wifi 热点的信息。


2.WifiConfiguration

Wifi网络的配置,包括安全设置等,在我们连通一个wifi 接入点的时候,需要获取到的一些信息。主要包含四个属性:

BSSID:

   BSS是一种特殊的Ad-hoc LAN(一种支持点对点访问的无线网络应用模式)的应用,一个无线网络至少由一个连接到有线网络的AP和若干无线工作站组成,这种配置称为一个基本服务装置。一群计算机设定相同的 BSS名称,即可自成一个group,而此BSS名称,即所谓BSSID。通常,手机WLAN中,bssid其实就是无线路由的MAC地址。

networkid:网络ID。

PreSharedKey:无线网络的安全认证模式。

SSID:SSID(Service Set Identif)用于标识无线局域网,SSID不同的无线网络是无法进行互访的。


3.WifiInfo

   wifi无线连接的描述,包括(接入点,网络连接状态,隐藏的接入点,IP地址,连接速度,MAC地址,网络ID,信号强度等信息)。这里简单介绍一下WifiManager中常用的方法:

getSSID() 获得SSID(热点名称)

getBSSID()

获取BSSID
getDetailedStateOf() 获取客户端的连通性
getHiddenSSID() 获得SSID 是否被隐藏
getIpAddress() 获取IP 地址
getLinkSpeed() 获得连接的速度
getMacAddress() 获得Mac 地址
getRssi() 获得802.11n 网络的信号


4.WifiManager

     wifi连接统一管理类,获取WIFI网卡的状态(WIFI网卡的状态是由一系列的整形常量来表示的)

WIFI_STATE_DISABLING = 0 WIFI网卡正在关闭
WIFI_STATE_DISABLED = 1 WIFI网卡不可用
WIFI_STATE_ENABLING = 2 WIFI网正在打开 (WIFI启动需要一段时间)
WIFI_STATE_ENABLED = 3 WIFI网卡可用
WIFI_STATE_UNKNOWN = 4 未知网卡状态
WIFI_AP_STATE_DISABLING = 10 WIFI热点正在关闭
WIFI_AP_STATE_DISABLED = 11 WIFI热点不可用
WIFI_AP_STATE_ENABLING = 12 WIFI热点正在打开
WIFI_AP_STATE_ENABLED = 13 WIFI热点可用


5. 在AndroidManifest.xml进行对WIFI操作的权限设置

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<!-- 以下是使用wifi访问网络所需的权限 -->
     <uses-permission android:name= "android.permission.CHANGE_NETWORK_STATE" ></uses-permission>
   <uses-permission android:name= "android.permission.CHANGE_WIFI_STATE" ></uses-permission>
   <uses-permission android:name= "android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE" ></uses-permission>
   <uses-permission android:name= "android.permission.ACCESS_WIFI_STATE" ></uses-permission>


 下面是汇总的一个wifi管理工具类,我完善了一下,并加上了详细的注解,很实用的!

WifiAdmin类: (wifi管理工具类)

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package  com.zhf.wifidemo.wifi.utils;
import  java.lang.reflect.Field;
import  java.lang.reflect.Method;
import  java.util.Iterator;
import  java.util.List;
import  android.content.Context;
import  android.net.wifi.ScanResult;
import  android.net.wifi.WifiConfiguration;
import  android.net.wifi.WifiInfo;
import  android.net.wifi.WifiManager;
/**
  * WIFI管理类
  * @author ZHF
  *
  */
public  class  WifiAdmin {
     private  static   WifiAdmin wifiAdmin =  null ;
                                                                                                                                                           
     private  List<WifiConfiguration> mWifiConfiguration;  //无线网络配置信息类集合(网络连接列表)
     private  List<ScanResult> mWifiList;  //检测到接入点信息类 集合
                                                                                                                                                           
     //描述任何Wifi连接状态
     private  WifiInfo mWifiInfo;
                                                                                                                                                           
     WifiManager.WifiLock mWifilock;  //能够阻止wifi进入睡眠状态,使wifi一直处于活跃状态
     public  WifiManager mWifiManager;
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**
      * 获取该类的实例(懒汉)
      * @param context
      * @return
      */
     public  static  WifiAdmin getInstance(Context context) {
         if (wifiAdmin ==  null ) {
             wifiAdmin =  new  WifiAdmin(context);
         }
         return  wifiAdmin;
     }
     private  WifiAdmin(Context context) {
         //获取系统Wifi服务   WIFI_SERVICE
         this .mWifiManager = (WifiManager) context.getSystemService( "wifi" );
         //获取连接信息
         this .mWifiInfo =  this .mWifiManager.getConnectionInfo();
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**
      * 是否存在网络信息
      * @param str  热点名称
      * @return
      */
     private  WifiConfiguration isExsits(String str) {
         Iterator localIterator =  this .mWifiManager.getConfiguredNetworks().iterator();
         WifiConfiguration localWifiConfiguration;
         do  {
             if (!localIterator.hasNext())  return  null ;
             localWifiConfiguration = (WifiConfiguration) localIterator.next();
         } while (!localWifiConfiguration.SSID.equals( "\""  + str +  "\"" ));
         return  localWifiConfiguration;
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**锁定WifiLock,当下载大文件时需要锁定 **/
     public  void  AcquireWifiLock() {
         this .mWifilock.acquire();
     }
     /**创建一个WifiLock**/
     public  void  CreateWifiLock() {
         this .mWifilock =  this .mWifiManager.createWifiLock( "Test" );
     }
     /**解锁WifiLock**/
     public  void  ReleaseWifilock() {
         if (mWifilock.isHeld()) {  //判断时候锁定
             mWifilock.acquire();
         }
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**打开Wifi**/
     public  void  OpenWifi() {
         if (! this .mWifiManager.isWifiEnabled()){  //当前wifi不可用
             this .mWifiManager.setWifiEnabled( true );
         }
     }
     /**关闭Wifi**/
     public  void  closeWifi() {
         if (mWifiManager.isWifiEnabled()) {
             mWifiManager.setWifiEnabled( false );
         }
     }
     /**端口指定id的wifi**/
     public  void  disconnectWifi( int  paramInt) {
         this .mWifiManager.disableNetwork(paramInt);
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**添加指定网络**/
     public  void  addNetwork(WifiConfiguration paramWifiConfiguration) {
         int  i = mWifiManager.addNetwork(paramWifiConfiguration);
         mWifiManager.enableNetwork(i,  true );
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**
      * 连接指定配置好的网络
      * @param index 配置好网络的ID
      */
     public  void  connectConfiguration( int  index) { 
         // 索引大于配置好的网络索引返回  
         if  (index > mWifiConfiguration.size()) { 
             return
        
         //连接配置好的指定ID的网络  
         mWifiManager.enableNetwork(mWifiConfiguration.get(index).networkId,  true ); 
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**
      * 根据wifi信息创建或关闭一个热点
      * @param paramWifiConfiguration
      * @param paramBoolean 关闭标志
      */
     public  void  createWifiAP(WifiConfiguration paramWifiConfiguration, boolean  paramBoolean) {
         try  {
             Class localClass =  this .mWifiManager.getClass();
             Class[] arrayOfClass =  new  Class[ 2 ];
             arrayOfClass[ 0 ] = WifiConfiguration. class ;
             arrayOfClass[ 1 ] = Boolean.TYPE;
             Method localMethod = localClass.getMethod( "setWifiApEnabled" ,arrayOfClass);
             WifiManager localWifiManager =  this .mWifiManager;
             Object[] arrayOfObject =  new  Object[ 2 ];
             arrayOfObject[ 0 ] = paramWifiConfiguration;
             arrayOfObject[ 1 ] = Boolean.valueOf(paramBoolean);
             localMethod.invoke(localWifiManager, arrayOfObject);
             return ;
         catch  (Exception e) {
             e.printStackTrace();
         }
     }
     /**
      * 创建一个wifi信息
      * @param ssid 名称
      * @param passawrd 密码
      * @param paramInt 有3个参数,1是无密码,2是简单密码,3是wap加密
      * @param type 是"ap"还是"wifi"
      * @return
      */
     public  WifiConfiguration createWifiInfo(String ssid, String passawrd, int  paramInt, String type) {
         //配置网络信息类
         WifiConfiguration localWifiConfiguration1 =  new  WifiConfiguration();
         //设置配置网络属性
         localWifiConfiguration1.allowedAuthAlgorithms.clear();
         localWifiConfiguration1.allowedGroupCiphers.clear();
         localWifiConfiguration1.allowedKeyManagement.clear();
         localWifiConfiguration1.allowedPairwiseCiphers.clear();
         localWifiConfiguration1.allowedProtocols.clear();
                                                                                                                                                               
         if (type.equals( "wt" )) {  //wifi连接
             localWifiConfiguration1.SSID = ( "\""  + ssid +  "\"" );
             WifiConfiguration localWifiConfiguration2 = isExsits(ssid);
             if (localWifiConfiguration2 !=  null ) {
                 mWifiManager.removeNetwork(localWifiConfiguration2.networkId);  //从列表中删除指定的网络配置网络
             }
             if (paramInt ==  1 ) {  //没有密码
                 localWifiConfiguration1.wepKeys[ 0 ] =  "" ;
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedKeyManagement.set( 0 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.wepTxKeyIndex =  0 ;
             else  if (paramInt ==  2 ) {  //简单密码
                 localWifiConfiguration1.hiddenSSID =  true ;
                 localWifiConfiguration1.wepKeys[ 0 ] = ( "\""  + passawrd +  "\"" );
             else  //wap加密
                 localWifiConfiguration1.preSharedKey = ( "\""  + passawrd +  "\"" );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.hiddenSSID =  true ;
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set( 0 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedGroupCiphers.set( 2 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedKeyManagement.set( 1 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set( 1 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedGroupCiphers.set( 3 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set( 2 );
             }
         } else  { //"ap" wifi热点
             localWifiConfiguration1.SSID = ssid;
             localWifiConfiguration1.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set( 1 );
             localWifiConfiguration1.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.CCMP);
             localWifiConfiguration1.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.TKIP);
             localWifiConfiguration1.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);
             localWifiConfiguration1.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);
             localWifiConfiguration1.allowedKeyManagement.set( 0 );
             localWifiConfiguration1.wepTxKeyIndex =  0 ;
             if  (paramInt ==  1 ) {   //没有密码
                 localWifiConfiguration1.wepKeys[ 0 ] =  "" ;
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedKeyManagement.set( 0 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.wepTxKeyIndex =  0 ;
             else  if  (paramInt ==  2 ) {  //简单密码
                 localWifiConfiguration1.hiddenSSID =  true ; //网络上不广播ssid
                 localWifiConfiguration1.wepKeys[ 0 ] = passawrd;
             else  if  (paramInt ==  3 ) { //wap加密
                 localWifiConfiguration1.preSharedKey = passawrd;
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set( 0 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedProtocols.set( 1 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedProtocols.set( 0 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedKeyManagement.set( 1 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set( 2 );
                 localWifiConfiguration1.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set( 1 );
             }
         }
         return  localWifiConfiguration1;
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**获取热点名**/
     public  String getApSSID() {
         try  {
             Method localMethod =  this .mWifiManager.getClass().getDeclaredMethod( "getWifiApConfiguration" new  Class[ 0 ]);
             if  (localMethod ==  null return  null ;
             Object localObject1 = localMethod.invoke( this .mWifiManager, new  Object[ 0 ]);
             if  (localObject1 ==  null return  null ;
             WifiConfiguration localWifiConfiguration = (WifiConfiguration) localObject1;
             if  (localWifiConfiguration.SSID !=  null return  localWifiConfiguration.SSID;
             Field localField1 = WifiConfiguration. class  .getDeclaredField( "mWifiApProfile" );
             if  (localField1 ==  null return  null ;
             localField1.setAccessible( true );
             Object localObject2 = localField1.get(localWifiConfiguration);
             localField1.setAccessible( false );
             if  (localObject2 ==  null )   return  null ;
             Field localField2 = localObject2.getClass().getDeclaredField( "SSID" );
             localField2.setAccessible( true );
             Object localObject3 = localField2.get(localObject2);
             if  (localObject3 ==  null return  null ;
             localField2.setAccessible( false );
             String str = (String) localObject3;
             return  str;
         catch  (Exception localException) {
         }
         return  null ;
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**获取wifi名**/
     public  String getBSSID() {
         if  ( this .mWifiInfo ==  null )
             return  "NULL" ;
         return  this .mWifiInfo.getBSSID();
     }
                                                                                                                                                         
    /**得到配置好的网络 **/
     public  List<WifiConfiguration> getConfiguration() {
         return  this .mWifiConfiguration;
     }
                                                                                                                                                           
     /**获取ip地址**/
     public  int  getIPAddress() {
         return  (mWifiInfo ==  null ) ?  0  : mWifiInfo.getIpAddress();
     }
     /**获取物理地址(Mac)**/
     public  String getMacAddress() {
          return  (mWifiInfo ==  null ) ?  "NULL"  : mWifiInfo.getMacAddress();
     }   
                                                                                                                                                             
     /**获取网络id**/
     public  int  getNetworkId() {
          return  (mWifiInfo ==  null ) ?  0  : mWifiInfo.getNetworkId();
     }
     /**获取热点创建状态**/
     public  int  getWifiApState() {
         try  {
             int  i = ((Integer)  this .mWifiManager.getClass()
                     .getMethod( "getWifiApState" new  Class[ 0 ])
                     .invoke( this .mWifiManager,  new  Object[ 0 ])).intValue();
             return  i;
         catch  (Exception localException) {
         }
         return  4 ;    //未知wifi网卡状态
     }
     /**获取wifi连接信息**/
     public  WifiInfo getWifiInfo() {
         return  this .mWifiManager.getConnectionInfo();
     }
     /** 得到网络列表**/
     public  List<ScanResult> getWifiList() {
         return  this .mWifiList;
     }
                                                                                                                                                         
     /**查看扫描结果**/
     public  StringBuilder lookUpScan() {
         StringBuilder localStringBuilder =  new  StringBuilder();
         for  ( int  i =  0 ; i < mWifiList.size(); i++)
         {
             localStringBuilder.append( "Index_" + new  Integer(i +  1 ).toString() +  ":" );
             //将ScanResult信息转换成一个字符串包
             //其中把包括:BSSID、SSID、capabilities、frequency、level
             localStringBuilder.append((mWifiList.get(i)).toString());
             localStringBuilder.append( "\n" );
         }
         return  localStringBuilder;
     }
                                                                                                                                                             
     /** 设置wifi搜索结果 **/
     public  void  setWifiList() {
         this .mWifiList =  this .mWifiManager.getScanResults();
     }
     /**开始搜索wifi**/
     public  void  startScan() {
         this .mWifiManager.startScan();
     }
     /**得到接入点的BSSID**/
     public  String GetBSSID() {
         return  (mWifiInfo ==  null ) ?  "NULL"  : mWifiInfo.getBSSID();
     }
}


最后,成功连接到wifi后,通过本机IP地址便可以进行相关网络开发,在下一篇中我会讲解一个WIFI热点搜索、创建、连接的Demo(http://smallwoniu.blog.51cto.com/3911954/1338618),希望能帮助到大家!



     本文转自zhf651555765 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/smallwoniu/1334951
,如需转载请自行联系原作者

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