如何学习JDK里的设计模式-阿里云开发者社区

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如何学习JDK里的设计模式

简介:

前言

最近在看JDK源码,想在毕业前再好好提高一下写代码的能力,JDK是个优秀的源码阅读范本(Spring的源码也不错)。JDK目录下的src.zip里可以直接获得源码,我也push到了我Github的一个repo里。

网上搜了JDK设计模式,coolshell里也有一篇,不过我还是参照了Stackoverflow(原文链接)上的一个“Examples of GoF Design Patterns”的答复,详细列举了JDK里具体对应的类和函数,并结合了wiki上的许多整理好的优秀词条内容。放到这个博客上,也方便自己深入学习,好好体会下设计模式内涵,光看书也会很枯燥,况且纸质的代码看起来也不舒服。

正文

You can find an overview of a lot of design patterns in Wikipedia. It also mentions which patterns are mentioned by GoF. I'll sum them up here and try to assign as much as possible pattern implementations found in both the Java SE and Java EE API's.

Creational patterns

Abstract factory (recognizeable by creational methods returning the factory itself which in turn can be used to create another abstract/interface type)

Builder (recognizeable by creational methods returning the instance itself)

Factory method (recognizeable by creational methods returning an implementation of an abstract/interface type)

Prototype (recognizeable by creational methods returning a different instance of itself with the same properties)

Singleton (recognizeable by creational methods returning the same instance (usually of itself) everytime)


Structural patterns

Adapter (recognizeable by creational methods taking an instance of different abstract/interface type and returning an implementation of own/another abstract/interface type which decorates/overrides the given instance)

Bridge (recognizeable by creational methods taking an instance of different abstract/interface type and returning an implementation of own abstract/interface type which delegates/uses the given instance)

  • None comes to mind yet. A fictive example would be new LinkedHashMap(LinkedHashSet<K>, List<V>) which returns an unmodifiable linked map which doesn't clone the items, but uses them. The java.util.Collections#newSetFromMap() and singletonXXX() methods however comes close.

Composite (recognizeable by behavioral methods taking an instance of same abstract/interface type into a tree structure)

Decorator (recognizeable by creational methods taking an instance of same abstract/interface type which adds additional behaviour)

Facade (recognizeable by behavioral methods which internally uses instances of different independent abstract/interface types)

Flyweight (recognizeable by creational methods returning a cached instance, a bit the "multiton" idea)

Proxy (recognizeable by creational methods which returns an implementation of given abstract/interface type which in turn delegates/uses a different implementation of given abstract/interface type)

The Wikipedia example is IMHO a bit poor, lazy loading has actually completely nothing to do with the proxy pattern at all.


Behavioral patterns

Chain of responsibility (recognizeable by behavioral methods which (indirectly) invokes the same method inanother implementation of same abstract/interface type in a queue)

Command (recognizeable by behavioral methods in an abstract/interface type which invokes a method in an implementation of a different abstract/interface type which has been encapsulated by the command implementation during its creation)

Interpreter (recognizeable by behavioral methods returning a structurally different instance/type of the given instance/type; note that parsing/formatting is not part of the pattern, determining the pattern and how to apply it is)

Iterator (recognizeable by behavioral methods sequentially returning instances of a different type from a queue)

Mediator (recognizeable by behavioral methods taking an instance of different abstract/interface type (usually using the command pattern) which delegates/uses the given instance)

Memento (recognizeable by behavioral methods which internally changes the state of the whole instance)

Observer (or Publish/Subscribe) (recognizeable by behavioral methods which invokes a method on an instance of another abstract/interface type, depending on own state)

State (recognizeable by behavioral methods which changes its behaviour depending on the instance's state which can be controlled externally)

Strategy (recognizeable by behavioral methods in an abstract/interface type which invokes a method in an implementation of a different abstract/interface type which has been passed-in as method argument into the strategy implementation)

Template method (recognizeable by behavioral methods which already have a "default" behaviour definied by an abstract type)

Visitor (recognizeable by two different abstract/interface types which has methods definied which takes each theother abstract/interface type; the one actually calls the method of the other and the other executes the desired strategy on it)


(全文完)

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