Tomcat系列之服务器的基本配置及Nginx反向代理tomcat服务

本文涉及的产品
RDS MySQL Serverless 基础系列,0.5-2RCU 50GB
RDS MySQL Serverless 高可用系列,价值2615元额度,1个月
简介:

大纲

一、Tomcat 基本配置

1.为Tomcat提供SysV脚本 
2.catalina 脚本讲解 
3.telnet 登录管理Tomcat 
4.配置Tomcat虚拟主机 
5.Tomcat图形管理接口

  • manager 管理应用程序的部署及监控

  • host-manager 虚拟主机的管理

6.部署JSP网站案例

  • 布署JavaCenter Home(开源的SNS网站)

二、Nginx反向代理Tomcat服务器

1.Nginx将请求反向代理到后端Tomcat 
2.Nginx将图片缓存到本地 
3.Nginx将请求实现动静分离

注,实验环境说明,操作系统:CentOS 6.4 x86_64,软件版本:jdk-7u40、apache-tomcat-7.0.42、Nginx-1.4.2,博客中所用到的软件请到这里下载:http://yunpan.cn/QGBCLwrZnpLMS


一、Tomcat 基本配置

1.为Tomcat提供SysV脚本

注,在上一篇博文中我们已经演示安装了Tomcat,这里我们就不在演示,不清楚的博友可以参考这篇博文,http://freeloda.blog.51cto.com/2033581/1299644,在上一篇博文中我们没有增加,SysV脚本,在这篇博文中我们来增加一下,下面我们就来具体演示一下。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
[root@tomcat ~] # vim /etc/init.d/tomcat
#!/bin/sh
# Tomcat init script for Linux.
#
# chkconfig: 2345 96 14
# description: The Apache Tomcat servlet/JSP container.
CATALINA_HOME= /usr/local/tomcat  #注意你的脚本路径
export  CATALINA_HOME
# export CATALINA_OPTS="-Xms128m -Xmx256m"
exec  $CATALINA_HOME /bin/catalina .sh $*

下面我们来增加执行权限,并加入服务列表设置开机自启动,

1
2
3
[root@tomcat ~] # chmod +x /etc/init.d/tomcat
[root@tomcat ~] # chkconfig --add tomcat
[root@tomcat ~] # chkconfig tomcat --list

tomcat 0:关闭 1:关闭 2:启用 3:启用 4:启用 5:启用 6:关闭

下面我们来启动一下Tomcat并测试一下,

1
2
3
4
5
6
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar

查看一下启动的端口号,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
[root@tomcat ~] # netstat -ntulp
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address        Foreign Address       State    PID /Program  name
tcp    0   0 0.0.0.0:22         0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:25        0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6010       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   12988 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6011       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13053 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 :::8080           :::*            LISTEN   13088 /java 
tcp    0   0 :::22            :::*            LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 ::1:25           :::*            LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6010          :::*            LISTEN   12988 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6011          :::*            LISTEN   13053 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::ffff:127.0.0.1:8005    :::*            LISTEN   13088 /java 
tcp    0   0 :::8009           :::*            LISTEN   13088 /java

用浏览器访问一下,

测试效果

好了,到这里Tomcat的SysV脚本增加完成,下面我们来说一下catalina脚本。

2.catalina 脚本讲解

首先我们来查看一下这个脚本,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
[root@tomcat bin] # catalina.sh -h
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr/java/jdk1 .7.0_40
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
Usage: catalina.sh ( commands ... )
commands:
  debug       Start Catalina  in  a debugger
  debug -security  Debug Catalina with a security manager
  jpda start    Start Catalina under JPDA debugger
  run        Start Catalina  in  the current window
  run -security   Start  in  the current window with security manager
  start       Start Catalina  in  a separate window
  start -security  Start  in  a separate window with security manager
  stop       Stop Catalina, waiting up to 5 seconds  for  the process to end
  stop n      Stop Catalina, waiting up to n seconds  for  the process to end
  stop -force    Stop Catalina, wait up to 5 seconds and  then  use  kill  -KILL  if  still running
  stop n -force   Stop Catalina, wait up to n seconds and  then  use  kill  -KILL  if  still running
  configtest    Run a basic syntax check on server.xml - check  exit  code  for  result
  version      What version of tomcat are you running?
Note: Waiting  for  the process to end and use of the -force option require that $CATALINA_PID is defined

注,从帮助上来看,这个脚本使用还是挺简单的。下面我们来说几个常用的选项,

catalina.sh

  • start 启动Tomcat

  • stop 关闭Tomcat

  • configtest 测试配置文件是否有错

  • version 查看Tomcat版本

下面我们就来具体演示一下,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
[root@tomcat ~] # catalina.sh configtest
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr/java/jdk1 .7.0_40
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
九月 21, 2013 11:08:26 下午 org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init
信息: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library  which  allows optimal performance  in  production environments was not found on the java.library.path:  /usr/java/packages/lib/amd64 : /usr/lib64 : /lib64 : /lib : /usr/lib
九月 21, 2013 11:08:27 下午 org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
信息: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "http-bio-8080" ]
九月 21, 2013 11:08:27 下午 org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
信息: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "ajp-bio-8009" ]
九月 21, 2013 11:08:27 下午 org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load
信息: Initialization processed  in  1269 ms

注,使用configtest选项时,得关闭Tomcat,不然会报错。

启动Tomcat,

1
2
3
4
5
6
[root@tomcat ~] # catalina.sh start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr/java/jdk1 .7.0_40
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar

关闭Tomcat,

1
2
3
4
5
6
[root@tomcat ~] # catalina.sh stop
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr/java/jdk1 .7.0_40
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar

查看Tomcat版本,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
[root@tomcat ~] # catalina.sh version
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr/java/jdk1 .7.0_40
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
Server version: Apache Tomcat /7 .0.42
Server built:  Jul 2 2013 08:57:41
Server number: 7.0.42.0
OS Name:    Linux
OS Version:   2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64
Architecture:  amd64
JVM Version:  1.7.0_40-b43
JVM Vendor:   Oracle Corporation

好了,catalina脚本,我们就说到这里了,下面我们来说一下telnet管理Tomcat。

3.telnet 登录管理Tomcat

注,在说telnet管理Tomcat之前,我们得先看一下默认的配置文件,这里面定义了默认的管理端口,

1
2
[root@tomcat ~] # vim /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml
<Server port= "8005"  shutdown = "SHUTDOWN" >

说明,定义了一个管理端口为8005,我们可以用telnet直接登录进本机的8005端口,来执行SHUTDOWN命令,来关闭Tomcat实例。下面我们来具体演示一下,

先安装telnet客户端,

1
[root@tomcat ~] # yum install -y telnet

下面我们一测试并查看,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
[root@tomcat ~] # telnet localhost 8005
Trying ::1...
telnet: connect to address ::1: Connection refused
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is  '^]' .
SHUTDOWN  #输入SHOWDOWN就可以直接关闭Tomcat服务。
Connection closed by foreign host.
[root@tomcat ~] # netstat -ntulp
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address        Foreign Address       State    PID /Program  name
tcp    0   0 0.0.0.0:22         0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:25        0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6010       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   12988 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6011       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13053 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 :::22            :::*            LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 ::1:25           :::*            LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6010          :::*            LISTEN   12988 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6011          :::*            LISTEN   13053 /sshd

注,大家可以看到Tomcat服务器已经关闭。好了,telnet管理我们就说到这里,下面我们来说一下,Tomcat虚拟主机的配置。

4.配置Tomcat虚拟主机

注,在说Tomcat虚拟主机之前,咱们来详细的看看默认的配置文件,虽然在上一篇博客中全部有讲解,在这篇博客中我还是再和大家简单说一下,下面是默认配置文件。大家可以看到,绝大部分的配置文件是注释,包含在<!-- -->、全是注释。下面我们就来具体的看看,注释我们就不说了,说具体的定义的内容

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
[root@tomcat ~] # cat /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml
<?xml version= '1.0'  encoding= 'utf-8' ?>
<!--
  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or  more
  contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE  file  distributed with
  this work  for  additional information regarding copyright ownership.
  The ASF licenses this  file  to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
  (the  "License" ); you may not use this  file  except  in  compliance with
  the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
http: //www .apache.org /licenses/LICENSE-2 .0
  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to  in  writing, software
  distributed under the License is distributed on an  "AS IS"  BASIS,
  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  See the License  for  the specific language governing permissions and
  limitations under the License.
-->
<!-- Note: A  "Server"  is not itself a  "Container" , so you may not
    define subcomponents such as  "Valves"  at this level.
    Documentation at  /docs/config/server .html
-->
<Server port= "8005"  shutdown = "SHUTDOWN" #大家可以看到,这里是我们刚才讲解的,定义一个管理接口
  <!-- Security listener. Documentation at  /docs/config/listeners .html
  <Listener className= "org.apache.catalina.security.SecurityListener"  />
  -->
  <!--APR library loader. Documentation at  /docs/apr .html -->
  <Listener className= "org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener"  SSLEngine= "on"  />
  <!--Initialize Jasper prior to webapps are loaded. Documentation at  /docs/jasper-howto .html -->
  <Listener className= "org.apache.catalina.core.JasperListener"  />
  <!-- Prevent memory leaks due to use of particular java /javax  APIs-->
  <Listener className= "org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener"  />
  <Listener className= "org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener"  />
  <Listener className= "org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener"  />
  <!-- Global JNDI resources
     Documentation at  /docs/jndi-resources-howto .html
  -->
  <GlobalNamingResources>
   <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
      UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate  users
   -->
   <Resource name= "UserDatabase"  auth= "Container"
        type = "org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
        description= "User database that can be updated and saved"
        factory= "org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
        pathname= "conf/tomcat-users.xml"  />
  < /GlobalNamingResources >
  <!-- A  "Service"  is a collection of one or  more  "Connectors"  that share
     a single  "Container"  Note: A  "Service"  is not itself a  "Container" ,
     so you may not define subcomponents such as  "Valves"  at this level.
     Documentation at  /docs/config/service .html
   -->
  <Service name= "Catalina" #定义一个Service命令为Catalina
   <!--The connectors can use a shared executor, you can define one or  more  named thread pools-->
   <!--
   <Executor name= "tomcatThreadPool"  namePrefix= "catalina-exec-"
     maxThreads= "150"  minSpareThreads= "4" />
   -->
   <!-- A  "Connector"  represents an endpoint by  which  requests are received
      and responses are returned. Documentation at :
      Java HTTP Connector:  /docs/config/http .html (blocking & non-blocking)
      Java AJP Connector:  /docs/config/ajp .html
      APR (HTTP /AJP ) Connector:  /docs/apr .html
      Define a non-SSL HTTP /1 .1 Connector on port 8080
   -->
   <Connector port= "8080"  protocol= "HTTP/1.1"
         connectionTimeout= "20000"
         redirectPort= "8443"  />  #这里定义了一个连接器,协议为http,端口为8080,最大连接超时为20s,这里还定义了一个SSL的重定向端口8443。我们可以根据需要进行修改。一般我们都用80端口与443端口。
   <!-- A  "Connector"  using the shared thread pool-->
   <!--
   <Connector executor= "tomcatThreadPool"
         port= "8080"  protocol= "HTTP/1.1"
         connectionTimeout= "20000"
         redirectPort= "8443"  />
   -->
   <!-- Define a SSL HTTP /1 .1 Connector on port 8443
      This connector uses the JSSE configuration, when using APR, the
      connector should be using the OpenSSL style configuration
      described  in  the APR documentation -->
   <!--
   <Connector port= "8443"  protocol= "HTTP/1.1"  SSLEnabled= "true"
         maxThreads= "150"  scheme= "https"  secure= "true"
         clientAuth= "false"  sslProtocol= "TLS"  />  #这里定义了一个SSL的案例,主要定义相关密钥与证书。
   -->
   <!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->
   <Connector port= "8009"  protocol= "AJP/1.3"  redirectPort= "8443"  />  #这里定义了一个支持AJP协议的连接器。
   <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
      every request. The Engine implementation  for  Tomcat stand alone
      analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
      on to the appropriate Host (virtual host).
      Documentation at  /docs/config/engine .html -->
   <!-- You should  set  jvmRoute to support load-balancing via AJP ie :
   <Engine name= "Catalina"  defaultHost= "localhost"  jvmRoute= "jvm1" >
   -->
   <Engine name= "Catalina"  defaultHost= "localhost" #这里定义了一个名为Catalina的引擎,并定义了一个默认主机为localhost。
    <!--For clustering, please take a  look  at documentation at:
      /docs/cluster-howto .html (simple how to)
      /docs/config/cluster .html (reference documentation) -->
    <!--
    <Cluster className= "org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster" />
    -->
    <!-- Use the LockOutRealm to prevent attempts to guess user passwords
       via a brute-force attack -->
    <Realm className= "org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm" >
     <!-- This Realm uses the UserDatabase configured  in  the global JNDI
        resources under the key  "UserDatabase" . Any edits
        that are performed against this UserDatabase are immediately
        available  for  use by the Realm. -->
     <Realm className= "org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
         resourceName= "UserDatabase" />
    < /Realm >
    <Host name= "localhost"  appBase= "webapps"
       unpackWARs= "true"  autoDeploy= "true" #这里就是定义的虚拟主机。
     <!-- SingleSignOn valve, share authentication between web applications
        Documentation at:  /docs/config/valve .html -->
     <!--
     <Valve className= "org.apache.catalina.authenticator.SingleSignOn"  />
     -->
     <!-- Access log processes all example.
        Documentation at:  /docs/config/valve .html
        Note: The pattern used is equivalent to using pattern= "common"  -->
     <Valve className= "org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve"  directory= "logs"
         prefix= "localhost_access_log."  suffix= ".txt"
         pattern= "%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b"  />  #这里定义了一个日志相关的属性。
    < /Host >
   < /Engine >
  < /Service >
< /Server >

好了,在这里我们又简单的说明一下,配置文件下面我们就来具体演示一下怎么配置虚拟主机。

首先,我们来修改一下配置文件,

[root@tomcat conf]# vim server.xml

#增加下面几行

1
2
3
4
<Host name= "www.test.com"  appBase= "/web/webapp"
    unpackWARs= "true"  autoDeploy= "true" >
      <Context path= "/"  docBase= "/web/webapp"  reloadable= "true" />
< /Host >

接下来我们来创建文档目录与测试页面,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
[root@tomcat ~] # mkdir -pv /web/webapp
[root@tomcat ~] # cd /web/webapp
[root@tomcat webapp] # vim index.jsp
<%@ page language= "java"  %>
<%@ page  import = "java.util.*"  %>
<html>
  < head >
   <title>JSP  test  page.< /title >
  < /head >
  <body>
   <% out.println( "Welcome to test. Site, http://www.test.com" ); %>
  < /body >
< /html >

现在我们来测试一下我们修改的配置文件,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat stop
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
^[[A[root@tomcat service tomcat configtest
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
Sep 22, 2013 2:15:47 AM org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init
INFO: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library  which  allows optimal performance  in  production environments was not found on the java.library.path:  /usr/java/packages/lib/amd64 : /usr/lib64 : /lib64 : /lib : /usr/lib
Sep 22, 2013 2:15:47 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "http-bio-80" ]
Sep 22, 2013 2:15:47 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "ajp-bio-8009" ]
Sep 22, 2013 2:15:47 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load
INFO: Initialization processed  in  1294 ms

注,大家可以看到,我们这里没有报错,说明配置都是正确的,若配置有错误,会在最后一行提醒你。

再下面我们来启动Tomcat并测试一下,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
[root@tomcat ~] # netstat -ntulp
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address        Foreign Address       State    PID /Program  name
tcp    0   0 0.0.0.0:22         0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:25        0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6010       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13368 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6011       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13387 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6012       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13407 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 :::80            :::*            LISTEN   13557 /java 
tcp    0   0 :::22            :::*            LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 ::1:25           :::*            LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6010          :::*            LISTEN   13368 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6011          :::*            LISTEN   13387 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6012          :::*            LISTEN   13407 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 :::8009           :::*            LISTEN   13557 /java

注,还有一点得说明一下,我这里为了方便测试,将默认端口8080修改为了80端口。下面是测试效果,

test1

为了帮助大家理解,我们这里再次讲解一下,Host组件与Context组件以及相关属性。

Host组件:

位于Engine容器中用于接收请求并进行相应处理的主机或虚拟主机,如前面我们自定义的内容:

1
2
3
4
<Host name= "www.test.com"  appBase= "/web/webapp"
    unpackWARs= "true"  autoDeploy= "true" >
      <Context path= "/"  docBase= "/web/webapp"  reloadable= "true" />
< /Host >

常用属性说明:

name:定义虚拟主机的域名

  • appBase:此Host的webapps目录,即存放非归档的web应用程序的目录或归档后的WAR文件的目录路径;可以使用基于$CATALINA_HOME的相对路径;

  • autoDeploy:在Tomcat处于运行状态时放置于appBase目录中的应用程序文件是否自动进行deploy;默认为true;

  • unpackWars:在启用此webapps时是否对WAR格式的归档文件先进行展开;默认为true;

主机别名定义:

如果一个主机有两个或两个以上的主机名,额外的名称均可以以别名的形式进行定义,如下: 

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
<Host name= "www.test.com"  appBase= "webapps"  unpackWARs= "true" >
  <Alias>web. test .com< /Alias >
< /Host >
Context组件:
Context在某些意义上类似于apache中的路径别名,一个Context定义用于标识tomcat实例中的一个Web应用程序。如下面的定义:
   <!-- Tomcat Root Context -->
   <Context path= ""  docBase= "/web/webapps" />
   <!-- buzzin webapp -->
   <Context path= "/bbs"
    docBase= "/web/threads/bbs"
    reloadable= "true" >
   < /Context >
   <!-- chat server -->
    <Context path= "/chat"  docBase= "/web/chat" />
   <!-- darian web -->
   <Context path= "/darian"  docBase= "darian" />

在Tomcat中,每一个context定义也可以使用一个单独的XML文件进行,其文件的目录为$CATALINA_HOME/conf/<engine name>/<host name>。可以用于Context中的XML元素有Loader,Manager,Realm,Resources和WatchedResource。

常用的属性定义有:

  • docBase:相应的Web应用程序的存放位置;也可以使用相对路径,起始路径为此Context所属Host中appBase定义的路径;切记,docBase的路径名不能与相应的Host中appBase中定义的路径名有包含关系,比如,如果appBase为deploy,而docBase绝不能为deploy-bbs类的名字;

  • path:相对于Web服务器根路径而言的URI;如果为空“”,则表示为此webapp的根路径;如果context定义在一个单独的xml文件中,此属性不需要定义;

  • reloadable:是否允许重新加载此context相关的Web应用程序的类;默认为false;

为了便于大家理解,我们这里再定义一个Context并测试一下,

我们先来修改一下配置文件

1
2
3
4
5
6
[root@tomcat conf] # vim server.xml
<Host name= "www.test.com"  appBase= "/web/webapp"
     unpackWARs= "true"  autoDeploy= "true" >
       <Context path= "/"  docBase= "/web/webapp"  reloadable= "true" />
       <Context path= "/test"  docBase= "/web/test"  reloadable= "true" />  #增加这一行
  < /Host >

下面来增加目录文档与测试文件,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
[root@tomcat webapp] # mkdir /web/test
[root@tomcat webapp] # cd /web/test
[root@tomcat  test ] # vim index.jsp
<%@ page language= "java"  %>
<html>
  < head ><title>TomcatA< /title >< /head >
  <body>
   <h1><font color= "red" >TomcatA < /h1 >
   <table align= "centre"  border= "1" >
    < tr >
     <td>Session ID< /td >
   <% session.setAttribute( "abc" , "abc" ); %>
     <td><%= session.getId() %>< /td >
    < /tr >
    < tr >
     <td>Created on< /td >
     <td><%= session.getCreationTime() %>< /td >
    < /tr >
   < /table >
  < /body >
< /html >

测试一下配置文件是否有错并启动Tomcat,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat configtest
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
Sep 22, 2013 2:40:57 AM org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init
INFO: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library  which  allows optimal performance  in  production environments was not found on the java.library.path:  /usr/java/packages/lib/amd64 : /usr/lib64 : /lib64 : /lib : /usr/lib
Sep 22, 2013 2:40:58 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "http-bio-80" ]
Sep 22, 2013 2:40:58 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "ajp-bio-8009" ]
Sep 22, 2013 2:40:58 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load
INFO: Initialization processed  in  1352 ms
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
[root@tomcat ~] # netstat -ntulp
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address        Foreign Address       State    PID /Program  name
tcp    0   0 0.0.0.0:22         0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:25        0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6010       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13587 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6011       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13387 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6012       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13407 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 :::80            :::*            LISTEN   13945 /java 
tcp    0   0 :::22            :::*            LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 ::1:25           :::*            LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6010          :::*            LISTEN   13587 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6011          :::*            LISTEN   13387 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6012          :::*            LISTEN   13407 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::ffff:127.0.0.1:8005    :::*            LISTEN   13945 /java 
tcp    0   0 :::8009           :::*            LISTEN   13945 /java

下面我们就用浏览器测试一下,

test2

好了,到这里我们的Tomcat虚拟主机的讲解就到这里了,下面我们来说一下Tomcat图形管理接口。

5.Tomcat图形管理接口

  • manager 管理应用程序的部署及监控

  • host-manager 虚拟主机的管理

我们先来看一下默认的图形配置界面,

test3

注,大家注意看右上角,我用红色方框标记出来的,大家可以看有三个按钮,分别为

  • Server Status 主要用来查看服务器的状态

  • Manager App 主要用来管理应用程序的部署及监控

  • Host Manager 主要用来管理虚拟主机

下面我们就来具休的配置一下,大家可以看到,你点击任何一个按钮都要输入用户名和密码的,在我们配置之前我们先来说一下,Tomcat的Manager功能,

Manager的四个管理角色:

  • manager-gui - allows access to the HTML GUI and the status pages

  • manager-script - allows access to the text interface and the status pages

  • manager-jmx - allows access to the JMX proxy and the status pages

  • manager-status - allows access to the status pages only

注,这里我说一下,上面的英文比较简单我就不在里翻译了,大家自己看一下。

下面我们就来启用manager功能,修改tomcat-user.xml文件,添加如下行:

1
2
3
<role rolename= "manager-gui" />
<role rolename= "admin-gui" />
<user username= "tomcat"  password= "tomcat"  roles= "manager-gui,admin-gui" />

简单解释一下,Tomcat有内置的角色,我们这里增加了两个角色一个为manager-gui,另一个为admin-gui,用户名和密码都为tomcat。

test4

注,增加的内容一定要在<tomcat-users></tomcat-users>之间。不然,不会生效。好了,下面我们一来测试一下配置文件,并重新启动一下Tomcat

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat configtest
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
Sep 22, 2013 3:08:44 AM org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init
INFO: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library  which  allows optimal performance  in  production environments was not found on the java.library.path:  /usr/java/packages/lib/amd64 : /usr/lib64 : /lib64 : /lib : /usr/lib
Sep 22, 2013 3:08:44 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "http-bio-80" ]
Sep 22, 2013 3:08:44 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "ajp-bio-8009" ]
Sep 22, 2013 3:08:44 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load
INFO: Initialization processed  in  1213 ms
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
[root@tomcat ~] # netstat -ntulp
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address        Foreign Address       State    PID /Program  name
tcp    0   0 0.0.0.0:22         0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:25        0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6010       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13587 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6011       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13387 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6012       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   13407 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 :::80            :::*            LISTEN   14197 /java 
tcp    0   0 :::22            :::*            LISTEN   1044 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 ::1:25           :::*            LISTEN   1121 /master 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6010          :::*            LISTEN   13587 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6011          :::*            LISTEN   13387 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6012          :::*            LISTEN   13407 /sshd 
tcp    0   0 ::ffff:127.0.0.1:8005    :::*            LISTEN   14197 /java 
tcp    0   0 :::8009           :::*            LISTEN   14197 /java

好了,下面我们用浏览器查看一下,

注,点击Server Status按钮,让你输入用户名和密码。我这里全部设置是tomcat。

test5

然后,会出现以下界面。显示全部服务器运行状态!大家可以仔细的看一下,我就不带着大家看了。

manager

下面是应用程序部署管理界面,

manager2

下面是虚拟主机管理页面,

host-manager

注,我们一般在生产环境中用的最多是应用程序部署界面,可以进行热布署应用程序,很方便,大家可以尝试一下。好了,图形管理界面我们就说到这里了,下面我们来说一下,Tomcat的一个小案例。我们说了那么多,有朋友就会说了,怎么一个案例也没有呢?下面我们就来布署一个社交网站的案例JavaCenter Home。

6.部署JSP网站案例

首页,我们来修改一下配置文件,

1
2
3
4
5
[root@tomcat conf] # vim server.xml
<Host name= "www.test.com"  appBase= "/web"
    unpackWARs= "true"  autoDeploy= "true" >
  <Context path= "/"  docBase= "webapp"  reloadable= "true" />
< /Host >

注,增加一下虚拟主机,文件目录为/web/webapp。

下面我们来解压一下我们下载好的JavaCenter Home网站程序,

1
[root@tomcat src] # tar xf JavaCenter_Home_2.0_GBK.tar.bz2

接下来将解压好的JavaCenter Home程序移动到/web/webapp下,

1
2
[root@tomcat src] # cd JavaCenter_Home_2.0_GBK
[root@tomcat JavaCenter_Home_2.0_GBK] # mv * /web/webapp/

下面我们来测试一下配置文件并启动Tomcat服务,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat configtest
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr/java/jdk1 .6.0_21
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
Sep 23, 2013 5:31:18 PM org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init
INFO: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library  which  allows optimal performance  in  production environments was not found on the java.library.path:  /usr/java/jdk1 .6.0_21 /jre/lib/amd64/server : /usr/java/jdk1 .6.0_21 /jre/lib/amd64 : /usr/java/jdk1 .6.0_21 /jre/ .. /lib/amd64 : /usr/java/packages/lib/amd64 : /usr/lib64 : /lib64 : /lib : /usr/lib
Sep 23, 2013 5:31:20 PM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "http-bio-80" ]
Sep 23, 2013 5:31:20 PM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [ "ajp-bio-8009" ]
Sep 23, 2013 5:31:20 PM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load
INFO: Initialization processed  in  2493 ms
[root@tomcat ~] # service tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/local/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR:  /usr/local/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:     /usr/java/jdk1 .6.0_21
Using CLASSPATH:     /usr/local/tomcat/bin/bootstrap .jar: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli .jar
[root@tomcat ~] # netstat -ntulp
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address        Foreign Address       State    PID /Program  name
tcp    0   0 0.0.0.0:22         0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1026 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:25        0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1256 /master 
tcp    0   0 127.0.0.1:6010       0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1339 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 0.0.0.0:3306        0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN   1165 /mysqld 
tcp    0   0 :::80            :::*            LISTEN   1499 /java  
tcp    0   0 :::22            :::*            LISTEN   1026 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 ::1:25           :::*            LISTEN   1256 /master 
tcp    0   0 ::1:6010          :::*            LISTEN   1339 /sshd  
tcp    0   0 :::8009           :::*            LISTEN   1499 /java

下面我们用浏览器访问一下,http://www.test.com(注,要想用域名访问,必须配置本机有hosts文件,Windows7hosts文件目录,C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts)

error

注,上面的错误说明我们连接Mysql数据库失败。因为我们这里还没有安装与配置嘛。下面我们赶快来配置一下,

先安装数据库,我们这里就用yum安装一下,

1
[root@tomcat ~] # yum install -y mysql-server

下面来启动并配置mysql,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
[root@tomcat ~] # service mysqld start
Starting mysqld:                      [ OK ]
[root@tomcat ~] # mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection  id  is 2
Server version: 5.1.69 Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and /or  its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and /or  its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type  'help;'  or  '\h'  for  help. Type  '\c'  to  clear  the current input statement.
mysql>

好了,到这里我们mysql就安装完成了,下面我们来看一下我们的程序目录,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
[root@tomcat ~] # cd /web/webapp/
[root@tomcat webapp] # ls
admin    avatar.jsp     data     help.jsp  js.jsp    rss.jsp  userapp.jsp
admincp.jsp config.properties  do .jsp    image    link.jsp    source    WEB-INF
api     contact.jsp    editor.jsp  index.jsp  magic.jsp  space.jsp xmlrpc.jsp
app.jsp    cp .jsp       errors     install    META-INF   template
attachment  crossdomain.xml  favicon.ico invite.jsp network.jsp theme

大家可以看到里面有个install的目录,下面我们用浏览器访问一下,http://www.test.com/install,会跳出一个安装界面,如下图

jc1

从图中,我们可以看出,所以环境配置完成,都符合要求。下面我们点击“接受授权协议,开始安装JavaCenter Home”,会跳出下一界面,如下图

js2

从图中,我们可以看出得输入,数据库名称、数据库用户名、数据库密码。下面我们就来增加一下,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
[root@tomcat ~] # mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection  id  is 13
Server version: 5.1.69 Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and /or  its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and /or  its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type  'help;'  or  '\h'  for  help. Type  '\c'  to  clear  the current input statement.
mysql> create database jcenter;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> grant all privileges on jcenter.* to jcenter@ 'localhost'  identified by  '123456' ;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> grant all privileges on jcenter.* to jcenter@ '127.0.0.1'  identified by  '123456' ;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

上面创建一个jcenter数据库,授权访问一个jcenter用户,密码为123456。下面我们继续配置,

js3

我们输入刚才设置的数据库用户名、数据库密码、数据库名称。点击“设置完毕,检测我的数据库配置”,图显示的3和4会看自动进行安装,我们只等一会即可。安装完成的效果如下图,

js4

下面我们开通一个管理员空间,用户名和密码都为admin,如下图

js5

点击“开通管理员空间”,会跳出另一个界面,如下图

js6

我们点击“进入空间首页”,效果如下图

js7

好了,到这里我们的JavaCenter Home就全部配置完成了,我们第一阶段的基本配置就这里全部完成,下面我们主要讲解Nginx反向代理Tomcat服务器。

二、Nginx反向代理Tomcat服务器

0.测试环境准备阶段

下面先看一下实验拓扑,

tomcat 实验拓扑

接着来同步各节点时间,

1
2
[root@tomcat ~] # ntpdate 202.120.2.101
[root@nginx ~] # ntpdate 202.120.2.101

下面我们来安装nginx服务器,首先来解决nginx的依赖关系,

1
2
[root@nginx ~] # yum groupinstall -y "Development Tools" "Server Platform Deveopment"
[root@nginx ~] # yum install -y openssl-devel pcre-devel

下面我们来新建nginx用户,

1
2
3
4
[root@nginx ~] # groupadd -r -g 108 nginx
[root@nginx ~] # useradd -r -g 108 -u 108 nginx
[root@nginx ~] # id nginx
uid=108(nginx) gid=108(nginx) 组=108(nginx)

接着我们来开始编译和安装,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
[root@nginx src] # tar xf nginx-1.4.2.tar.gz
[root@nginx src] # cd nginx-1.4.2
[root@nginx nginx-1.4.2] # ls
auto CHANGES CHANGES.ru conf configure contrib html LICENSE  man  README src
[root@nginx nginx-1.4.2] # ./configure \
>  --prefix= /usr  \
>  --sbin-path= /usr/sbin/nginx  \
>  --conf-path= /etc/nginx/nginx .conf \
>  --error-log-path= /var/log/nginx/error .log \
>  --http-log-path= /var/log/nginx/access .log \
>  --pid-path= /var/run/nginx/nginx .pid \
>  --lock-path= /var/lock/nginx .lock \
>  --user=nginx \
>  --group=nginx \
>  --with-http_ssl_module \
>  --with-http_flv_module \
>  --with-http_stub_status_module \
>  --with-http_gzip_static_module \
>  --http-client-body-temp-path= /var/tmp/nginx/client/  \
>  --http-proxy-temp-path= /var/tmp/nginx/proxy/  \
>  --http-fastcgi-temp-path= /var/tmp/nginx/fcgi/  \
>  --http-uwsgi-temp-path= /var/tmp/nginx/uwsgi  \
>  --http-scgi-temp-path= /var/tmp/nginx/scgi  \
>  --with-pcre
[root@nginx nginx-1.4.2] # make && make install

说明:

  • Nginx可以使用Tmalloc(快速、多线程的malloc库及优秀性能分析工具)来加速内存分配,使用此功能需要事先安装gperftools,而后在编译nginx添加--with-google_perftools_module选项即可。

  • 如果想使用nginx的perl模块,可以通过为configure脚本添加--with-http_perl_module选项来实现,但目前此模块仍处于实验性使用阶段,可能会在运行中出现意外,因此,其实现方式这里不再介绍。如果想使用基于nginx的cgi功能,也可以基于FCGI来实现,具体实现方法请参照网上的文档。

下面我们为nginx提供SysV init脚本,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
[root@nginx ~] # cat /etc/init.d/nginx
#!/bin/sh
#
# nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemon
#
# chkconfig:  - 85 15
# description: Nginx is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \
#        proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server
# processname: nginx
# config:   /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# config:   /etc/sysconfig/nginx
# pidfile:   /var/run/nginx.pid
# Source function library.
/etc/rc .d /init .d /functions
# Source networking configuration.
/etc/sysconfig/network
# Check that networking is up.
"$NETWORKING"  "no"  ] &&  exit  0
nginx= "/usr/sbin/nginx"
prog=$( basename  $nginx)
NGINX_CONF_FILE= "/etc/nginx/nginx.conf"
[ -f  /etc/sysconfig/nginx  ] && .  /etc/sysconfig/nginx
lockfile= /var/lock/subsys/nginx
make_dirs() {
   # make required directories
   user=`nginx -V 2>&1 |  grep  "configure arguments:"  sed  's/[^*]*--user=\([^ ]*\).*/\1/g'  -`
   options=`$nginx -V 2>&1 |  grep  'configure arguments:' `
   for  opt  in  $options;  do
     if  [ ` echo  $opt |  grep  '.*-temp-path' ` ];  then
       value=` echo  $opt |  cut  -d  "="  -f 2`
       if  [ ! -d  "$value"  ];  then
         # echo "creating" $value
         mkdir  -p $value &&  chown  -R $user $value
       fi
     fi
   done
}
start() {
   [ -x $nginx ] ||  exit  5
   [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] ||  exit  6
   make_dirs
   echo  -n $ "Starting $prog: "
   daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
   retval=$?
   echo
   [ $retval - eq  0 ] &&  touch  $lockfile
   return  $retval
}
stop() {
   echo  -n $ "Stopping $prog: "
   killproc $prog -QUIT
   retval=$?
   echo
   [ $retval - eq  0 ] &&  rm  -f $lockfile
   return  $retval
}
restart() {
   configtest ||  return  $?
   stop
   sleep  1
   start
}
reload() {