Nagios检测一些记序

简介:

检测命令篇:
文中内容包括:序述nagios从发现主机到web界面显示出状态再到邮件报警的整个过程。方面以后进行排错,还有如何编写特定应用的特定检测程序。
煮酒品茶:文章需要改进的有如何做触发报警的条件,警告等。

更新:
1、说明一些定义一些宏资料。

  $ARGn$:The nth argument passed to the command (notification, event handler, service check, etc.). Nagios supports up to 32 argument macros ($ARG1$ through $ARG32$).
$USERn$:The nth user-definable macro. User macros can be defined in one or more resource files. Nagios supports up to 256 user macros ($USER1$ through $USER32$).

 2、解决问题,报警四种状态。

服务和主机配置文件中的“check_command           check-host-alive”是什么意思呢?
 
[root@weihack objects]# pwd
/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects
[root@weihack objects]# cat commands.cfg #发现这么一项:
 define command{
        command_name    check-host-alive
        command_line    $USER1$/check_ping -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -w 3000.0,80% -c 5000.0,100% -p 5
        }
看看命令行:$USER1$/check_ping -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -w 3000.0,80% -c 5000.0,100% -p 5
[root@weihack libexec]# pwd
/usr/local/nagios/libexec
[root@weihack libexec]# ./check_ping -H 192.168.100.85 -w 3000.0,80% -c 5000.0,100% -p 5
PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.05 ms|rta=0.055000ms;3000.000000;5000.000000;0.000000 pl=0%;80;100;0
# Web界面 Status Information 里面是不是出现了PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.05 ms这样的东东。
# -h 使用方法都出来了,由此我们可以看出。ping 192.168.100.85 3000警告,5000直接报警。目前为0.055ms 发送五个包。那很很清晰了。
 [root@weihack libexec]# ./check_ping -h
Use ping to check connection statistics for a remote host.
 
Usage:check_ping -H <host_address> -w <wrta>,<wpl>% -c <crta>,<cpl>%
 [-p packets] [-t timeout] [-4|-6]
 
Options:
 -h, --help
    Print detailed help screen
 -V, --version
    Print version information
 -4, --use-ipv4
    Use IPv4 connection
 -6, --use-ipv6
    Use IPv6 connection
 -H, --hostname=HOST
    host to ping
 -w, --warning=THRESHOLD
    warning threshold pair
 -c, --critical=THRESHOLD
    critical threshold pair
 -p, --packets=INTEGER
    number of ICMP ECHO packets to send (Default: 5)
 -L, --link
    show HTML in the plugin output (obsoleted by urlize)
 -t, --timeout=INTEGER
    Seconds before connection times out (default: 10)
 
# 倒底有多少个这样的定义的命令的?
 [root@weihack objects]# cat commands.cfg |grep command_name
command_name notify-host-by-email
command_name notify-service-by-email
        command_name    check-host-alive
        command_name    check_local_disk
        command_name    check_local_load
        command_name    check_local_procs
        command_name    check_local_users
command_name check_local_swap
command_name check_local_mrtgtraf
        command_name    check_ftp
        command_name    check_hpjd
        command_name    check_snmp
        command_name    check_http
command_name check_ssh
command_name check_dhcp
        command_name    check_ping
        command_name    check_pop
        command_name    check_imap
        command_name    check_smtp
command_name check_tcp
command_name check_udp
command_name check_nt
command_name process-host-perfdata
command_name process-service-perfdata
 
#挑一条notify-host-by-email,可以清楚的看到发送邮件的过程。
 define command{
        command_name    notify-host-by-email
        command_line    /usr/bin/printf "%b" "***** Nagios *****\n\nNotification Type: $NOTIFICATIONTYPE$\nHost: $HOSTNAME$\nState: $HOSTSTATE$\nAddress: $HOSTADDRESS$\nInfo: $HOSTOUTPUT$\n\nDate/Time: $LONGDATETIME$\n" | /bin/mail -s "** $NOTIFICATIONTYPE$ Host Alert: $HOSTNAME$ is $HOSTSTATE$ **" $CONTACTEMAIL$
        }
#打散开来看,是不是可以定制邮件发送格式了?
 /usr/bin/printf "%b" "***** Nagios *****\n\n
Notification Type: $NOTIFICATIONTYPE$\n
Host: $HOSTNAME$\nState: $HOSTSTATE$\n
Address: $HOSTADDRESS$\n
Info: $HOSTOUTPUT$\n\n
Date/Time: $LONGDATETIME$\n
" | /bin/mail -s "** $NOTIFICATIONTYPE$ Host Alert: $HOSTNAME$ is $HOSTSTATE$ **" $CONTACTEMAIL$
 
#到手的邮件是这样子的。
 主 题: ** RECOVERY Host Alert: rsync-89 is UP **   [新窗口打开]
时 间:  2013-03-13 22:57 (星期三)
发件人: nagios<nagios@phx2-ss-5-lb.cnet.com>   [添加联系人]  [邮件往来]  [拒收]
收件人:  我<zwhset@163.com>
**** Nagios *****
Notification Type: RECOVERY
Host: rsync-89
State: UP
Address: 192.168.100.89
Info: PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.32 ms
Date/Time: Wed Mar 13 22:57:44 CST 2013
 
#那我们加一个监控服务,看看全程如何工作的。查看端口22是否保持链接。check_tcp,我们先看看用法。
 [root@weihack libexec]# ./check_tcp -h
Usage:check_tcp -H host -p port [-w <warning time>] [-c <critical time>] [-s <send string>]
[-e <expect string>] [-q <quit string>][-m <maximum bytes>] [-d <delay>]
[-t <timeout seconds>] [-r <refuse state>] [-M <mismatch state>] [-v] [-4|-6] [-j]
[-D <days to cert expiry>] [-S <use SSL>] [-E]
 
Options:
 -h, --help
    Print detailed help screen
 -V, --version
    Print version information
 -H, --hostname=ADDRESS
    Host name, IP Address, or unix socket (must be an absolute path)
 -p, --port=INTEGER
    Port number (default: none)
 -4, --use-ipv4
    Use IPv4 connection
 -6, --use-ipv6
    Use IPv6 connection
 -E, --escape
    Can use \n, \r, \t or \ in send or quit string. Must come before send or quit option
    Default: nothing added to send, \r\n added to end of quit
 -s, --send=STRING
    String to send to the server
 -e, --expect=STRING
    String to expect in server response (may be repeated)
 -A, --all
    All expect strings need to occur in server response. Default is any
 -q, --quit=STRING
    String to send server to initiate a clean close of the connection
 -r, --refuse=ok|warn|crit
    Accept TCP refusals with states ok, warn, crit (default: crit)
 -M, --mismatch=ok|warn|crit
    Accept expected string mismatches with states ok, warn, crit (default: warn)
 -j, --jail
    Hide output from TCP socket
 -m, --maxbytes=INTEGER
    Close connection once more than this number of bytes are received
 -d, --delay=INTEGER
    Seconds to wait between sending string and polling for response
 -w, --warning=DOUBLE
    Response time to result in warning status (seconds)
 -c, --critical=DOUBLE
    Response time to result in critical status (seconds)
 -t, --timeout=INTEGER
    Seconds before connection times out (default: 10)
 -v, --verbose
    Show details for command-line debugging (Nagios may truncate output)
 
#这似乎是具体方法,让我们看看command里定义的。
 define command{
        command_name    check_tcp
        command_line    $USER1$/check_tcp -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -p $ARG1$ $ARG2$
        }
#对照上表-H 主机地址,-p 端口 接受参数1 2
#我找不到定义的文件在哪呢,$USER1$是路径也就是/usr/local/nagios/libexec,后面三个也一样。那么可构造 check_tcp 22,$ARG1$ $ARG2$用!号隔开。$USER1$的定义在文件:
[root@weihack objects]# cat /usr/local/nagios/etc/resource.cfg |grep USER1
 # Nagios supports up to 32 $USERx$ macros ($USER1$ through $USER32$)
# Sets $USER1$ to be the path to the plugins
$USER1$=/usr/local/nagios/libexec
$ARGn$:The nth argument passed to the command (notification, event handler, service check, etc.). Nagios supports up to 32 argument macros ($ARG1$ through $ARG32$).
$USERn$:The  n th user-definable macro. User macros can be defined in one or more  resource files . Nagios supports up to 256 user macros ($USER1$ through $USER32$).
我们添加服务
 [root@weihack objects]# vim services.cfg 
define service {
        host_name        rsync-89
        service_description   check_tcp 80
        check_period          24x7
        max_check_attempts    4
        normal_check_interval 3
        retry_check_interval  2
        contact_groups        ktm
        notification_interval   10
        notification_period     24x7
        notification_options    w,u,c,r
        check_command           check_tcp!80
        }
#验证下并滑溜运行程序。
[root@weihack objects]# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg 
[root@weihack nagios]# kill -Hup 8670
#运行成功,那我们想自由自在的构造一些检测,如何实现?做个实验.
#check_ping 主要输出这些:PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.06 ms|rta=0.061000ms;3000.000000;5000.000000;0.000000 pl=0%;80;90;0
 [root@weihack libexec]# cat /test/passwd |wc -l
25
#假设有用户则显示用户数,无用户为空则报警。如何设计?
[root@weihack libexec]# touch /test/passwda
[root@weihack libexec]# cat check_user
#check_user_nagios  cwtea
#blog: cwtea.blog.51cto.com
cu=`cat /test/passwda |wc -l`
 
if [ $cu -ne 0 ]; then
echo "User OK - User is running (UserNumber: ${cu})"
else
echo "User CRITICAL,"User is none""
fi

 

[root@weihack libexec]# ./check_user

 User CRITICAL,User is none

 

 [root@weihack libexec]# ./check_user
User OK - User is running (UserNumber: 25)
#添加一个定义check_user
[root@weihack objects]# vim commands.cfg 
 #check user
define command{
        command_name    check_user
        command_line    $USER1$/check_user 
        }
#添加一项服务
[root@weihack objects]# vim services.cfg
 define service {
        host_name        rsync-89
        service_description   check_user
        check_period          24x7
        max_check_attempts    4
        normal_check_interval 3
        retry_check_interval  2
        contact_groups        ktm
        notification_interval   10
        notification_period     24x7
        notification_options    w,u,c,r
        check_command           check_user
        }
#kill -Hup 23377
#web界面看看,已经出现了。
 

#我们把文件弄成空的。
[root@weihack objects]# rm -rf /test/passwd
[root@weihack objects]# touch /test/passwd
#状态显示是OK的,但是信息栏已经出现了我们想要的。
check_user OK  03-14-2013 00:20:29  0d 0h 3m 25s  1/4  User CRITICAL,User is none 
#我们加个返回状态码 exit 2
[root@weihack libexec]# cat check_user
 #check_user_nagios  cwtea
#blog: cwtea.blog.51cto.com
cu=`cat /test/passwd |wc -l`
 
if [ $cu -ne 0 ]; then
echo "User OK - User is running (UserNumber: ${cu})"
        #Is OK.
        exit 0
else
echo "User CRITICAL,"User is none""
exit 2
fi
#过会儿,再看已经down掉了。
#邮件报警等了好久才来
 主 题:  ** PROBLEM Service Alert: rsync 89/check_user is CRITICAL **   [新窗口打开]
时 间:  2013-03-14 00:32 (星期四)
发件人:  nagios<nagios@phx2-ss-5-lb.cnet.com>   [添加联系人]  [邮件往来]  [拒收]
收件人:  我<zwhset@163.com>
***** Nagios *****
Notification Type: PROBLEM
Service: check_user
Host: rsync 89
Address: 192.168.100.89
State: CRITICAL
Date/Time: Thu Mar 14 00:32:39 CST 2013
Additional Info:
User CRITICAL,User is none
 




本文转自 煮酒品茶 51CTO博客,原文链接:http://blog.51cto.com/cwtea/1153384,如需转载请自行联系原作者
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