解读InnodDB页面--普通页结构-阿里云开发者社区

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解读InnodDB页面--普通页结构

简介: 前言 很久之前了解到innodb_space,觉得很强大,可视化了InnoDB页面,但是没有形成文档,总结出来,有一些经常被问到的东东可以用这个查看了。 环境 centos 7 Linux izhp3j8nb7nyq2g923r9fvz 3.

前言

很久之前了解到innodb_space,觉得很强大,可视化了InnoDB页面,但是没有形成文档,总结出来,有一些经常被问到的东东可以用这个查看了。

环境

centos 7
Linux 3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Tue Sep 12 22:26:13 UTC 2017 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Server version: 5.7.20 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

安装

sudo yum install rubygems ruby-devel
sudo gem install innodb_ruby

解读

总述

选项

  1. -f 加载表空间,如ibd文件
  2. -s 加载系统表空间,如ibd
  3. -T 指定表名
  4. -I 指定索引名

继续拿这个表做例子:

mysql> show create table sbtest1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: sbtest1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `sbtest1` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `gmt_create` datetime NOT NULL,
  `gmt_modified` datetime NOT NULL,
  `k` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
  `c` varchar(500) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `pad` char(60) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `is_used` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `k_1` (`k`),
  KEY `idx_is_used` (`is_used`),
  KEY `idx_gmt_create` (`gmt_create`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=69313841 DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

页结构

page-account

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 1 page-account
Accounting for page 1:
  Page type is IBUF_BITMAP (Insert buffer bitmap, bookkeeping for insert buffer writes to be merged).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 2 page-account
Accounting for page 2:
  Page type is INODE (File segment inode, bookkeeping for file segments).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 3 page-account
Accounting for page 3:
  Page type is INDEX (B+Tree index, table and index data stored in B+Tree structure).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
  Page is in fragment array of fseg 1.
  Fseg is in internal fseg of index 74.
  Index root is page 3.
  Index is test/sbtest1.PRIMARY.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 4 page-account
Accounting for page 4:
  Page type is INDEX (B+Tree index, table and index data stored in B+Tree structure).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
  Page is in fragment array of fseg 3.
  Fseg is in internal fseg of index 75.
  Index root is page 4.
  Index is test/sbtest1.k_1.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 5 page-account
Accounting for page 5:
  Page type is INDEX (B+Tree index, table and index data stored in B+Tree structure).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
  Page is in fragment array of fseg 5.
  Fseg is in internal fseg of index 76.
  Index root is page 5.
  Index is test/sbtest1.idx_is_used.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 6 page-account
Accounting for page 6:
  Page type is INDEX (B+Tree index, table and index data stored in B+Tree structure).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
  Page is in fragment array of fseg 7.
  Fseg is in internal fseg of index 77.
  Index root is page 6.
  Index is test/sbtest1.idx_gmt_create.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 7 page-account
Accounting for page 7:
  Page type is INDEX (B+Tree index, table and index data stored in B+Tree structure).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
  Page is in fragment array of fseg 2.
  Fseg is in leaf fseg of index 74.
  Index root is page 3.
  Index is test/sbtest1.PRIMARY.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 8 page-account
Accounting for page 8:
  Page type is INDEX (B+Tree index, table and index data stored in B+Tree structure).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
  Page is in fragment array of fseg 2.
  Fseg is in leaf fseg of index 74.
  Index root is page 3.
  Index is test/sbtest1.PRIMARY.
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 9 page-account
Accounting for page 9:
  Page type is INDEX (B+Tree index, table and index data stored in B+Tree structure).
  Extent descriptor for pages 0-63 is at page 0, offset 158.
  Extent is not fully allocated to an fseg; may be a fragment extent.
  Page is marked as used in extent descriptor.
  Extent is in full_frag list of space.
  Page is in fragment array of fseg 1.
  Fseg is in internal fseg of index 74.
  Index root is page 3.
  Index is test/sbtest1.PRIMARY.

page-dump

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 1 page-dump | more
#<Innodb::Page::IbufBitmap:0x00000001a58678>:

fil header:
{:checksum=>2988774564,
 :offset=>1,
 :prev=>0,
 :next=>0,
 :lsn=>114063786483,
 :type=>:IBUF_BITMAP,
 :flush_lsn=>0,
 :space_id=>45}

fil trailer:
{:checksum=>2988774564, :lsn_low32=>2394636787}

ibuf bitmap:
  Page 0: {:free=>0, :buffered=>false, :ibuf=>false}
  Page 1: {:free=>0, :buffered=>false, :ibuf=>false}
  Page 2: {:free=>0, :buffered=>false, :ibuf=>false}
  Page 3: {:free=>0, :buffered=>false, :ibuf=>false}
  Page 4: {:free=>0, :buffered=>false, :ibuf=>false}
  ...
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 2 page-dump | more
#<Innodb::Page::Inode:0x00000001e4c450>:

fil header:
{:checksum=>2394379754,
 :offset=>2,
 :prev=>0,
 :next=>0,
 :lsn=>114066783250,
 :type=>:INODE,
 :flush_lsn=>0,
 :space_id=>45}

fil trailer:
{:checksum=>2394379754, :lsn_low32=>2397633554}

list entry:
{:prev=>nil, :next=>nil}

inodes:
{:offset=>50,
 :fseg_id=>1,
 :not_full_n_used=>19,
 :free=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001e29108
   @base={:length=>0, :first=>nil, :last=>nil},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :not_full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001e23be0
   @base=
    {:length=>2,
     :first=>{:page=>360448, :offset=>6238},
     :last=>{:page=>425984, :offset=>7478}},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001e22290
     @base=
    {:length=>5,
     :first=>{:page=>32768, :offset=>2318},
     :last=>{:page=>294912, :offset=>4998}},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :magic_n=>97937874,
 :frag_array=>
  [3,
   9,
   40,
   nil,
   42,
   43,
   44,
...
   61,
   62,
   63,
   16386,
   16387,
   16388,
   16389,
   16390,
   16391]}
{:offset=>242,
 :fseg_id=>2,
 :not_full_n_used=>880,
 :free=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001dd9fe0
   @base={:length=>0, :first=>nil, :last=>nil},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :not_full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001dd8690
   @base=
    {:length=>878,
     :first=>{:page=>376832, :offset=>7118},
     :last=>{:page=>442368, :offset=>1438}},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001dd30c8
   @base=
    {:length=>6032,
     :first=>{:page=>0, :offset=>198},
     :last=>{:page=>376832, :offset=>7078}},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
     :magic_n=>97937874,
 :frag_array=>
  [7,
   8,
   10,
   11,
   12,
   13,
   14,
  ...
     35,
   36,
   37,
   38,
   39]}
{:offset=>434,
 :fseg_id=>3,
 :not_full_n_used=>0,
 :free=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001d8afd0
   @base={:length=>0, :first=>nil, :last=>nil},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :not_full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001d896a8
   @base={:length=>0, :first=>nil, :last=>nil},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001d819f8
   @base={:length=>0, :first=>nil, :last=>nil},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :magic_n=>97937874,
 :frag_array=>
  [4,
   16393,
   16424,
   nil,
   16426,
   16427,
   16428,
     16440,
   16441,
   16442,
   16443,
   16444,
   16445,
   16446,
   16447,
   nil,
   nil,
   nil,
   nil,
   nil,
   nil]}
{:offset=>626,
 :fseg_id=>4,
 :not_full_n_used=>82,
 :free=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001d43360
   @base={:length=>0, :first=>nil, :last=>nil},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :not_full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001d419e8
   @base=
    {:length=>51,
     :first=>{:page=>458752, :offset=>4878},
     :last=>{:page=>458752, :offset=>6878}},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :full=>
  #<Innodb::List::Xdes:0x00000001d40098
   @base=
    {:length=>340,
     :first=>{:page=>442368, :offset=>1478},
     :last=>{:page=>458752, :offset=>4838}},
   @space=
    <Innodb::Space file="test/sbtest1.ibd", page_size=16384, pages=529152>>,
 :magic_n=>97937874,
 :frag_array=>
  [41,
   16392,
   16394,
  .....

page-records

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 3 page-records | more
Record 126: (id=43000569) → #9
Record 140: (id=43071969) → #40
Record 154: (id=43143369) → #42
Record 168: (id=43214769) → #43
Record 182: (id=43286169) → #44
Record 196: (id=43357569) → #45
Record 210: (id=43428969) → #46
Record 224: (id=43500369) → #47
Record 238: (id=43571769) → #48
Record 252: (id=43643169) → #49
Record 266: (id=43714569) → #50
Record 280: (id=43785969) → #51
Record 294: (id=43857369) → #52
Record 308: (id=43928769) → #53
Record 322: (id=44000169) → #54
Record 336: (id=44071569) → #55
Record 350: (id=44142969) → #56
Record 364: (id=44214369) → #57
Record 378: (id=44285769) → #58
Record 392: (id=44357169) → #59
Record 406: (id=44428569) → #60
Record 420: (id=44499969) → #61
Record 434: (id=44571369) → #62
Record 448: (id=44642769) → #63
Record 462: (id=44714169) → #16386
Record 476: (id=44785569) → #16387
Record 490: (id=44856969) → #16388
Record 504: (id=44928369) → #16389
Record 518: (id=44999769) → #16390
Record 532: (id=45071169) → #16391
Record 546: (id=45142569) → #36224
Record 560: (id=45213969) → #36225
Record 574: (id=45285369) → #36226
...

page-directory-summary

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 5 page-directory-summary
slot    offset  type          owned   key
0       99      infimum       1
1       180     node_pointer  4       (is_used=0)
2       252     node_pointer  4       (is_used=0)
3       324     node_pointer  4       (is_used=0)
4       396     node_pointer  4       (is_used=0)
5       468     node_pointer  4       (is_used=0)
6       112     supremum      8
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 6 page-directory-summary
slot    offset  type          owned   key
0       99      infimum       1
1       179     node_pointer  4       (gmt_create="184616475-42-59 95:08:86")
2       251     node_pointer  4       (gmt_create="184616479-25-95 90:48:11")
3       323     node_pointer  4       (gmt_create="184616483-40-85 97:53:44")
4       395     node_pointer  4       (gmt_create="184616486-58-28 48:33:81")
5       467     node_pointer  4       (gmt_create="184616490-05-40 55:86:50")
6       112     supremum      8
[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 7 page-directory-summary
slot    offset  type          owned   key
0       99      infimum       1
1       790     conventional  4       (id=43000572)
2       1674    conventional  4       (id=43000576)
3       2558    conventional  4       (id=43000580)
4       3442    conventional  4       (id=43000584)
5       4326    conventional  4       (id=43000588)
6       5210    conventional  4       (id=43000592)
7       6094    conventional  4       (id=43000596)
8       6978    conventional  4       (id=43000600)
9       7862    conventional  4       (id=43000604)
10      8746    conventional  4       (id=43000608)
11      9630    conventional  4       (id=43000612)
12      10514   conventional  4       (id=43000616)
13      11398   conventional  4       (id=43000620)
14      12282   conventional  4       (id=43000624)
15      13166   conventional  4       (id=43000628)
16      14050   conventional  4       (id=43000632)
17      112     supremum      5

page-illustrate

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 6 page-illustrate

image
...
image

索引结构

index-recurse

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -I PRIMARY index-recurse | more
ROOT NODE #3: 369 records, 5166 bytes
  NODE POINTER RECORD ≥ (id=43000569) → #9
  INTERNAL NODE #9: 1050 records, 14700 bytes
    NODE POINTER RECORD ≥ (id=43000569) → #7
    LEAF NODE #7: 68 records, 15028 bytes
      RECORD: (id=43000569) → (gmt_create="184616470-38-96 24:80:37", gmt_modified="-891360229-11-75 00:49:77", k=-1271582413, c="73586-15688153734-79729593694-96509299839-83724898275-8671183
3539-78981337422-35049690573-51724173961-87474696253989966", pad="21624-36689827414-04092488557-09587706818-65008859162 \x80\x00\x00\x00w\x00", is_used=-2147477504)
      RECORD: (id=43000570) → (gmt_create="184616470-38-96 24:80:37", gmt_modified="-891360231-94-84 49:64:33", k=-1271451079, c="70079-70972780322-70018558993-71769650003-09270326047-3241701
2031-10768856803-14235120402-93989080412-18690312264047768", pad="26683-45880822084-77922711547-29057964468-76514263618 \x80\x00\x00\x00w\x00", is_used=-2147475456)
      RECORD: (id=43000571) → (gmt_create="184616470-38-96 24:80:37", gmt_modified="-891360229-49-27 20:33:85", k=-1288227272, c="27441-24903985029-56844662308-79012577859-40518387141-6058841
9212-24399130405-42612257832-29494881732-71506024440268430", pad="35807-96849339132-53943793991-69741192222-48634174017 \x80\x00\x00\x00w\x00", is_used=-2080364544)
...

index-record-offsets

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -I PRIMARY index-record-offsets | more
page_offset         record_offset
7                   127
7                   348
7                   569
7                   790
7                   1011
7                   1232
7                   1453
7                   1674
7                   1895
7                   2116
...

index-level-summary

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -I PRIMARY -l 0 index-level-summary | more
page    index   level   data    free    records min_key
7       74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43000569
8       74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43000637
10      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43000705
11      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43000773
12      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43000841
13      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43000909
14      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43000977
15      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43001045
16      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43001113
17      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43001181
18      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43001249
19      74      0       15028   1192    68      id=43001317
...

记录结构

record-dump

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 7 -R 128 record-dump
Record at offset 128

Header:
  Next record offset  : -8702
  Heap number         : 512
  Type                : conventional
  Deleted             : false
  Length              : 7

System fields:
  Transaction ID: 38377940
  Roll Pointer:
    Undo Log: page 112897, offset 4249
    Rollback Segment ID: 0
    Insert: false

Key fields:
  id: 270727424

Non-key fields:
  gmt_create: "222619031-78-45 93:12:68"
  gmt_modified: "-370929284-39-30 89:87:40"
  k: -1255066825
  c: ""
  pad: "3586-15688153734-79729593694-96509299839-83724898275-8671183"
  is_used: -1288359111

记录历史

record-history

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -T test/sbtest1 -p 7 -R 128 record-history
Transaction   Type                Undo record
[root@localhost mysql]# 

其他拓展

space-lists

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 space-lists
name                length      f_page      f_offset    l_page      l_offset
free                619         32768       6918        0           438
free_frag           5           0           398         0           318
full_frag           2           0           158         0           278
full_inodes         1           2           38          2           38
free_inodes         2           322         38          243         38
[root@localhost mysql]#

space-list-iterate

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 space-list-iterate -L free_frag
start_page  page_used_bitmap
384         #############........###################################........
16384       ##..............................................................
32768       ##..............................................................
320         ####################################################.######.##..
256         #############################.##.#..##...###..#.######..####.##.
[root@localhost mysql]#

space-inodes-summary

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 space-inodes-summary
INODE fseg_id=1, pages=3552, frag=32, full=47, not_full=8, free=0
INODE fseg_id=2, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=3, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=4, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=5, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=6, pages=0, frag=0, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=7, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=8, pages=0, frag=0, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=9, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=10, pages=0, frag=0, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=11, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=12, pages=0, frag=0, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=13, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=14, pages=0, frag=0, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=15, pages=160, frag=32, full=2, not_full=0, free=0
INODE fseg_id=16, pages=1, frag=1, full=0, not_full=0, free=0
...

undo-history-summary

[root@izhp3j8nb7nyq2g923r9fvz mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 undo-history-summary
Page    Offset  Transaction   Type                Table
345     2452    162569        delete
345     2512    162600        delete
345     2598    162601        update_deleted
345     2675    162569        update_existing     SYS_TABLESPACES
345     2716    162569        update_existing     SYS_DATAFILES
345     2763    162600        update_existing     SYS_TABLESPACES
345     2817    162600        update_existing     SYS_DATAFILES
347     2859    162595        delete              mysql/innodb_table_stats
284     2925    162581        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3020    162581        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3115    162581        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3194    162597        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3303    162597        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3412    162597        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3521    162597        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3614    162589        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3717    162589        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3820    162589        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     3923    162589        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     4010    162581        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     4097    162581        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     4184    162581        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
284     4271    162581        delete              mysql/innodb_index_stats
312     3626    162568        delete
312     3679    162568        delete
312     3740    162568        delete
...

undo-record-dump

Print a detailed description of an undo record and the data it contains:

[root@localhost mysql]# innodb_space -s ibdata1 -p page -R offset undo-record-dump
/usr/local/share/gems/gems/innodb_ruby-0.9.15/bin/innodb_space:1582:in `undo_record_dump': undefined method `root' for nil:NilClass (NoMethodError)
    from /usr/local/share/gems/gems/innodb_ruby-0.9.15/bin/innodb_space:2055:in `<top (required)>'
    from /usr/local/bin/innodb_space:23:in `load'
    from /usr/local/bin/innodb_space:23:in `<main>'

引用ruby库

$ irb -r innodb
> sys = Innodb::System.new("ibdata1")
> idx = sys.index_by_name("sakila/film", "PRIMARY")
> rec = idx.binary_search([1])

参考

https://github.com/jeremycole/innodb_ruby/wiki
开发原理
https://blog.jcole.us/2013/01/10/btree-index-structures-in-innodb/

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