Vagrant基础简要记录

简介: Vagrant是一种开源软件,它为跨众多操作系统构建可重复的开发环境提供了一种方法。Vagrant使用提供者(provider)来启动隔离的虚拟环境。默认的提供者是Virtualbox   Vagrant ( http://www.

Vagrant是一种开源软件,它为跨众多操作系统构建可重复的开发环境提供了一种方法。Vagrant使用提供者(provider)来启动隔离的虚拟环境。默认的提供者是Virtualbox

 

Vagrant ( http://www.vagrantup.com/ ) is a powerful development tool, which

lets you manage and support the virtualization of your development environment.

Instead of running all your projects locally on your own computer, having to juggle

the different requirements and dependencies of each project, Vagrant lets you run

each project in its own dedicated virtual environment.

Vagrant uses Providers to integrate with the third-party virtualization software,

which provides the virtualized machines for our development environment. The

default provider is for Oracle's VirtualBox however, there are providers to work

with Amazon Web Services and VMware Fusion. The entire configuration is stored

in simple plain text files. The Vagrant configuration (Vagrantfile), Puppet, and Chef

manifests are simply written in text files in a Ruby Domain Specific Language. This

means we can easily share the configurations and projects with colleagues, using

Version Control Systems such as Git or Subversion.

 

Docker vs Vagrant

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/16647069/should-i-use-vagrant-or-docker-for-creating-an-isolated-environment

http://ju.outofmemory.cn/entry/52470

vagrant可以帮助用户管理/部署虚拟机的程序。docker是一个帮助用户创建/运行/管理基于lxclinux container的程序。coreos是一个专门为运行linux container而设计的发行版。

安装和使用

https://atlas.hashicorp.com/boxes/search

https://docs.vagrantup.com/v2/providers/ VMWare和Virtualbox等各种提供者

 

Vagrant can be installed on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X, and although it

uses Ruby, the package includes an embedded Ruby interpreter. The only other

requirement is a virtualization tool such as Oracle's VirtualBox. The Oracle's

VirtualBox provider is available for free, and is included built-in with Vagrant

https://www.virtualbox.org/

http://downloads.vagrantup.com

Each virtual machine starts with what Vagrant calls a base box. This is a specially

packaged version of an operating system with some specific configurations in

place. The number of configurations and packages installed on this packaged

operating system is typically minimal (containing only a few tools which allow it

to communicate with Vagrant).

初始化

Ubuntu的几个box

Ubuntu10

•  Lucid32 is available at  http://files.vagrantup.com/lucid32.box

•  Lucid64 is available at  http://files.vagrantup.com/lucid64.box

Ubuntu12

•  Precise32 is available at  http://files.vagrantup.com/precise32.box

•  Precise64 is available at  http://files.vagrantup.com/precise64.box

Ubutnu14

vagrant init ubuntu/trusty64; vagrant up --provider virtualbox

 

vagrant init precise64 http://files.vagrantup.com/precise64.box

Vagrantfile生成[ruby]

vagrant init base64

vagrant init

vagrant box add <name> <url> [--provider provider] [--force]

Powering up

 vagrant up

Vagrant will then perform the following:

•  Copy the base box

•  Create a new virtual machine with the relevant provider (the default

being VirtualBox)

•  Forward any configured ports; by default, it will forward port 22 (SSH) on

the VM to port 2222 on the host; this will allow us to connect to the VM

•  Boot (power up) the VM

•  Configure and enable networking, so that we can communicate with the VM

•  Map shared folders between the host and the guest (by default, it will map

the folder containing the Vagrant project to  /vagrant on the guest machine)

•  Run any provisioning tools that are set up such as Puppet, Chef, or

SSH provisioning

 

vagrant suspend

vagrant resume

vagrant halt

vagrant destroy

 

 

 vagrant ssh

HOST机器共享

Port forwarding

Vagrantfile 文件中进行端口映射

config.vm.network :forwarded_port, guest: 80, host: 8888

 

Synced folders

config.vm.synced_folder "/Users/michael/assets/" "/var/www/assets"

The first parameter is the path to the folder on our machine, the second being the

mount point on the VM.

 

Networking

config.vm.network :private_network, ip: "192.168.1.100"

 

Auto-running commands

config.vm.provision :shell, :inline => "sudo apt-get update"

config.vm.provision :shell, :path => "provision.sh"  (the location of the

script specified is relative to our project root, that is, /vagrant )

 

Provisioning

Puppet modules

http://docs.puppetlabs.com/references/latest/type.html

http://forge.puppetlabs.com/

puppet apply --modulepath=/home/michael/provision/modules /home/michael/provision/manifests/default.pp

 

独立运行模式

config.vm.provision :puppet do |puppet|

puppet.manifests_path = "provision/manifests"

puppet.manifest_file = "default.pp"

puppet.module_path = "provision/modules"

end

 

client/server模式

config.vm.provision :puppet_server do |puppet|

puppet.puppet_server = "puppet.internal.michaelpeacock.co.uk"

puppet.puppet_node = "vm.internal.michaelpeacock.co.uk"

end

 

SSH

config.vm.provision :shell, :path => "provision/setup.sh"

config.vm.provision :shell, :inline => "apt-get install apache2"

 

vagrant provision 命令可以重新进行provisioning

multiple virtual machines

Vagrantfile的配置

# -*- mode: ruby -*-

# vi: set ft=ruby :

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

config.vm.define :server1 do |server1|

server1.vm.box = "precise64"

server1.vm.network :private_network, ip: "10.11.1.100"

end

config.vm.define :server2 do |server2|

server2.vm.box = "precise64"

server2.vm.network :private_network, ip: "10.11.1.101"

end

end

 

1. Power up the project ( vagrant up )

2. Connect to  server1 ( vagrant ssh server1 )

3. Ping  server2 from  server1 ( ping 10.11.1.101

 

不同的配置

# -*- mode: ruby -*-

# vi: set ft=ruby :

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

config.vm.define :server1 do |server1|

server1.vm.box = "precise64"

server1.vm.network :private_network, ip: "10.11.1.100"

server1.vm.provision :puppet do |puppet|

puppet.manifests_path = "provision/manifests"

puppet.manifest_file = "server1.pp"

puppet.module_path = "provision/modules"

end

end

config.vm.define :server2 do |server2|

server2.vm.box = "precise64"

server2.vm.network :private_network, ip: "10.11.1.101"

server2.vm.provision :puppet do |puppet|

puppet.manifests_path = "provision/manifests"

puppet.manifest_file = "server2.pp"

puppet.module_path = "provision/modules"

end

end

end

 

LAMP

 

|-- provision

| |-- manifests

| | -- init.pp

| -- modules

-- Vagrantfile

根下的Vagrantfile文件内容

# -*- mode: ruby -*-

# vi: set ft=ruby :

 

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

 

  config.vm.provision :shell, :inline => "apt-get update"

 

  config.vm.box = "precise64"

 

  config.vm.network :forwarded_port, guest: 80, host: 8080

 

  config.vm.provision :puppet do |puppet|

    puppet.manifests_path = "provision/manifests"

    puppet.module_path = "provision/modules"

    puppet.manifest_file  = "default.pp"

  end

 

end

 

目录provision下是Puppet使用的各模块的安装和配置文件

 

http://pan.baidu.com/s/1ntKFSVn#path=%252Fshare vagrant_lamp_stack.zip

建立自己的Box

1.安装VirtualBox虚拟机

a) 网络需要设置为NAT

b) 虚拟机名字:vagrant-ubuntu-raring

c) hostname : vagrant-ubuntu-raring

d) Domain:  vagrantup.com

e) Root password:  vagrant

f) Main account username:  vagrant

g) Main account password:  vagrant

h) install  openssh-server

2.Install Guest Additions

a) sudo apt-get install linux-headers-$(uname -r) build-essential

b) sudo mount /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom

c) sudo sh /media/cdrom/VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

3.Vagrant authentication

a) sudo groupadd admin

b) sudo usermod -a -G admin vagrant

4.vi sudo 修改

a) %admin ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL

b) Defaults env_keep="SSH_AUTH_SOCK"

c) #Default requiretty

5.ssh无秘码登陆

a) wget https://raw.github.com/mitchellh/vagrant/master/keys/vagrant.pub o ~/.ssh/authorized_hosts

b) chmod 0644 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

6.Provisioners

a) sudo apt-get install puppet

b) Chef

  1. sudo apt-get install ruby ruby-dev libopenssl-ruby rdoc ri irb build-essential wget ssl-cert curl
  2. cd /tmp
  3. curl -O http://production.cf.rubygems.org/rubygems/rubygems-1.8.10.tgz
  4. tar zxf rubygems-1.8.10.tgz
  5. cd rubygems-1.8.10
  6. sudo ruby setup.rb --no-format-executable
  7. sudo gem install chef --no-ri --no-rdoc

7.Cleanup

a) rm rf /tmp/*

b) sudo apt-get clean

8.Export

a) vagrant package --base vagrant-ubuntu-raring

b) website: http://docs.vagrantup.com/v2/cli/package.html

 

测试自己的box

$vagrant box add /../../my.box

$vagrant init my

$vagrant up

 

如上的过程就可建立自己的box

https://atlas.hashicorp.com/boxes/search 这里有很多开放的box

 

 

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