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PostgreSQL on ECS SLA 流复制备库+秒级快照+PITR+自动清理

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标签

PostgreSQL , ECS , 阿里云 , 部署 , 物理镜像 , 流复制 , 快照备份 , 备份验证 , 自动清理


背景

介绍在阿里云ECS环境中,实现一个非常简单,但是可用性和可靠性满足一般企业要求的PostgreSQL环境。

包括:

1、自动启动数据库

2、包括一个物理流复制备库

3、包括自动的秒级快照备份

4、包括自动备份集有效性验证

5、包括自动清理N天以前的备份集、归档文件

6、监控请自建

部署环境介绍

1、ECS

111.111.111.199 (主)    
    
111.111.111.223 (备)    

2、云盘

400 GB    

3、软件

OS: CentOS 7.4 x64    
    
PostgreSQL: 10.1    
    
ZFS: 0.7.3    

部署流程

双机

1、安装软件

yum -y install coreutils glib2 lrzsz dstat sysstat e4fsprogs xfsprogs ntp readline-devel zlib-devel openssl-devel pam-devel libxml2-devel libxslt-devel python-devel tcl-devel gcc gcc-c++ make smartmontools flex bison perl-devel perl-ExtUtils* openldap-devel jadetex  openjade bzip2    

2、修改内核配置

vi /etc/sysctl.conf    
    
# add by digoal.zhou      
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576      
fs.file-max = 76724600      
        
kernel.sem = 4096 2147483647 2147483646 512000            
kernel.shmall = 107374182            
kernel.shmmax = 274877906944         
kernel.shmmni = 819200               
      
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 10000      
net.core.rmem_default = 262144             
# The default setting of the socket receive buffer in bytes.      
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304                
# The maximum receive socket buffer size in bytes      
net.core.wmem_default = 262144             
# The default setting (in bytes) of the socket send buffer.      
net.core.wmem_max = 4194304                
# The maximum send socket buffer size in bytes.      
net.core.somaxconn = 4096      
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 4096      
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_intvl = 20      
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_probes = 3      
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 60      
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 8388608 12582912 16777216      
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 5      
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2      
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1          
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 1          
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 0          
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1            
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 262144      
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 8192 87380 16777216      
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 8192 65536 16777216      
      
net.nf_conntrack_max = 1200000      
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 1200000      
      
vm.dirty_background_bytes = 204800000             
      
vm.dirty_expire_centisecs = 3000                   
vm.dirty_ratio = 90                                
      
vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs = 50                  
      
vm.swappiness = 0      
      
vm.mmap_min_addr = 65536      
vm.overcommit_memory = 0           
      
vm.overcommit_ratio = 90           
vm.swappiness = 0                  
vm.zone_reclaim_mode = 0           
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 40000 65535          
fs.nr_open=20480000      

3、修改资源限制

# vi /etc/security/limits.conf    
    
* soft    nofile  1024000      
* hard    nofile  1024000      
* soft    nproc   unlimited      
* hard    nproc   unlimited      
* soft    core    unlimited      
* hard    core    unlimited      
* soft    memlock unlimited      
* hard    memlock unlimited     

4、关闭透明大页

chmod +x /etc/rc.d/rc.local      
vi /etc/rc.local      
      
# 追加      
       
if test -f /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled; then      
   echo never > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled      
fi      

5、分配磁盘

parted -s /dev/vdb mklabel gpt    
parted -s /dev/vdb mkpart primary 1MiB 100%    

主机

1、创建文件系统

mkfs.ext4 /dev/vdb1 -m 0 -O extent,uninit_bg -E lazy_itable_init=1 -T largefile -L data01    

2、加载文件系统

mkdir /data01      
    
vi /etc/fstab      
      
LABEL=data01 /data01     ext4        defaults,noatime,nodiratime,nodelalloc,barrier=0,data=writeback    0 0    
    
    
mount -a     

备机

1、安装ZFS

yum install -y http://download.zfsonlinux.org/epel/zfs-release.el7_4.noarch.rpm    
    
yum install -y kernel-devel-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64         
    
    
yum install -y zfs    

2、手动加载zfs模块

/usr/sbin/modprobe zfs    

3、创建zpool和zfs for 数据目录,归档目录

zpool create -o ashift=12 zp1 vdb1    
    
zfs set compression=lz4 zp1        
zfs set canmount=off zp1        
zfs set atime=off zp1        
    
    
zfs create -o mountpoint=/data01 zp1/data01         
zfs create -o mountpoint=/pg_arch zp1/pg_arch        

4、自动加载zpool

vi /etc/rc.local    
    
/usr/sbin/modprobe zfs    
/usr/sbin/zpool import zp1    

双机

1、安装PostgreSQL与EPEL软件 yum 仓库

yum install -y https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm    
    
yum install -y https://download.postgresql.org/pub/repos/yum/10/redhat/rhel-7-x86_64/pgdg-centos10-10-2.noarch.rpm    

2、安装数据库软件与周边软件

yum install -y  postgresql10*  postgis24_10*   pgrouting_10*   osm2pgrouting_10*   plpgsql_check_10*   pgbadger pg_top10* hypopg_10*  citus_10*  cstore_fdw_10*   pg_pathman10* orafce10* pgfincore10* pgbson10*  pgmemcache-10* pldebugger10* plv8_10*  geoip10*  ip4r10*  pg_repack10*  pgsphere10*  plr10*    

3、修改环境变量

su - postgres      
      
vi ~/.bash_profile      
      
export PS1="$USER@`/bin/hostname -s`-> "      
export PGPORT=3433      
export PGDATA=/data01/pg_root$PGPORT      
export LANG=en_US.utf8      
export PGHOME=/usr/pgsql-10      
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$PGHOME/lib:/lib64:/usr/lib64:/usr/local/lib64:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH      
export DATE=`date +"%Y%m%d%H%M"`      
export PATH=$PGHOME/bin:$PATH:.      
export MANPATH=$PGHOME/share/man:$MANPATH      
export PGHOST=$PGDATA      
export PGUSER=postgres      
export PGDATABASE=postgres      
alias rm='rm -i'      
alias ll='ls -lh'      
unalias vi      

主机

1、创建数据目录,修改权限

cd /data01    
mkdir pg_root3433    
mkdir -p pg_arch/pg3433    
    
chown postgres:postgres /data01/*    
ln -s /data01/pg_arch /pg_arch    

备机

1、创建数据目录,修改权限

cd /data01    
mkdir pg_root3433    
chown postgres:postgres /data01/*    
    
cd /pg_arch    
mkdir pg3433    
chown postgres:postgres /pg_arch/pg3433    

主机

1、初始化数据库集群

su - postgres    
initdb -D $PGDATA -U postgres --locale=en_US.UTF8 -E UTF8     

2、修改数据库参数配置

cd $PGDATA    
    
vi postgresql.auto.conf    
    
listen_addresses = '0.0.0.0'      
port = 3433  # 监听端口      
max_connections = 2000  # 最大允许的连接数      
superuser_reserved_connections = 10      
unix_socket_directories = '.'      
unix_socket_permissions = 0700      
tcp_keepalives_idle = 60      
tcp_keepalives_interval = 60      
tcp_keepalives_count = 10      
shared_buffers = 16GB                  # 共享内存,建议设置为系统内存的1/4  .      
maintenance_work_mem = 512MB           # 系统内存超过32G时,建议设置为1GB。超过64GB时,建议设置为2GB。超过128GB时,建议设置为4GB。      
work_mem = 64MB                        # 1/4 主机内存 / 256 (假设256个并发同时使用work_mem)    
wal_buffers = 128MB                    # min( 2047MB, shared_buffers/32 )     
dynamic_shared_memory_type = posix      
vacuum_cost_delay = 0      
bgwriter_delay = 10ms      
bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 500      
bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 5.0      
effective_io_concurrency = 0      
max_worker_processes = 128                     
max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 16        # 建议设置为主机CPU核数的一半。      
max_parallel_workers = 16                   # 看业务AP和TP的比例,以及AP TP时间交错分配。实际情况调整。例如 主机CPU cores-2    
wal_level = replica      
fsync = on      
synchronous_commit = off      
full_page_writes = on                  # 支持原子写超过BLOCK_SIZE的块设备,在对齐后可以关闭。或者支持cow的文件系统可以关闭。    
wal_writer_delay = 10ms      
wal_writer_flush_after = 1MB      
checkpoint_timeout = 30min      
max_wal_size = 32GB                    # shared_buffers*2     
min_wal_size = 8GB                     # max_wal_size/4     
archive_mode = always      
archive_command = '/bin/date'      
hot_standby = on    
max_wal_senders = 10      
max_replication_slots = 10      
wal_receiver_status_interval = 1s      
max_logical_replication_workers = 4      
max_sync_workers_per_subscription = 2      
random_page_cost = 1.2      
parallel_tuple_cost = 0.1      
parallel_setup_cost = 1000.0      
min_parallel_table_scan_size = 8MB      
min_parallel_index_scan_size = 512kB      
effective_cache_size = 32GB                 # 建议设置为主机内存的5/8。         
log_destination = 'csvlog'      
logging_collector = on      
log_directory = 'log'      
log_filename = 'postgresql-%a.log'      
log_truncate_on_rotation = on      
log_rotation_age = 1d      
log_rotation_size = 0      
log_min_duration_statement = 5s      
log_checkpoints = on      
log_connections = on                            # 如果是短连接,并且不需要审计连接日志的话,建议OFF。    
log_disconnections = on                         # 如果是短连接,并且不需要审计连接日志的话,建议OFF。    
log_error_verbosity = verbose      
log_line_prefix = '%m [%p] '      
log_lock_waits = on      
log_statement = 'ddl'      
log_timezone = 'PRC'      
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0       
autovacuum_max_workers = 5      
autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.1      
autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.05      
autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 1000000000      
autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 1200000000      
autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 0      
statement_timeout = 0                                # 单位ms, s, min, h, d.  表示语句的超时时间,0表示不限制。      
lock_timeout = 0                                     # 单位ms, s, min, h, d.  表示锁等待的超时时间,0表示不限制。      
idle_in_transaction_session_timeout = 2h             # 单位ms, s, min, h, d.  表示空闲事务的超时时间,0表示不限制。      
vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000      
vacuum_freeze_table_age = 800000000      
vacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age = 50000000      
vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 800000000      
datestyle = 'iso, ymd'      
timezone = 'PRC'      
lc_messages = 'en_US.UTF8'      
lc_monetary = 'en_US.UTF8'      
lc_numeric = 'en_US.UTF8'      
lc_time = 'en_US.UTF8'      
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.simple'      
shared_preload_libraries='pg_stat_statements,pg_pathman'      

2、修改备库将用到的自动流复制参数文件

cp $PGHOME/share/recovery.conf.sample ./    
mv recovery.conf.sample recovery.done    
    
vi recovery.done    
    
recovery_target_timeline = 'latest'    
standby_mode = on    
primary_conninfo = 'host=111.111.111.223 port=3433 user=rep password=xxxxxxxxxx'    
restore_command = 'BASEDIR="/pg_arch/pg3433" ; find $BASEDIR -name %f -exec cp {} %p \\;'     

3、修改数据库认证权限访问控制ACL, pg_hba.conf

vi pg_hba.conf    
host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5    
host replication rep 0.0.0.0/0 md5    

4、启动数据库

pg_ctl start    

5、创建流复制,数据库角色

psql -n    
    
create role rep replication login encrypted password 'xxxxxxxxxx';    

备机

1、创建备库

su - postgres    
pg_basebackup -D $PGDATA -F p -h 111.111.111.199 -p 3433 -U rep     

2、修改数据库配置

cd $PGDATA    
vi postgresql.auto.conf    
    
archive_command = 'DT="/pg_arch/pg3433/`date +%F`" ; test ! -d $DT && mkdir -p $DT ; test ! -f $DT/%f && cp %p $DT/%f'    

3、配置备库的自动同步参数文件

mv recovery.done recovery.conf    
    
vi recovery.conf    
    
primary_conninfo = 'host=111.111.111.199 port=3433 user=rep password=xxxxxxxxxx'    

5、修改数据目录权限

su - root    
chmod 700 /data01/pg_root3433    

双机

1、系统启动时,自动启动数据库

vi /etc/rc.local      
      
# 追加      
      
su - postgres -c "pg_ctl start"      

2、重启ECS验证

reboot      
      
su - postgres      
      
psql      
      
postgres=# show max_connections ;      
 max_connections       
-----------------      
 2000      
(1 row)      

备机

1、配置自动备份(快照备份)

su - root    
    
mkdir script    
    
vi /root/script/zfs_snap.sh        
    
#!/bin/bash       
    
date +%F%T    
# 自动创建、清理快照    
/sbin/zfs snapshot zp1/data01@`date +%Y%m%d`        
/sbin/zfs destroy zp1/data01@`date +%Y%m%d -d '-10 day'`        
/sbin/zfs list -t snapshot     
    
# 自动清理归档    
rm -rf /pg_arch/pg3433/`date +%F -d '-11 day'`    
    
date +%F%T    

2、设置脚本权限

chmod 500 /root/script/zfs_snap.sh        

3、设置自动备份任务,每天备份一次

# crontab -e        
1 8 * * * /root/script/zfs_snap.sh >> /root/zfs_snap.log 2>&1     

自动恢复验证

备机

1、创建备份验证用到的配置文件,修改端口号,关闭归档。

su - root    
    
mkdir /root/test_recovery    
    
vi /root/test_recovery/postgresql.auto.conf     
    
# Do not edit this file manually!    
# It will be overwritten by the ALTER SYSTEM command.    
listen_addresses = '0.0.0.0'      
port = 11111  # 监听端口      
max_connections = 2000  # 最大允许的连接数      
superuser_reserved_connections = 10      
unix_socket_directories = '.'      
unix_socket_permissions = 0700      
tcp_keepalives_idle = 60      
tcp_keepalives_interval = 60      
tcp_keepalives_count = 10      
shared_buffers = 16GB                  # 共享内存,建议设置为系统内存的1/4  .      
maintenance_work_mem = 512MB           # 系统内存超过32G时,建议设置为1GB。超过64GB时,建议设置为2GB。超过128GB时,建议设置为4GB。      
work_mem = 64MB                        # 1/4 主机内存 / 256 (假设256个并发同时使用work_mem)    
wal_buffers = 128MB                    # min( 2047MB, shared_buffers/32 )     
dynamic_shared_memory_type = posix      
vacuum_cost_delay = 0      
bgwriter_delay = 10ms      
bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 500      
bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 5.0      
effective_io_concurrency = 0      
max_worker_processes = 128                     
max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 16        # 建议设置为主机CPU核数的一半。      
max_parallel_workers = 16                   # 看业务AP和TP的比例,以及AP TP时间交错分配。实际情况调整。例如 主机CPU cores-2    
wal_level = replica      
fsync = on      
synchronous_commit = off      
full_page_writes = on                  # 支持原子写超过BLOCK_SIZE的块设备,在对齐后可以关闭。或者支持cow的文件系统可以关闭。    
wal_writer_delay = 10ms      
wal_writer_flush_after = 1MB      
checkpoint_timeout = 30min      
max_wal_size = 32GB                    # shared_buffers*2     
min_wal_size = 8GB                     # max_wal_size/4     
archive_mode = off     
archive_command = 'DT="/pg_arch/pg3433/`date +%F`" ; test ! -d $DT && mkdir -p $DT ; test ! -f $DT/%f && cp %p $DT/%f'      
hot_standby = on    
max_wal_senders = 10      
max_replication_slots = 10      
wal_receiver_status_interval = 1s      
max_logical_replication_workers = 4      
max_sync_workers_per_subscription = 2      
random_page_cost = 1.2      
parallel_tuple_cost = 0.1      
parallel_setup_cost = 1000.0      
min_parallel_table_scan_size = 8MB      
min_parallel_index_scan_size = 512kB      
effective_cache_size = 32GB                 # 建议设置为主机内存的5/8。         
log_destination = 'csvlog'      
logging_collector = on      
log_directory = 'log'      
log_filename = 'postgresql-%a.log'      
log_truncate_on_rotation = on      
log_rotation_age = 1d      
log_rotation_size = 0      
log_min_duration_statement = 5s      
log_checkpoints = on      
log_connections = on                            # 如果是短连接,并且不需要审计连接日志的话,建议OFF。    
log_disconnections = on                         # 如果是短连接,并且不需要审计连接日志的话,建议OFF。    
log_error_verbosity = verbose      
log_line_prefix = '%m [%p] '      
log_lock_waits = on      
log_statement = 'ddl'      
log_timezone = 'PRC'      
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0       
autovacuum_max_workers = 5      
autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.1      
autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.05      
autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 1000000000      
autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 1200000000      
autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 0      
statement_timeout = 0                                # 单位ms, s, min, h, d.  表示语句的超时时间,0表示不限制。      
lock_timeout = 0                                     # 单位ms, s, min, h, d.  表示锁等待的超时时间,0表示不限制。      
idle_in_transaction_session_timeout = 2h             # 单位ms, s, min, h, d.  表示空闲事务的超时时间,0表示不限制。      
vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000      
vacuum_freeze_table_age = 800000000      
vacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age = 50000000      
vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 800000000      
datestyle = 'iso, ymd'      
timezone = 'PRC'      
lc_messages = 'en_US.UTF8'      
lc_monetary = 'en_US.UTF8'      
lc_numeric = 'en_US.UTF8'      
lc_time = 'en_US.UTF8'      
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.simple'      
shared_preload_libraries='pg_stat_statements,pg_pathman'     

2、创建自动恢复脚本,根据昨日快照克隆,并使用克隆恢复,判断是否可正常恢复

vi /root/test_recovery/recovery_test.sh         
    
#!/bin/bash        
         
date +%F%T          
        
. /var/lib/pgsql/.bash_profile       
        
DATE=`date -d '-1 day' +%Y%m%d`        
    
zfs clone -o mountpoint=/test_recovery zp1/data01@$DATE zp1/test_recovery        
        
rm -f /test_recovery/pg_root3433/postgresql.auto.conf         
rm -f /test_recovery/pg_root3433/postmaster.pid        
rm -f /test_recovery/pg_root3433/pg_wal/*        
cp -p /root/test_recovery/postgresql.auto.conf /test_recovery/pg_root3433/postgresql.auto.conf        
        
su - postgres -c "pg_ctl start -D /test_recovery/pg_root3433"        
        
for ((i=1;i<180;i++)) do        
  echo $i        
  sleep 20        
  psql -h 127.0.0.1 -p 11111 postgres postgres -c "select now(),* from pg_database;"        
  ret=$?        
  if [ $ret -eq 0 ]; then        
    break        
  fi        
done        
        
su - postgres -c "pg_ctl stop -w -t 6000 -m immediate -D /test_recovery/pg_root3433"        
sleep 60        
        
zfs destroy zp1/test_recovery      
    
date +%F%T       

3、配置脚本权限

chmod 500 /root/test_recovery/recovery_test.sh     

4、测试自动备份集恢复脚本

/root/test_recovery/recovery_test.sh     
    
2017-11-2923:23:15    
/var/lib/pgsql/.bash_profile: line 24: unalias: vi: not found    
rm: cannot remove ‘/test_recovery/pg_root3433/pg_wal/archive_status’: Is a directory    
/var/lib/pgsql/.bash_profile: line 24: unalias: vi: not found    
waiting for server to start....2017-11-29 23:23:15.879 CST [11051] LOG:  00000: listening on IPv4 address "0.0.0.0", port 11111    
2017-11-29 23:23:15.879 CST [11051] LOCATION:  StreamServerPort, pqcomm.c:593    
2017-11-29 23:23:15.898 CST [11051] LOG:  00000: listening on Unix socket "./.s.PGSQL.11111"    
2017-11-29 23:23:15.898 CST [11051] LOCATION:  StreamServerPort, pqcomm.c:587    
2017-11-29 23:23:16.422 CST [11051] LOG:  00000: redirecting log output to logging collector process    
2017-11-29 23:23:16.422 CST [11051] HINT:  Future log output will appear in directory "log".    
2017-11-29 23:23:16.422 CST [11051] LOCATION:  SysLogger_Start, syslogger.c:634    
 done    
server started    
1    
              now              |  datname  | datdba | encoding | datcollate |  datctype  | datistemplate | datallowconn | datconnlimit | datlastsysoid | datfrozenxid | datminmxid | dattablespace |               datacl                    
-------------------------------+-----------+--------+----------+------------+------------+---------------+--------------+--------------+---------------+--------------+------------+---------------+-------------------------------------    
 2017-11-29 23:23:36.572934+08 | postgres  |     10 |        6 | en_US.UTF8 | en_US.UTF8 | f             | t            |           -1 |         13805 |          548 |          1 |          1663 |     
 2017-11-29 23:23:36.572934+08 | template1 |     10 |        6 | en_US.UTF8 | en_US.UTF8 | t             | t            |           -1 |         13805 |          548 |          1 |          1663 | {=c/postgres,postgres=CTc/postgres}    
 2017-11-29 23:23:36.572934+08 | template0 |     10 |        6 | en_US.UTF8 | en_US.UTF8 | t             | f            |           -1 |         13805 |          548 |          1 |          1663 | {=c/postgres,postgres=CTc/postgres}    
(3 rows)    
    
/var/lib/pgsql/.bash_profile: line 24: unalias: vi: not found    
waiting for server to shut down.... done    
server stopped    

其他

1、查看已有备份集

# zfs list -t snapshot    
NAME                  USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT    
zp1/data01@20171129     0B      -  12.6M  -    
zp1/data01@20171128     0B      -  12.6M  -    

2、主动删除备份集

# zfs destroy zp1/data01@20171128    

3、根据已有快照克隆zfs

# zfs clone -o mountpoint=/test_recovery zp1/data01@20171128 zp1/test_recovery     

4、删除克隆ZFS

# zfs destroy zp1/test_recovery     

5、检查主备时间延迟

postgres=# select * from pg_stat_replication ;    
-[ RECORD 1 ]----+------------------------------    
pid              | 11697    
usesysid         | 16384    
usename          | rep    
application_name | walreceiver    
client_addr      | 111.111.111.223    
client_hostname  |     
client_port      | 53622    
backend_start    | 2017-11-29 22:46:17.806483+08    
backend_xmin     |     
state            | streaming    
sent_lsn         | 0/E06B9A30    
write_lsn        | 0/E06B9A30    
flush_lsn        | 0/E06B9A30    
replay_lsn       | 0/E06B9A30    
write_lag        |     
flush_lag        |     
replay_lag       |     
sync_priority    | 0    
sync_state       | async    

6、检查主备LSN延迟

postgres=# select *, pg_size_pretty(pg_wal_lsn_diff(pg_current_wal_insert_lsn(), sent_lsn)) as sent_delay, pg_size_pretty(pg_wal_lsn_diff(pg_current_wal_insert_lsn(), replay_lsn)) as replay_delay from pg_stat_replication ;    
-[ RECORD 1 ]----+------------------------------    
pid              | 11697    
usesysid         | 16384    
usename          | rep    
application_name | walreceiver    
client_addr      | 111.111.111.223    
client_hostname  |     
client_port      | 53622    
backend_start    | 2017-11-29 22:46:17.806483+08    
backend_xmin     |     
state            | streaming    
sent_lsn         | 1/39D5C000    
write_lsn        | 1/39000000    
flush_lsn        | 1/39000000    
replay_lsn       | 1/37A58718    
write_lag        | 00:00:00.192577    
flush_lag        | 00:00:00.192577    
replay_lag       | 00:00:00.502927    
sync_priority    | 0    
sync_state       | async    
sent_delay       | 9650 kB    
replay_delay     | 44 MB    

7、创建数据库

CREATE DATABASE name  
    [ [ WITH ] [ OWNER [=] user_name ]  
           [ TEMPLATE [=] template ]  
           [ ENCODING [=] encoding ]  
           [ LC_COLLATE [=] lc_collate ]  
           [ LC_CTYPE [=] lc_ctype ]  
           [ TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name ]  
           [ ALLOW_CONNECTIONS [=] allowconn ]  
           [ CONNECTION LIMIT [=] connlimit ]  
           [ IS_TEMPLATE [=] istemplate ] ]  

8、创建数据库模板

Command:     ALTER DATABASE  
Description: change a database  
Syntax:  
ALTER DATABASE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]  
  
where option can be:  
  
    ALLOW_CONNECTIONS allowconn  
    CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit  
    IS_TEMPLATE istemplate  
  
ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO new_name  
  
ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO { new_owner | CURRENT_USER | SESSION_USER }  
  
ALTER DATABASE name SET TABLESPACE new_tablespace  
  
ALTER DATABASE name SET configuration_parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }  
ALTER DATABASE name SET configuration_parameter FROM CURRENT  
ALTER DATABASE name RESET configuration_parameter  
ALTER DATABASE name RESET ALL  
  
postgres=# alter database postgres is_template true;  
ALTER DATABASE  

9、从模板克隆数据库

create database newdb with template template_db;  

8、创建用户

Command:     CREATE ROLE  
Description: define a new database role  
Syntax:  
CREATE ROLE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]  
  
where option can be:  
  
      SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER  
    | CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB  
    | CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE  
    | INHERIT | NOINHERIT  
    | LOGIN | NOLOGIN  
    | REPLICATION | NOREPLICATION  
    | BYPASSRLS | NOBYPASSRLS  
    | CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit  
    | [ ENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'  
    | VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'  
    | IN ROLE role_name [, ...]  
    | IN GROUP role_name [, ...]  
    | ROLE role_name [, ...]  
    | ADMIN role_name [, ...]  
    | USER role_name [, ...]  
    | SYSID uid  

9、创建schema

Command:     CREATE SCHEMA  
Description: define a new schema  
Syntax:  
CREATE SCHEMA schema_name [ AUTHORIZATION role_specification ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]  
CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION role_specification [ schema_element [ ... ] ]  
CREATE SCHEMA IF NOT EXISTS schema_name [ AUTHORIZATION role_specification ]  
CREATE SCHEMA IF NOT EXISTS AUTHORIZATION role_specification  
  
where role_specification can be:  
  
    user_name  
  | CURRENT_USER  
  | SESSION_USER  

10、配置用户权限

Command:     GRANT  
Description: define access privileges  
Syntax:  
GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | TRUNCATE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }  
    [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }  
    ON { [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]  
         | ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] }  
    TO role_specification [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]  
  
......  

11、配置库级别参数

Command:     ALTER DATABASE  
Description: change a database  
Syntax:  
ALTER DATABASE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]  
  
where option can be:  
  
    ALLOW_CONNECTIONS allowconn  
    CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit  
    IS_TEMPLATE istemplate  
  
ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO new_name  
  
ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO { new_owner | CURRENT_USER | SESSION_USER }  
  
ALTER DATABASE name SET TABLESPACE new_tablespace  
  
ALTER DATABASE name SET configuration_parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }  
ALTER DATABASE name SET configuration_parameter FROM CURRENT  
ALTER DATABASE name RESET configuration_parameter  
ALTER DATABASE name RESET ALL  

12、配置用户级别参数

Command:     ALTER ROLE  
Description: change a database role  
Syntax:  
ALTER ROLE role_specification [ WITH ] option [ ... ]  
  
where option can be:  
  
      SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER  
    | CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB  
    | CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE  
    | INHERIT | NOINHERIT  
    | LOGIN | NOLOGIN  
    | REPLICATION | NOREPLICATION  
    | BYPASSRLS | NOBYPASSRLS  
    | CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit  
    | [ ENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'  
    | VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'  
  
ALTER ROLE name RENAME TO new_name  
  
ALTER ROLE { role_specification | ALL } [ IN DATABASE database_name ] SET configuration_parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }  
ALTER ROLE { role_specification | ALL } [ IN DATABASE database_name ] SET configuration_parameter FROM CURRENT  
ALTER ROLE { role_specification | ALL } [ IN DATABASE database_name ] RESET configuration_parameter  
ALTER ROLE { role_specification | ALL } [ IN DATABASE database_name ] RESET ALL  
  
where role_specification can be:  
  
    role_name  
  | CURRENT_USER  
  | SESSION_USER  

13、配置函数级别参数

Command:     ALTER FUNCTION  
Description: change the definition of a function  
Syntax:  
ALTER FUNCTION name [ ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) ]  
    action [ ... ] [ RESTRICT ]  
ALTER FUNCTION name [ ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) ]  
    RENAME TO new_name  
ALTER FUNCTION name [ ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) ]  
    OWNER TO { new_owner | CURRENT_USER | SESSION_USER }  
ALTER FUNCTION name [ ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) ]  
    SET SCHEMA new_schema  
ALTER FUNCTION name [ ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) ]  
    DEPENDS ON EXTENSION extension_name  
  
where action is one of:  
  
    CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT  
    IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE | [ NOT ] LEAKPROOF  
    [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER  
    PARALLEL { UNSAFE | RESTRICTED | SAFE }  
    COST execution_cost  
    ROWS result_rows  
    SET configuration_parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }  
    SET configuration_parameter FROM CURRENT  
    RESET configuration_parameter  
    RESET ALL  

14、配置表级别参数

Command:     ALTER TABLE  
Description: change the definition of a table  
Syntax:  
ALTER TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] [ ONLY ] name [ * ]  
    action [, ... ]  
ALTER TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] [ ONLY ] name [ * ]  
    RENAME [ COLUMN ] column_name TO new_column_name  
ALTER TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] [ ONLY ] name [ * ]  
    RENAME CONSTRAINT constraint_name TO new_constraint_name  
ALTER TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] name  
    RENAME TO new_name  
ALTER TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] name  
    SET SCHEMA new_schema  
ALTER TABLE ALL IN TABLESPACE name [ OWNED BY role_name [, ... ] ]  
    SET TABLESPACE new_tablespace [ NOWAIT ]  
ALTER TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] name  
    ATTACH PARTITION partition_name FOR VALUES partition_bound_spec  
ALTER TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] name  
    DETACH PARTITION partition_name  
  
where action is one of:  
  
    ADD [ COLUMN ] [ IF NOT EXISTS ] column_name data_type [ COLLATE collation ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]  
    DROP [ COLUMN ] [ IF EXISTS ] column_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name [ SET DATA ] TYPE data_type [ COLLATE collation ] [ USING expression ]  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name SET DEFAULT expression  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name DROP DEFAULT  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name { SET | DROP } NOT NULL  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name ADD GENERATED { ALWAYS | BY DEFAULT } AS IDENTITY [ ( sequence_options ) ]  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name { SET GENERATED { ALWAYS | BY DEFAULT } | SET sequence_option | RESTART [ [ WITH ] restart ] } [...]  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name DROP IDENTITY [ IF EXISTS ]  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name SET STATISTICS integer  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name SET ( attribute_option = value [, ... ] )  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name RESET ( attribute_option [, ... ] )  
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] column_name SET STORAGE { PLAIN | EXTERNAL | EXTENDED | MAIN }  
    ADD table_constraint [ NOT VALID ]  
    ADD table_constraint_using_index  
    ALTER CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]  
    VALIDATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name  
    DROP CONSTRAINT [ IF EXISTS ]  constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]  
    DISABLE TRIGGER [ trigger_name | ALL | USER ]  
    ENABLE TRIGGER [ trigger_name | ALL | USER ]  
    ENABLE REPLICA TRIGGER trigger_name  
    ENABLE ALWAYS TRIGGER trigger_name  
    DISABLE RULE rewrite_rule_name  
    ENABLE RULE rewrite_rule_name  
    ENABLE REPLICA RULE rewrite_rule_name  
    ENABLE ALWAYS RULE rewrite_rule_name  
    DISABLE ROW LEVEL SECURITY  
    ENABLE ROW LEVEL SECURITY  
    FORCE ROW LEVEL SECURITY  
    NO FORCE ROW LEVEL SECURITY  
    CLUSTER ON index_name  
    SET WITHOUT CLUSTER  
    SET WITH OIDS  
    SET WITHOUT OIDS  
    SET TABLESPACE new_tablespace  
    SET { LOGGED | UNLOGGED }  
    SET ( storage_parameter = value [, ... ] )  
    RESET ( storage_parameter [, ... ] )  
    INHERIT parent_table  
    NO INHERIT parent_table  
    OF type_name  
    NOT OF  
    OWNER TO { new_owner | CURRENT_USER | SESSION_USER }  
    REPLICA IDENTITY { DEFAULT | USING INDEX index_name | FULL | NOTHING }  
  
and table_constraint_using_index is:  
  
    [ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]  
    { UNIQUE | PRIMARY KEY } USING INDEX index_name  
    [ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]  

15、配置认证ACL

vi $PGDATA/pg_hba.conf  
  
# local      DATABASE  USER  METHOD  [OPTIONS]  
# host       DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]  
# hostssl    DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]  
# hostnossl  DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]  
# TYPE  DATABASE        USER            ADDRESS                 METHOD  
  
# "local" is for Unix domain socket connections only  
local   all             all                                     trust  
# IPv4 local connections:  
host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            trust  
# IPv6 local connections:  
host    all             all             ::1/128                 trust  
# Allow replication connections from localhost, by a user with the  
# replication privilege.  
local   replication     all                                     trust  
host    replication     all             127.0.0.1/32            trust  
host    replication     all             ::1/128                 trust  
host all super_user 0.0.0.0/0 reject  
host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5  
  
pg_ctl reload  

16、使用psql帮助

postgres=# \h SQL命令,支持TAB补齐  

17、使用psql本地简化命令

postgres=# \?  
General  
  \copyright             show PostgreSQL usage and distribution terms  
  \crosstabview [COLUMNS] execute query and display results in crosstab  
  \errverbose            show most recent error message at maximum verbosity  
  \g [FILE] or ;         execute query (and send results to file or |pipe)  
  \gexec                 execute query, then execute each value in its result  
  \gset [PREFIX]         execute query and store results in psql variables  
  \gx [FILE]             as \g, but forces expanded output mode  
  \q                     quit psql  
  \watch [SEC]           execute query every SEC seconds  
  
Help  
  \? [commands]          show help on backslash commands  
  \? options             show help on psql command-line options  
  \? variables           show help on special variables  
  \h [NAME]              help on syntax of SQL commands, * for all commands  
  
Query Buffer  
  \e [FILE] [LINE]       edit the query buffer (or file) with external editor  
  \ef [FUNCNAME [LINE]]  edit function definition with external editor  
  \ev [VIEWNAME [LINE]]  edit view definition with external editor  
  \p                     show the contents of the query buffer  
  \r                     reset (clear) the query buffer  
  \s [FILE]              display history or save it to file  
  \w FILE                write query buffer to file  
  
Input/Output  
  \copy ...              perform SQL COPY with data stream to the client host  
  \echo [STRING]         write string to standard output  
  \i FILE                execute commands from file  
  \ir FILE               as \i, but relative to location of current script  
  \o [FILE]              send all query results to file or |pipe  
  \qecho [STRING]        write string to query output stream (see \o)  
  
Conditional  
  \if EXPR               begin conditional block  
  \elif EXPR             alternative within current conditional block  
  \else                  final alternative within current conditional block  
  \endif                 end conditional block  
  
Informational  
  (options: S = show system objects, + = additional detail)  
  \d[S+]                 list tables, views, and sequences  
  \d[S+]  NAME           describe table, view, sequence, or index  
  \da[S]  [PATTERN]      list aggregates  
  \dA[+]  [PATTERN]      list access methods  
  \db[+]  [PATTERN]      list tablespaces  
  \dc[S+] [PATTERN]      list conversions  
  \dC[+]  [PATTERN]      list casts  
  \dd[S]  [PATTERN]      show object descriptions not displayed elsewhere  
  \dD[S+] [PATTERN]      list domains  
  \ddp    [PATTERN]      list default privileges  
  \dE[S+] [PATTERN]      list foreign tables  
  \det[+] [PATTERN]      list foreign tables  
  \des[+] [PATTERN]      list foreign servers  
  \deu[+] [PATTERN]      list user mappings  
  \dew[+] [PATTERN]      list foreign-data wrappers  
  \df[antw][S+] [PATRN]  list [only agg/normal/trigger/window] functions  
  \dF[+]  [PATTERN]      list text search configurations  
  \dFd[+] [PATTERN]      list text search dictionaries  
  \dFp[+] [PATTERN]      list text search parsers  
  \dFt[+] [PATTERN]      list text search templates  
  \dg[S+] [PATTERN]      list roles  
  \di[S+] [PATTERN]      list indexes  
  \dl                    list large objects, same as \lo_list  
  \dL[S+] [PATTERN]      list procedural languages  
  \dm[S+] [PATTERN]      list materialized views  
  \dn[S+] [PATTERN]      list schemas  
  \do[S]  [PATTERN]      list operators  
  \dO[S+] [PATTERN]      list collations  
  \dp     [PATTERN]      list table, view, and sequence access privileges  
  \drds [PATRN1 [PATRN2]] list per-database role settings  
  \dRp[+] [PATTERN]      list replication publications  
  \dRs[+] [PATTERN]      list replication subscriptions  
  \ds[S+] [PATTERN]      list sequences  
  \dt[S+] [PATTERN]      list tables  
  \dT[S+] [PATTERN]      list data types  
  \du[S+] [PATTERN]      list roles  
  \dv[S+] [PATTERN]      list views  
  \dx[+]  [PATTERN]      list extensions  
  \dy     [PATTERN]      list event triggers  
  \l[+]   [PATTERN]      list databases  
  \sf[+]  FUNCNAME       show a function's definition  
  \sv[+]  VIEWNAME       show a view's definition  
  \z      [PATTERN]      same as \dp  
  
Formatting  
  \a                     toggle between unaligned and aligned output mode  
  \C [STRING]            set table title, or unset if none  
  \f [STRING]            show or set field separator for unaligned query output  
  \H                     toggle HTML output mode (currently off)  
  \pset [NAME [VALUE]]   set table output option  
                         (NAME := {border|columns|expanded|fieldsep|fieldsep_zero|  
                         footer|format|linestyle|null|numericlocale|pager|  
                         pager_min_lines|recordsep|recordsep_zero|tableattr|title|  
                         tuples_only|unicode_border_linestyle|  
                         unicode_column_linestyle|unicode_header_linestyle})  
  \t [on|off]            show only rows (currently off)  
  \T [STRING]            set HTML <table> tag attributes, or unset if none  
  \x [on|off|auto]       toggle expanded output (currently off)  
  
Connection  
  \c[onnect] {[DBNAME|- USER|- HOST|- PORT|-] | conninfo}  
                         connect to new database (currently "postgres")  
  \conninfo              display information about current connection  
  \encoding [ENCODING]   show or set client encoding  
  \password [USERNAME]   securely change the password for a user  
  
Operating System  
  \cd [DIR]              change the current working directory  
  \setenv NAME [VALUE]   set or unset environment variable  
  \timing [on|off]       toggle timing of commands (currently off)  
  \! [COMMAND]           execute command in shell or start interactive shell  
  
Variables  
  \prompt [TEXT] NAME    prompt user to set internal variable  
  \set [NAME [VALUE]]    set internal variable, or list all if no parameters  
  \unset NAME            unset (delete) internal variable  
  
Large Objects  
  \lo_export LOBOID FILE  
  \lo_import FILE [COMMENT]  
  \lo_list  
  \lo_unlink LOBOID      large object operations  

18、使用pg_stat_statements查看TOP SQL

create extension pg_stat_statements;  
  
select query,calls,total_time,total_time/calls from pg_stat_statements order by total_time desc limit 10;  

19、查看膨胀对象

[《PostgreSQL、Greenplum 日常监控 和 维护任务 - 最佳实践》](../201709/20170913_01.md)    

20、查看锁等待

[《PostgreSQL 锁等待监控 珍藏级SQL - 谁堵塞了谁》](../201705/20170521_01.md)    

21、查看错误日志

cd $PGDATA/log  
  
see it  

22、查看慢SQL、长事务、长2PC事务

select * from pg_stat_activity where now()-xact_start > interval '10s' or now()-query_start > interval '10s';  
  
select * from pg_prepared_xacts ;  

23、查看活跃连接

select count(*) from pg_stat_activity where query <>'IDLE';  

24、查看有多少数据库

select * from pg_database;  

25、查看有多少schema

select * from pg_namespace ;  

26、查看schema下的对象

\d schema_name.*  

27、修改默认schema搜索路径

set search_path=.............;  

更多请参考PostgreSQL手册。

参考文档

《PostgreSQL 10 + PostGIS + Sharding(pg_pathman) + MySQL(fdw外部表) on ECS 部署指南(适合新用户)》

《PostgreSQL、Greenplum 日常监控 和 维护任务 - 最佳实践》

《PostgreSQL 锁等待监控 珍藏级SQL - 谁堵塞了谁》

《PostgreSQL nagios monitor script (archive, vacuum, age, conn, rollback, standby, lock, xact, seq, index...)》

《PostgreSQL monitor - customize nagios script》

《PostgreSQL monitor - check_postgres usage - 2》

《PostgreSQL monitor - check_postgres usage - 1》

《PostgreSQL monitor - nagios client installation》

《PostgreSQL monitor - nagios server installation》

《PostgreSQL 最佳实践 - 块级增量备份(ZFS篇)验证 - recovery test script for zfs snapshot clone + postgresql stream replication + archive》

《PostgreSQL 最佳实践 - 块级增量备份(ZFS篇)双机HA与块级备份部署》

《PostgreSQL 最佳实践 - 块级增量备份(ZFS篇)单个数据库采用多个zfs卷(如表空间)时如何一致性备份》

《PostgreSQL 最佳实践 - 块级增量备份(ZFS篇)备份集自动校验》

《PostgreSQL 最佳实践 - 块级增量备份(ZFS篇)方案与实战》

《zfs 快照增量恢复 vs PostgreSQL xlog增量恢复 速度》

《zfs 快照增量大小 vs PostgreSQL产生的XLOG大小》

《fast & safe upgrade to PostgreSQL 9.4 use pg_upgrade & zfs》

《PostgreSQL 逻辑结构 和 权限体系 介绍》

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