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Oracle 11gR2 使用RMAN Duplicate复制数据库

简介: Oracle 11gR2 使用RMAN Duplicate复制数据库  作者:吴伟龙 PrudentWoo QQ:286507175    前言:     上周刚做完一个项目,用户要求RAC的数据库能够自动备份到另外一个单节点上,单节点能够正常拿起来就能用。

Oracle 11gR2 使用RMAN Duplicate复制数据库 

作者:吴伟龙 PrudentWoo QQ286507175

   前言:

    上周刚做完一个项目,用户要求RAC的数据库能够自动备份到另外一个单节点上,单节点能够正常拿起来就能用。当时跟他们讨论的是用ADG来做,但通过描述后,用户觉得如果要人工干预的话太麻烦,它不想做任何的人工干预,实现数据自动到这台单机上来,那只是一台备用的数据库,没事的时候可以登录上去看看历史的数据情况。

       这个时候我提出了11g的RMAN Duplicate方案,它可以在线实现异机的在线备份,且无需人工干预,通过网络将数据传输过来后能够自动open备机.

如图:



     RMAN Duplicate 是从Oracle 10g就已经开始有的一个功能;但是在11g的时候进行了很多增强,免去了10g版本下需要人工复制到备机上过来进行恢复的尴尬境地。通过11g的Duplicate可以创建一个完全相同但DBID不同的备机数据库。在11g的RMAN Duplicate中可以通过Active database duplicate和Backup-based duplicate两种方法实现。我们在用户现场采用的是Active Database Duplicate;因为它不用先把目标数据库进行RMAN备份,只需要目标数据库处于归档模式下即可通过网络对数据库进行恢复,且恢复完成后能够自动Open Duplicate Database。这样就正好满足了用户不用人工干预的需求。尤其是对于大数据库特别是TB级别的数据库其优点时非常明显,恢复前不需要进行单独的备份,减少了备份及拷贝备份文件的时间,同时还节省了备份空间。下面我们来进行完整的RAC to Single Instance的Active Database Duplicate操作。

一、环境介绍


 

HostName

DBName

public ip

11gR2

RAC

db01

woo1

192.168.7.51

db02

woo2

192.168.7.52

Duplicate

standby

woo

192.168.7.55



二、开始配置Duplicate Database,步骤如下:
2.1 构建辅助数据库目录结构,配置辅助数据库相关系统参数。

2.2 安装软件并创建数据库。

2.3 开启归档
2.3 创建pfile,并修改 
2.4 
创建辅助数据库实例口令文件
2.5 配置静态监听
2.6 用pfile文件,将辅助数据库启动到nomount状态
2.7 执行RMAN duplicate命令复制数据库
2.8 创建spfile文件

三、构建辅助数据库目录结构,配置辅助数据库相关参数。(简)

/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 502 dba
/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 501 oinstall
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 502 -g oinstall -G dba oracle
mkdir -p /DBSoft/oraInventory
mkdir -p /DBSoft/oracle/product/11.2.4/dbhome_1
chown -R oracle:oinstall /DBSoft
chmod -R 775 /DBSoft
echo "oracle"|passwd --stdin oracle
yum install -y setarch binutils compat-libstdc++-33 compat-libcap1 compat-db compat-libstdc++ compat-gcc elfutils-libelf elfutils-libelf-devel gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-common glibc
-devel libaio libaio-devel libgcc libstdc++ libstdc++-devel make ksh numactl sysstat libXp unixODBC unixODBC-devel udev
cat >> /etc/sysctl.conf <<EOF
kernel.shmall = 4294967296
kernel.sem = 510 65280 510 128
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmmax = 137438953472
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 1048576
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
vm.swappiness = 0
vm.dirty_background_ratio = 3
vm.dirty_ratio = 80
vm.dirty_expire_centisecs = 500
vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs = 100
net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 262144
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4194304
EOF


/sbin/sysctl –p
cat >> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF
oracle          soft    nproc           2047
oracle          hard    nproc           16384
oracle          soft    nofile          65536
oracle          hard    nofile          65536
oracle          soft    memlock         3145728
oracle          hard    memlock         3145728


#signaturelevin
EOF
cat >> /etc/profile <<EOF


if [ \$USER = "oracle" ]; then
    if [ \$SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
                ulimit -p 16384
                ulimit -n 65536
        else
                ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
        fi
fi
EOF


cat >> /home/oracle/.bash_profile <<EOF
export TMP=/tmp
export TMPDIR=\$TMP
export EDIT=vi
alias  vi=vim
export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=$hostname
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=$db_name
export ORACLE_BASE=/DBSoft/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=\$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.4/dbhome_1
export ORACLE_SID=$instance_name
export ORACLE_TERM=xterm
export PATH=/usr/sbin:\$PATH
export PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/bin:\$PATH
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:\$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:\$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
export NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA AL32UTF16
umask 022
EOF


四、安装软件并创建数据库

./runInstaller -silent -debug -force -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/db_install.rsp

dbca -silent -responsefile /home/oracle/database/response/dbca.rsp

五、开启归档

SQL> alter system set log_archive_dest_1=\'location=+FRA001/archive\' scope=spfile sid=\'woo1\';

System altered.
SQL> alter database archivelog;

Database altered.
SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination +FRA001/archive
Oldest online log sequence 978
Next log sequence to archive 979
Current log sequence 979
SQL> alter system switch logfile;
alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> 

System altered.
SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination +FRA001/archive
Oldest online log sequence 980
Next log sequence to archive 981
Current log sequence 981

六、配置静态监听

   RAC节点监听信息如下:

$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
LISTENER =
  (DESCRIPTION_LIST =
    (DESCRIPTION =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = scan.woo.com)(PORT = 1521))
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))
    )
  )
 
SID_LIST_LISTENER =
  (SID_LIST =
     (SID_DESC =
        (GLOBAL_DBNAME = woo.com)
        (ORACLE_HOME = /DBSoft/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
        (SID_NAME = woo)
      )
  )
ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /DBSoft/oracle

单节点监听信息如下:

LISTENER =
  (DESCRIPTION_LIST =
    (DESCRIPTION =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.7.55)(PORT = 1521))
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))
    )
  )
 
SID_LIST_LISTENER =
  (SID_LIST =
     (SID_DESC =
        (GLOBAL_DBNAME = woo.com)
        (ORACLE_HOME = /DBSoft/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
        (SID_NAME = woo)
      )
  )
ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /DBSoft/oracle

配置所有节点tnsname信息如下:

WOO =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = scan.woo.com)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = woo)
    )
  )
 
DUPLICATE =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.7.55)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = woo)
    )
  )

六、启动数据库到nomount状态

SQL> startup nomount
ORA-32004: obsolete or deprecated parameter(s) specified for RDBMS instance
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 954155008 bytes
Fixed Size 1368632 bytes
Variable Size 306187720 bytes
Database Buffers 641728512 bytes
Redo Buffers 4870144 bytes
SQL>exit                           ---------必须退出
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, Oracle Label Security, OLAP, Data Mining,
Oracle Database Vault and Real Application Testing options

七、 在RAC端任意节点通过RMAN连接到目标实例和辅助实例,执行duplicate命令复制数据库:

[oracle@db01 ~]$ rman target sys/oracle@woo auxiliary sys/oracle@standby


Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Wed Jun 3 19:39:00 2015


Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.


connected to target database: WOO (DBID=4218366793)
connected to auxiliary database: WOO (not mounted)


RMAN>
RMAN> duplicate target database to woo from active database nofilenamecheck;


Starting Duplicate Db at 03-JUN-15
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_AUX_DISK_1
channel ORA_AUX_DISK_1: SID=19 device type=DISK


contents of Memory Script:
{
   sql clone "alter system set  db_name = 
 ''WOO'' comment=
 ''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile";
   sql clone "alter system set  db_unique_name = 
 ''WOO'' comment=
 ''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile";
   shutdown clone immediate;
   startup clone force nomount
   backup as copy current controlfile auxiliary format  '/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/control01.ctl';
   restore clone controlfile to  '/DBSoft/oracle/fast_recovery_area/woo/control02.ctl' from 
 '/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/control01.ctl';
   alter clone database mount;
}
executing Memory Script
sql statement: alter system set  db_name =  ''WOO'' comment= ''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile


sql statement: alter system set  db_unique_name =  ''WOO'' comment= ''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile


Oracle instance shut down


Oracle instance started


Total System Global Area     954155008 bytes


Fixed Size                     1368632 bytes
Variable Size                306187720 bytes
Database Buffers             641728512 bytes
Redo Buffers                   4870144 bytes


Starting backup at 03-JUN-15
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=43 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
copying current control file
output file name=/DBSoft/oracle/product/11.2.4/dbhome_1/dbs/snapcf_woo.f tag=TAG20150603T194000 RECID=3 STAMP=881437202
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:08
Finished backup at 03-JUN-15


Starting restore at 03-JUN-15
allocated channel: ORA_AUX_DISK_1
channel ORA_AUX_DISK_1: SID=19 device type=DISK


channel ORA_AUX_DISK_1: copied control file copy
Finished restore at 03-JUN-15


database mounted


contents of Memory Script:
{
   sql clone 'alter database flashback off';
   set newname for datafile  1 to 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/system01.dbf";
   set newname for datafile  2 to 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf";
   set newname for datafile  3 to 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf";
   set newname for datafile  4 to 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf";
   backup as copy reuse
   datafile  1 auxiliary format 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/system01.dbf"   datafile 
 2 auxiliary format 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf"   datafile 
 3 auxiliary format 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf"   datafile 
 4 auxiliary format 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf"   ;
   sql 'alter system archive log current';
}
executing Memory Script


sql statement: alter database flashback off


executing command: SET NEWNAME


executing command: SET NEWNAME


executing command: SET NEWNAME


executing command: SET NEWNAME
Starting backup at 03-JUN-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00001 name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/system01.dbf
output file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/system01.dbf tag=TAG20150603T194019
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:04:47
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00002 name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf
output file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf tag=TAG20150603T194019
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:03:07
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00003 name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf
output file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf tag=TAG20150603T194019
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00004 name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf
output file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf tag=TAG20150603T194019
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 03-JUN-15


sql statement: alter system archive log current


contents of Memory Script:
{
   backup as copy reuse
   archivelog like  "/DBArchive/archive/1_63_878860684.dbf" auxiliary format 
 "/DBArchive2/archive/1_63_878860684.dbf"   ;
   catalog clone archivelog  "/DBArchive2/archive/1_63_878860684.dbf";
   switch clone datafile all;
}
executing Memory Script


Starting backup at 03-JUN-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log copy
input archived log thread=1 sequence=63 RECID=38 STAMP=881437711
output file name=/DBArchive2/archive/1_63_878860684.dbf RECID=0 STAMP=0
channel ORA_DISK_1: archived log copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 03-JUN-15


cataloged archived log
archived log file name=/DBArchive2/archive/1_63_878860684.dbf RECID=38 STAMP=881437696


datafile 1 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=3 STAMP=881437696 file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/system01.dbf
datafile 2 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=4 STAMP=881437696 file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf
datafile 3 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=5 STAMP=881437696 file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf
datafile 4 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=6 STAMP=881437696 file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf


contents of Memory Script:
{
   set until scn  1338740;
   recover
   clone database
    delete archivelog
   ;
}
executing Memory Script


executing command: SET until clause


Starting recover at 03-JUN-15
using channel ORA_AUX_DISK_1


starting media recovery


archived log for thread 1 with sequence 63 is already on disk as file /DBArchive2/archive/1_63_878860684.dbf
archived log file name=/DBArchive2/archive/1_63_878860684.dbf thread=1 sequence=63
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
Finished recover at 03-JUN-15
Oracle instance started


Total System Global Area     954155008 bytes


Fixed Size                     1368632 bytes
Variable Size                306187720 bytes
Database Buffers             641728512 bytes
Redo Buffers                   4870144 bytes


contents of Memory Script:
{
   sql clone "alter system set  db_name = 
 ''WOO'' comment=
 ''Reset to original value by RMAN'' scope=spfile";
   sql clone "alter system reset  db_unique_name scope=spfile";
   shutdown clone immediate;
   startup clone nomount;
}
executing Memory Script


sql statement: alter system set  db_name =  ''WOO'' comment= ''Reset to original value by RMAN'' scope=spfile


sql statement: alter system reset  db_unique_name scope=spfile


Oracle instance shut down


connected to auxiliary database (not started)
Oracle instance started


Total System Global Area     954155008 bytes


Fixed Size                     1368632 bytes
Variable Size                306187720 bytes
Database Buffers             641728512 bytes
Redo Buffers                   4870144 bytes
sql statement: CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE SET DATABASE "WOO" RESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG 
  MAXLOGFILES     16
  MAXLOGMEMBERS      3
  MAXDATAFILES      100
  MAXINSTANCES     8
  MAXLOGHISTORY      292
 LOGFILE
  GROUP   1 ( '/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/redo01.log' ) SIZE 50 M  REUSE,
  GROUP   2 ( '/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/redo02.log' ) SIZE 50 M  REUSE,
  GROUP   3 ( '/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/redo03.log' ) SIZE 50 M  REUSE
 DATAFILE
  '/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/system01.dbf'
 CHARACTER SET WE8MSWIN1252




contents of Memory Script:
{
   set newname for tempfile  1 to 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/temp01.dbf";
   switch clone tempfile all;
   catalog clone datafilecopy  "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf", 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf", 
 "/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf";
   switch clone datafile all;
}
executing Memory Script


executing command: SET NEWNAME


renamed tempfile 1 to /DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/temp01.dbf in control file


cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf RECID=1 STAMP=881437718
cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf RECID=2 STAMP=881437718
cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf RECID=3 STAMP=881437718


datafile 2 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=1 STAMP=881437718 file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf
datafile 3 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=2 STAMP=881437718 file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf
datafile 4 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=3 STAMP=881437718 file name=/DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf


contents of Memory Script:
{
   Alter clone database open resetlogs;
}
executing Memory Script


database opened
Reenabling controlfile options for auxiliary database
Executing: alter database flashback on
Finished Duplicate Db at 03-JUN-15


RMAN>

至此,duplicate已经完成,standby数据库已经起来了。


[oracle@db02 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Wed Jun 3 19:53:02 2015

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle. All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, Oracle Label Security, OLAP, Data Mining,
Oracle Database Vault and Real Application Testing options

SQL> col host_name format a15
SQL> col file_name format a40
SQL> set line 150
SQL> select host_name,instance_name,status from gv$instance;

HOST_NAME INSTANCE_NAME STATUS
--------------- ---------------- ------------
db02 woo OPEN

SQL> select tablespace_name,file_name from dba_data_files;

TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME
------------------------------ ----------------------------------------
SYSTEM /DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/system01.dbf
SYSAUX /DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/sysaux01.dbf
UNDOTBS1 /DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/undotbs01.dbf
USERS /DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf

注意:这里的nofilenamecheck参数需要解释下:

       如果在复制时,位置不同时,我们会用参数db_file_name_convert 对文件位置进行转换。 但是在这个复制示例中我们用的是相同的位置。 所以这里必须加上nofilenamecheck参数。 该参数通知复制操作不必在执行还原操作前确认文件名是不同的。如果没有指定nofilenamecheck参数,rman会给出如下错误:

RMAN-05001: auxiliary filename  /DBSoft/oracle/oradata/woo/users01.dbf conflicts with a file used by the target database




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