无标题自用临时文档.C# | python交互

简介: 无标题自用临时文档.C# | python交互

IronPython的目标是成为Python语言的完全兼容的实现。同时,与CPython不同的单独实现的价值是使用.NET库生态系统。IronPython通过开源.NET概念作为Python实体。现有的Python语法和新的Python库(比如clr)用来做。IronPython代码可用的. NET特性。

载入 .NET 程序集

The smallest unit of distribution of functionality in .NET is an assembly which usually corresponds to a single file with the .dll file extension. The assembly is available either in the installation folder of the application, or in the GAC (Global assembly cache). Assemblies can be loaded by using the methods of the clr module. The following code will load the System.Xml.dll assembly which is part of the standard .NET implementation, and installed in the GAC:

import clr
clr.AddReference("System.Xml")

由IronPython加载的程序集的完整列表在 clr.中可用。参考:

"System.Xml" in [assembly.GetName().Name for assembly in clr.References]

[Out]:

True

所有. NET程序集都有一个唯一的版本号,允许使用给定程序集的特定版本。以下代码将随着. NET 2.0和.NET 3.5加载附带的System.Xml.dll版本:

import clr
clr.AddReference("System.Xml, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089")

You can load assemblies that are neither in the GAC nor in the appbase (typically, the folder of ipy.exe or your host appplication executable) either by using clr.AddReferenceToFileAndPath or by setting sys.path. See clr.AddReference-methods for details.

【注意】

IronPython只知道使用clr之一加载的程序集。add Reference-方法。在加载IronPython之前,可能已经加载了其他程序集,或者通过调用System.Reflection.Assembly.Load,由应用程序的其他部分加载其他程序集,但是IronPython不会意识到这些。

默认加载的程序集

默认情况下,核心程序集(mscorlib.dll和System.dll on .NET Framework / System.Private.CoreLib.dll on .NET Core)由DLR自动加载。这使您能够开始使用这些程序集(IronPython本身依赖于这些程序集),而不必调用clr。add Reference-方法。

使用 .NET 类型

一旦加载了一个程序集,就可以从IronPython代码中访问该程序集包含的命名空间和类型。

导入 .NET 命名空间

.NET命名空间和加载程序集的子命名空间作为Python模块公开:

import System
System #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

[Out]:

<module 'System' (CLS module, ... assemblies loaded)>
System.Collections #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

[Out]:

<module 'Collections' (CLS module, ... assemblies loaded)>

The types in the namespaces are exposed as Python types, and are accessed as attributes of the namespace. The following code accesses the System.Environment class from mscorlib.dll:

import System
System.Environment

[Out]:

<type 'Environment'>

就像普通的Python模块一样,您也可以使用所有其他形式的导入:

from System import Environment
Environment

[Out]:

<type 'Environment'>
from System import *
Environment

[Out]:

<type 'Environment'>

【警告】

使用from <namespace> import *会导致Python内置(内置__的元素)被隐藏.NET类型或子命名空间。具体来说,在执行from System import *后,Exception 将访问System.Exception .NET类型,而不是Python的异常类型。

root namespaces作为模块存储在sys.modules中:

import System
import sys
sys.modules["System"] #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

[Out]:

<module 'System' (CLS module, ... assemblies loaded)>

加载新程序集时,它们可以向现有命名空间模块对象添加属性。

相对于Python模块的导入优先级

import 给予.py文件优先作为导入对象。例如,如果路径中存在一个名为System.py的文件,它将被导入,而不是系统命名空间:

# 在当前的文件夹中创建 System.py 文件
f = open("System.py", "w")
f.write('print "Loading System.py"')
f.close()
# 卸载系统命名空间(如果已加载)
import sys
if sys.modules.has_key("System"):

[Out]:

...     sys.modules.pop("System") #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<module 'System' (CLS module, ... assemblies loaded)>
import System

[Out]:

Loading System.py
System #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

[Out]:

<module 'System' from '...System.py'>

【注意】

务必删除 System.py:

import os
os.remove("System.py")
sys.modules.pop("System") #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

[Out]:

<module 'System' from '...System.py'>
import System
System #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

[Out]:

<module 'System' (CLS module, ... assemblies loaded)>

访问泛型类型

.NET supports generic types which allow the same code to support multiple type parameters which retaining the advantages of types safety. Collection types (like lists, vectors, etc) are the canonical example where generic types are useful. .NET has a number of generic collection types in the System.Collections.Generic namespace.

IronPython exposes generic types as a special type object which supports indexing with type object(s) as the index (or indices):

>>> from System.Collections.Generic import List, Dictionary
>>> int_list = List[int]()
>>> str_float_dict = Dictionary[str, float]()

请注意,可能存在一个非泛型类型以及一个或多个同名的泛型类型[1]。在这种情况下,可以在没有任何索引的情况下使用该名称来访问非泛型类型,并且可以用不同数量的类型来索引该名称,以便用相应数量的类型参数来访问泛型类型。下面的代码访问 System.EventHandlerSystem.EventHandler

>>> from System import EventHandler, EventArgs
>>> EventHandler # this is the combo type object
<types 'EventHandler', 'EventHandler[TEventArgs]'>
>>> # Access the non-generic type
>>> dir(EventHandler) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
['BeginInvoke', 'Clone', 'DynamicInvoke', 'EndInvoke', ...
>>> # Access the generic type with 1 type paramter
>>> dir(EventHandler[EventArgs]) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
['BeginInvoke', 'Call', 'Clone', 'Combine', ...
[1] This refers to the user-friendly name. Under the hoods, the .NET type name includes the number of type parameters:>>> clr.GetClrType(EventHandler[EventArgs]).Name 'EventHandler1’ `

Accessing nested types

嵌套类型作为外部类的属性公开:

>>> from System.Environment import SpecialFolder
>>> SpecialFolder

[Out]:

<type 'SpecialFolder'>

Importing .NET members from a type

.NET类型作为Python类公开。像Python类一样,您通常不能导入的所有属性。使用from <name> import *:

>>> from System.Guid import *

[Out]:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ImportError: no module named Guid

您可以导入特定成员,包括静态成员和实例成员:

>>> from System.Guid import NewGuid, ToByteArray
>>> g = NewGuid()
>>> ToByteArray(g) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Array[Byte](...

请注意,如果导入静态属性,您将在导入执行时导入该值,而不是像您可能错误预期的那样每次使用时都要评估的命名对象:

>>> from System.DateTime import Now
>>> Now #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<System.DateTime object at ...>
>>> # Let's make it even more obvious that "Now" is evaluated only once
>>> a_second_ago = Now
>>> import time
>>> time.sleep(1)
>>> a_second_ago is Now
True
>>> a_second_ago is System.DateTime.Now
False
Importing all .NET members from a static type

Some .NET types only have static methods, and are comparable to namespaces. C# refers to them as static classes , and requires such classes to have only static methods. IronPython allows you to import all the static methods of such static classes. System.Environment is an example of a static class:

>>> from System.Environment import *
>>> Exit is System.Environment.Exit

[Out]:

True

嵌套类型也会被导入:

>>> SpecialFolder is System.Environment.SpecialFolder

[Out]:

True

但是,不会导入属性:

>>> OSVersion

[Out]:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'OSVersion' is not defined

System.Environment.OSVersion #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

`[Out]:`

<System.OperatingSystem object at …>

### [Type-system unification (type and System.Type)](https://ironpython.net/documentation/dotnet/dotnet.html#id40)
.NET represents types using [System.Type](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.type.aspx). However, when you access a .NET type in Python code, you get a Python type object [[2\]](https://ironpython.net/documentation/dotnet/dotnet.html#id5):
```python
>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> isinstance(type(ba), type)

[Out]:

True

这允许一个统一的Python和. NET类型 (Pythonic) 视图。例如,isinstance与.NET类型:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> isinstance(ba, BitArray)
True

如果需要得到系统。的类型实例。NET类型,需要使用clr.GetClrType。反过来也可以使用clr。获取系统对应的类型对象。类型对象。

统一还扩展到其他类型的系统实体,如方法。.NET方法作为方法的实例公开:

>>> type(BitArray.Xor)
<type 'method_descriptor'>
>>> type(ba.Xor)
<type 'builtin_function_or_method'>
[2] Note that the Python type corresponding to a .NET type is a sub-type of type:>>> isinstance(type(ba), type) True >>> type(ba) is type FalseThis is an implementation detail.
Similarity with builtin types

.NET types behave like builtin types (like list), and are immutable. i.e. you cannot add or delete descriptors from .NET types:

>>> del list.append
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
AttributeError: cannot delete attribute 'append' of builtin type 'list'
>>>
>>> import System
>>> del System.DateTime.ToByteArray
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: can't set attributes of built-in/extension type 'DateTime'

Instantiating .NET types

.NET types are exposed as Python classes, and you can do many of the same operations on .NET types as with Python classes. In either cases, you create an instance by calling the type:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5) # Creates a bit array of size 5

IronPython also supports inline initializing of the attributes of the instance. Consider the following two lines:

>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> ba.Length = 10

The above two lines are equivalent to this single line:

>>> ba = BitArray(5, Length = 10)

You can also call the new method to create an instance:

>> ba = BitArray.__new__(BitArray, 5)

Invoking .NET methods

.NET methods are exposed as Python methods. Invoking .NET methods works just like invoking Python methods.

Invoking .NET instance methods

Invoking .NET instance methods works just like invoking methods on a Python object using the attribute notation:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> ba.Set(0, True) # call the Set method
>>> ba[0]
True

IronPython also supports named arguments:

>>> ba.Set(index = 1, value = True)
>>> ba[1]
True

IronPython also supports dict arguments:

>>> args = [2, True] # list of arguments
>>> ba.Set(*args)
>>> ba[2]
True

IronPython also supports keyword arguments:

>>> args = { "index" : 3, "value" : True }
>>> ba.Set(**args)
>>> ba[3]
True

Argument conversions

When the argument type does not exactly match the parameter type expected by the .NET method, IronPython tries to convert the argument. IronPython uses conventional .NET conversion rules like conversion operators , as well as IronPython-specific rules. This snippet shows how arguments are converted when calling the Set(System.Int32, System.Boolean) method:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> ba.Set(0, "hello") # converts the second argument to True.
>>> ba[0]
True
>>> ba.Set(1, None) # converts the second argument to False.
>>> ba[1]
False

See appendix-type-conversion-rules for the detailed conversion rules. Note that some Python types are implemented as .NET types and no conversion is required in such cases. See builtin-type-mapping for the mapping.

Some of the conversions supported are:

Python argument type .NET method parameter type
int System.Int8, System.Int16
float System.Float
tuple with only elements of type T System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable
function, method System.Delegate and any of its sub-classes

方法重载

.NET通过参数数量和参数类型支持 overloading methods 。当IronPython代码调用重载方法时,IronPython会根据传递给该方法的参数的数量和类型以及任何关键字参数的名称,在运行时*尝试选择重载之一。在大多数情况下,会选择预期的重载。当参数类型与某个重载签名完全匹配时,选择重载很容易:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5) # calls __new__(System.Int32)
>>> ba = BitArray(5, True) # calls __new__(System.Int32, System.Boolean)
>>> ba = BitArray(ba) # calls __new__(System.Collections.BitArray)

The argument types do not have be an exact match with the method signature. IronPython will try to convert the arguments if an unamibguous conversion exists to one of the overload signatures. The following code calls new(System.Int32) even though there are two constructors which take one argument, and neither of them accept a float as an argument:

>>> ba = BitArray(5.0)

但是,请注意,如果存在到多个重载的转换,IronPython将引发类型错误:

>>> BitArray((1, 2, 3))
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: Multiple targets could match: BitArray(Array[Byte]), BitArray(Array[bool]), BitArray(Array[int])

如果要控制被调用的确切重载,可以对方法对象使用重载方法:

>>> int_bool_new = BitArray.__new__.Overloads[int, type(True)]
>>> ba = int_bool_new(BitArray, 5, True) # calls __new__(System.Int32, System.Boolean)
>>> ba = int_bool_new(BitArray, 5, "hello") # converts "hello" to a System.Boolan
>>> ba = int_bool_new(BitArray, 5)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: __new__() takes exactly 2 arguments (1 given)

TODO - Example of indexing Overloads with an Array, byref, etc using Type.MakeByrefType

使用未绑定的类实例方法

有时需要使用未绑定的类实例方法调用实例方法,并将显式自身对象作为第一个参数。例如, . NET 允许类声明一个实例方法,该方法与基类型中的方法同名,但不重写基方法。参见System.Reflection.MethodAttributes.NewSlot了解更多信息。在这种情况下,使用未绑定的类实例方法语法可以让您准确地选择要调用哪个槽:

>>> import System
>>> System.ICloneable.Clone("hello") # same as : "hello".Clone()
'hello'

The unbound class instance method syntax results in a virtual call, and calls the most derived implementation of the virtual method slot:

>>> s = "hello"
>>> System.Object.GetHashCode(s) == System.String.GetHashCode(s)
True
>>> from System.Runtime.CompilerServices import RuntimeHelpers
>>> RuntimeHelpers.GetHashCode(s) == System.String.GetHashCode(s)
False

调用 explicitly-implemented 接口方法

.NET允许具有不同名称的方法重写基方法实现或接口方法槽。如果一个类型用同名的方法实现两个接口,这很有用。这就是众所周知的[显式实现的接口方法](http://msdn . Microsoft . com/en-us/library/4 taxa 8t 2 . aspx)。比如微软。Win32.RegistryKey实现系统。IDisposable.Dispose显式:

>>> from Microsoft.Win32 import RegistryKey
>>> clr.GetClrType(RegistryKey).GetMethod("Flush") #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<System.Reflection.RuntimeMethodInfo object at ... [Void Flush()]>
>>> clr.GetClrType(RegistryKey).GetMethod("Dispose")
>>>

在这种情况下,IronPython试图使用它的简单名称来公开这个方法——如果没有歧义的话:

>>> from Microsoft.Win32 import Registry
>>> rkey = Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey("Software")
>>> rkey.Dispose()

However, it is possible that the type has another method with the same name. In that case, the explicitly implemented method is not accessible as an attribute. However, it can still be called by using the unbound class instance method syntax:

>>> rkey = Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey("Software")
>>> System.IDisposable.Dispose(rkey)

Invoking static .NET methods

调用静态.NET方法类似于调用Python静态方法:

>>> System.GC.Collect()

像Python静态方法一样.NET静态方法也可以作为子类型的属性来访问:

>>> System.Object.ReferenceEquals is System.GC.ReferenceEquals

[Out]:

True

TODO What happens if the sub-type has a static method with the same name but a different signature? Are both overloads available or not?

Invoking generic methods

Generic methods are exposed as attributes which can be indexed with type objects. The following code calls System.Activator.CreateInstance

>>> from System import Activator, Guid
>>> guid = Activator.CreateInstance[Guid]()

Type parameter inference while invoking generic methods

In many cases, the type parameter can be inferred based on the arguments passed to the method call. Consider the following use of a generic method [3]:

>>> from System.Collections.Generic import IEnumerable, List
>>> list = List[int]([1, 2, 3])
>>> import clr
>>> clr.AddReference("System.Core")
>>> from System.Linq import Enumerable
>>> Enumerable.Any[int](list, lambda x : x < 2)

[Out]:

True

With generic type parameter inference, the last statement can also be written as:

>>> Enumerable.Any(list, lambda x : x < 2)

[Out]:

True

细则见附录。

[3] System.Core.dll is part of .NET 3.0 and higher.

ref and out parameters

Python语言按值传递所有参数。没有语法指示参数应该像中那样通过引用传递。NET语言如C#和VB.NET通过[ref](http://msdn . Microsoft . com/en-us/library/14 akc2c 7 . aspx)和[out](http://msdn . Microsoft . com/en-us/library/t3c 3 bfhx . aspx)关键字。IronPython支持向方法传递ref或out参数的两种方式,隐式方式和显式方式。

以隐式方式,参数通常被传递给方法调用,并且它的(潜在的)更新值与正常返回值(如果有的话)一起从方法调用返回。这与Python的多返回值特性很好地结合在一起。系统。Collections . Generic.Dictionary有一个方法[bool TryGetValue(K键,out值)](http://msdn . Microsoft . com/en-us/library/bb 347013 . aspx)。只需一个参数就可以从IronPython中调用它,调用返回一个元组,其中第一个元素是布尔值,第二个元素是值(如果第一个元素为False,则默认值为0.0):

>>> d = { "a":100.1, "b":200.2, "c":300.3 }
>>> from System.Collections.Generic import Dictionary
>>> d = Dictionary[str, float](d)
>>> d.TryGetValue("b")

[Out]:

(True, 200.2)

>>> d.TryGetValue("z")

[Out]:

(False, 0.0)

In the explicit way, you can pass an instance of clr.Reference[T] for the ref or out argument, and its Value field will get set by the call. The explicit way is useful if there are multiple overloads with ref parameters:

>>> import clr
>>> r = clr.Reference[float]()
>>> d.TryGetValue("b", r)

[Out]:

True

>>> r.Value

[Out]:

200.2

扩展方法

IronPython目前不支持扩展方法。因此,不能像实例方法一样调用它们。相反,它们必须像静态方法一样被调用。

Accessing .NET indexers

.NET indexers暴露为__getitem____setitem__。因此,Python索引语法可用于索引。NET集合(以及任何带有索引器的类型):

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> ba[0]

[Out]:

False

>>> ba[0] = True
>>> ba[0]

[Out]:

True

The indexer can be called using the unbound class instance method syntax using getitem and setitem. This is useful if the indexer is virtual and is implemented as an explicitly-implemented interface method:

>>> BitArray.__getitem__(ba, 0)

[Out]:

True

Non-default .NET indexers

Note that a default indexer is just a property (typically called Item) with one argument. It is considered as an indexer if the declaraing type uses DefaultMemberAttribute to declare the property as the default member.

See property-with-parameters for information on non-default indexers.

Accessing .NET properties

.NET 属性的公开方式类似于Python属性。在hood下, .NET属性被实现为一对获取和设置属性的方法,IronPython根据您是读取还是写入属性来调用适当的方法:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> ba.Length     # calls "BitArray.get_Length()"
False
5
>>> ba.Length = 10 # calls "BitArray.set_Length()"

为了使用未绑定的类实例方法语法调用get或set方法,IronPython在属性描述符上公开了名为GetValue和SetValue的方法。上面的代码相当于以下代码:

>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> BitArray.Length.GetValue(ba)
5
>>> BitArray.Length.SetValue(ba, 10)

Properties with parameters

COM and VB.NET support properties with paramters. They are also known as non-default indexers. C# does not support declaring or using properties with parameters.

IronPython does support properties with parameters. For example, the default indexer above can also be accessed using the non-default format as such:

>>> ba.Item[0]

Out:

False

Accessing .NET events

.NET events are exposed as objects with iadd and isub methods which allows using += and -= to subscribe and unsubscribe from the event. The following code shows how to subscribe a Python function to an event using +=, and unsubscribe using -=

>>> from System.IO import FileSystemWatcher
>>> watcher = FileSystemWatcher(".")
>>> def callback(sender, event_args):
...     print event_args.ChangeType, event_args.Name
>>> watcher.Created += callback
>>> watcher.EnableRaisingEvents = True
>>> import time
>>> f = open("test.txt", "w+"); time.sleep(1)
Created test.txt
>>> watcher.Created -= callback
>>>
>>> # cleanup
>>> import os
>>> f.close(); os.remove("test.txt")

You can also subscribe using a bound method:

>>> watcher = FileSystemWatcher(".")
>>> class MyClass(object):
...     def callback(self, sender, event_args):
...         print event_args.ChangeType, event_args.Name
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> watcher.Created += o.callback
>>> watcher.EnableRaisingEvents = True
>>> f = open("test.txt", "w+"); time.sleep(1)
Created test.txt
>>> watcher.Created -= o.callback
>>>
>>> # cleanup
>>> f.close(); os.remove("test.txt")

You can also explicitly create a delegate instance to subscribe to the event. Otherwise, IronPython automatically does it for you. [4]:

>>> watcher = FileSystemWatcher(".")
>>> def callback(sender, event_args):
...     print event_args.ChangeType, event_args.Name
>>> from System.IO import FileSystemEventHandler
>>> delegate = FileSystemEventHandler(callback)
>>> watcher.Created += delegate
>>> watcher.EnableRaisingEvents = True
>>> import time
>>> f = open("test.txt", "w+"); time.sleep(1)
Created test.txt
>>> watcher.Created -= delegate
>>>
>>> # cleanup
>>> f.close(); os.remove("test.txt")
[4] The only advantage to creating an explicit delegate is that it is uses less memory. You should consider it if you subscribe to lots of events, and notice excessive System.WeakReference objects.

Special .NET types

.NET arrays

IronPython supports indexing of System.Array with a type object to access one-dimensional strongly-typed arrays:

System.Array[int]

Out:

<type 'Array[int]'>

IronPython also adds a new method that accepts a IList to initialize the array. This allows using a Python list literal to initialize a .NET array:

a = System.Array[int]([1, 2, 3])

Further, IronPython exposes getitem and setitem allowing the array objects to be indexed using the Python indexing syntax:

a[2]

Out:

3

Note that the indexing syntax yields Python semantics. If you index with a negative value, it results in indexing from the end of the array, whereas .NET indexing (demonstrated by calling GetValue below) raises a System.IndexOutOfRangeException exception:

>>> a.GetValue(-1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
IndexError: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
>>> a[-1]
3

Similarly, slicing is also supported:

>>> a[1:3]
Array[int]((2, 3))
Multi-dimensional arrays

TODO

.NET Exceptions

raise can raise both Python exceptions as well as .NET exceptions:

>>> raise ZeroDivisionError()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ZeroDivisionError
>>> import System
>>> raise System.DivideByZeroException()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ZeroDivisionError: Attempted to divide by zero.

The except keyword can catch both Python exceptions as well as .NET exceptions:

>>> try:
...    import System
...    raise System.DivideByZeroException()
... except System.DivideByZeroException:
...    print "This line will get printed..."
...
This line will get printed...
>>>
The underlying .NET exception object

IronPython implements the Python exception mechanism on top of the .NET exception mechanism. This allows Python exception thrown from Python code to be caught by non-Python code, and vice versa. However, Python exception objects need to behave like Python user objects, not builtin types. For example, Python code can set arbitrary attributes on Python exception objects, but not on .NET exception objects:

>>> e = ZeroDivisionError()
>>> e.foo = 1 # this works
>>> e = System.DivideByZeroException()
>>> e.foo = 1
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
AttributeError: 'DivideByZeroException' object has no attribute 'foo'

To support these two different views, IronPython creates a pair of objects, a Python exception object and a .NET exception object, where the Python type and the .NET exception type have a unique one-to-one mapping as defined in the table below. Both objects know about each other. The .NET exception object is the one that actually gets thrown by the IronPython runtime when Python code executes a raise statement. When Python code uses the except keyword to catch the Python exception, the Python exception object is used. However, if the exception is caught by C# (for example) code that called the Python code, then the C# code naturally catches the .NET exception object.

The .NET exception object corresponding to a Python exception object can be accessed by using the clsException attribute (if the module has excecuted import clr):

>>> import clr
>>> try:
...     1/0
... except ZeroDivisionError as e:
...     pass
>>> type(e)
<type 'exceptions.ZeroDivisionError'>
>>> type(e.clsException)
<type 'DivideByZeroException'>

IronPython is also able to access the Python exception object corresponding to a .NET exception object [5], thought this is not exposed to the user [6].

[5] The Python exception object corresponding to a .NET exception object is accessible (to the IronPython runtime) via the System.Exception.Data property. Note that this is an implementation detail and subject to change:>>> e.clsException.Data["PythonExceptionInfo"] #doctest: +ELLIPSIS <IronPython.Runtime.Exceptions.PythonExceptions+ExceptionDataWrapper object at ...>
[6] … except via the DLR Hosting API ScriptEngine.GetService().GetExceptionMessage
Python exception .NET exception
Exception System.Exception
SystemExit IP.O.SystemExit
StopIteration System.InvalidOperationException subtype
StandardError System.SystemException
KeyboardInterrupt IP.O.KeyboardInterruptException
ImportError IP.O.PythonImportError
EnvironmentError IP.O.PythonEnvironmentError
IOError System.IO.IOException
OSError S.R.InteropServices.ExternalException
WindowsError System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception
EOFError System.IO.EndOfStreamException
RuntimeError IP.O.RuntimeException
NotImplementedError System.NotImplementedException
NameError IP.O.NameException
UnboundLocalError IP.O.UnboundLocalException
AttributeError System.MissingMemberException
SyntaxError IP.O.SyntaxErrorException (System.Data has something close)
IndentationError IP.O.IndentationErrorException
TabError IP.O.TabErrorException
TypeError Microsoft.Scripting.ArgumentTypeException
AssertionError IP.O.AssertionException
LookupError IP.O.LookupException
IndexError System.IndexOutOfRangeException
KeyError S.C.G.KeyNotFoundException
ArithmeticError System.ArithmeticException
OverflowError System.OverflowException
ZeroDivisionError System.DivideByZeroException
FloatingPointError IP.O.PythonFloatingPointError
ValueError ArgumentException
UnicodeError IP.O.UnicodeException
UnicodeEncodeError System.Text.EncoderFallbackException
UnicodeDecodeError System.Text.DecoderFallbackException
UnicodeTranslateError IP.O.UnicodeTranslateException
ReferenceError IP.O.ReferenceException
SystemError IP.O.PythonSystemError
MemoryError System.OutOfMemoryException
Warning System.ComponentModel.WarningException
UserWarning IP.O.PythonUserWarning
DeprecationWarning IP.O.PythonDeprecationWarning
PendingDeprecationWarning IP.O.PythonPendingDeprecationWarning
SyntaxWarning IP.O.PythonSyntaxWarning
OverflowWarning IP.O.PythonOverflowWarning
RuntimeWarning IP.O.PythonRuntimeWarning
FutureWarning IP.O.PythonFutureWarning
Revisiting the rescue keyword

Given that raise results in the creation of both a Python exception object and a .NET exception object, and given that rescue can catch both Python exceptions and .NET exceptions, a question arises of which of the exception objects will be used by the rescue keyword. The answer is that it is the type used in the rescue clause. i.e. if the rescue clause uses the Python exception, then the Python exception object will be used. If the rescue clause uses the .NET exception, then the .NET exception object will be used.

The following example shows how 1/0 results in the creation of two objects, and how they are linked to each other. The exception is first caught as a .NET exception. The .NET exception is raised again, but is then caught as a Python exception:

>>> import System
>>> try:
...     try:
...         1/0
...     except System.DivideByZeroException as e1:
...         raise e1
... except ZeroDivisionError as e2:
...     pass
>>> type(e1)
<type 'DivideByZeroException'>
>>> type(e2)
<type 'exceptions.ZeroDivisionError'>
>>> e2.clsException is e1
True
User-defined exceptions

Python user-defined exceptions get mapped to System.Exception. If non-Python code catches a Python user-defined exception, it will be an instance of System.Exception, and will not be able to access the exception details:

>>> # since "Exception" might be System.Exception after "from System import *"
>>> if "Exception" in globals(): del Exception
>>> class MyException(Exception):
...     def __init__(self, value):
...         self.value = value
...     def __str__(self):
...         return repr(self.value)
>>> try:
...     raise MyException("some message")
... except System.Exception as e:
...     pass
>>> clr.GetClrType(type(e)).FullName
'System.Exception'
>>> e.Message
'Python Exception: MyException'

In this case, the non-Python code can use the ScriptEngine.GetService().GetExceptionMessage DLR Hosting API to get the exception message.

Enumerations

.NET enumeration types are sub-types of System.Enum. The enumeration values of an enumeration type are exposed as class attributes:

print System.AttributeTargets.All # access the value "All"

IronPython also supports using the bit-wise operators with the enumeration values:

>>> import System
>>> System.AttributeTargets.Class | System.AttributeTargets.Method
<enum System.AttributeTargets: Class, Method>

Value types

Python expects all mutable values to be represented as a reference type. .NET, on the other hand, introduces the concept of value types which are mostly copied instead of referenced. In particular .NET methods and properties returning a value type will always return a copy.

This can be confusing from a Python programmer’s perspective since a subsequent update to a field of such a value type will occur on the local copy, not within whatever enclosing object originally provided the value type.

While most .NET value types are designed to be immutable, and the .NET design guidelines recommend value tyeps be immutable, this is not enforced by .NET, and so there do exist some .NET valuetype that are mutable. TODO - Example.

For example, take the following C# definitions:

struct Point {
    # Poorly defined struct - structs should be immutable
    public int x;
    public int y;
}
class Line {
    public Point start;
    public Point end;
    public Point Start { get { return start; } }
    public Point End { get { return end; } }
}

If line is an instance of the reference type Line, then a Python programmer may well expect “line.Start.x = 1” to set the x coordinate of the start of that line. In fact the property Start returned a copy of the Point value type and it’s to that copy the update is made:

print line.Start.x    # prints ‘0’
line.Start.x = 1
print line.Start.x    # still prints ‘0’

This behavior is subtle and confusing enough that C# produces a compile-time error if similar code is written (an attempt to modify a field of a value type just returned from a property invocation).

Even worse, when an attempt is made to modify the value type directly via the start field exposed by Line (i.e. “line.start.x = 1”), IronPython will still update a local copy of the Point structure. That’s because Python is structured so that “foo.bar” will always produce a useable value: in the case above “line.start” needs to return a full value type which in turn implies a copy.

C#, on the other hand, interprets the entirety of the “line.start.x = 1” statement and actually yields a value type reference for the “line.start” part which in turn can be used to set the “x” field in place.

This highlights a difference in semantics between the two languages. In Python “line.start.x = 1” and “foo = line.start; foo.x = 1” are semantically equivalent. In C# that is not necessarily so.

So in summary: a Python programmer making updates to a value type embedded in an object will silently have those updates lost where the same syntax would yield the expected semantics in C#. An update to a value type returned from a .NET property will also appear to succeed will updating a local copy and will not cause an error as it does in the C# world. These two issues could easily become the source of subtle, hard to trace bugs within a large application.

In an effort to prevent the unintended update of local value type copies and at the same time preserve as pythonic and consistent a view of the world as possible, direct updates to value type fields are not allowed by IronPython, and raise a ValueError:

>>> line.start.x = 1 #doctest: +SKIP
Traceback (most recent call last):
   File , line 0, in input##7
ValueError Attempt to update field x on value type Point; value type fields can not be directly modified

This renders value types “mostly” immutable; updates are still possible via instance methods on the value type itself.

Proxy types

IronPython cannot directly use System.MarshalByRefObject instances. IronPython uses reflection at runtime to determine how to access an object. However, System.MarshalByRefObject instances do not support reflection.

You can use unbound-class-instance-method syntax to call methods on such proxy objects.

Delegates

Python functions and bound instance methods can be converted to delegates:

>>> from System import EventHandler, EventArgs
>>> def foo(sender, event_args):
...     print event_args
>>> d = EventHandler(foo)
>>> d(None, EventArgs()) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<System.EventArgs object at ... [System.EventArgs]>
Variance

IronPython also allows the signature of the Python function or method to be different (though compatible) with the delegate signature. For example, the Python function can use keyword arguments:

>>> def foo(*args):
...     print args
>>> d = EventHandler(foo)
>>> d(None, EventArgs()) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
(None, <System.EventArgs object at ... [System.EventArgs]>)

If the return type of the delegate is void, IronPython also allows the Python function to return any type of return value, and just ignores the return value:

>>> def foo(*args):
...     return 100 # this return value will get ignored
>>> d = EventHandler(foo)
>>> d(None, EventArgs())

If the return value is different, IronPython will try to convert it:

>>> def foo(str1, str2):
...     return 100.1 # this return value will get converted to an int
>>> d = System.Comparison[str](foo)
>>> d("hello", "there")
100

TODO - Delegates with out/ref parameters

Subclassing .NET types

Sub-classing of .NET types and interfaces is supported using class. .NET types and interfaces can be used as one of the sub-types in the class construct:

>>> class MyClass(System.Attribute, System.ICloneable, System.IComparable):
...     pass

.NET does not support multiple inheritance while Python does. IronPython allows using multiple Python classes as subtypes, and also multiple .NET interfaces, but there can only be one .NET class (other than System.Object) in the set of subtypes:

>>> class MyPythonClass1(object): pass
>>> class MyPythonClass2(object): pass
>>> class MyMixedClass(MyPythonClass1, MyPythonClass2, System.Attribute):
...     pass

Instances of the class do actually inherit from the specified .NET base type. This is important because this means that statically-typed .NET code can access the object using the .NET type. The following snippet uses Reflection to show that the object can be cast to the .NET sub-class:

>>> class MyClass(System.ICloneable):
...     pass
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> import clr
>>> clr.GetClrType(System.ICloneable).IsAssignableFrom(o.GetType())
True

Note that the Python class does not really inherit from the .NET sub-class. See type-mapping.

Overriding methods

Base type methods can be overriden by defining a Python method with the same name:

>>> class MyClass(System.ICloneable):
...    def Clone(self):
...        return MyClass()
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> o.Clone() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<MyClass object at ...>

IronPython does require you to provide implementations of interface methods in the class declaration. The method lookup is done dynamically when the method is accessed. Here we see that AttributeError is raised if the method is not defined:

>>> class MyClass(System.ICloneable): pass
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> o.Clone()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
AttributeError: 'MyClass' object has no attribute 'Clone'

Methods with multiple overloads

Python does not support method overloading. A class can have only one method with a given name. As a result, you cannot override specific method overloads of a .NET sub-type. Instead, you need to use define the function accepting an arbitrary argument list (see _tut-arbitraryargs), and then determine the method overload that was invoked by inspecting the types of the arguments:

>>> import clr
>>> import System
>>> StringComparer = System.Collections.Generic.IEqualityComparer[str]
>>>
>>> class MyComparer(StringComparer):
...     def GetHashCode(self, *args):
...          if len(args) == 0:
...              # Object.GetHashCode() called
...              return 100
...
...          if len(args) == 1 and type(args[0]) == str:
...              # StringComparer.GetHashCode() called
...              return 200
...
...          assert("Should never get here")
...
>>> comparer = MyComparer()
>>> getHashCode1 = clr.GetClrType(System.Object).GetMethod("GetHashCode")
>>> args = System.Array[object](["another string"])
>>> getHashCode2 = clr.GetClrType(StringComparer).GetMethod("GetHashCode")
>>>
>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call to the different overloads
>>> # from another .NET language
>>> getHashCode1.Invoke(comparer, None)
100
>>> getHashCode2.Invoke(comparer, args)
200

Note

Determining the exact overload that was invoked may not be possible, for example, if None is passed in as an argument.

Methods with ref or out parameters

Python does not have syntax for specifying whether a method paramter is passed by-reference since arguments are always passed by-value. When overriding a .NET method with ref or out parameters, the ref or out paramter is received as a clr.Reference[T] instance. The incoming argument value is accessed by reading the Value property, and the resulting value is specified by setting the Value property:

>>> import clr
>>> import System
>>> StrFloatDictionary = System.Collections.Generic.IDictionary[str, float]
>>>
>>> class MyDictionary(StrFloatDictionary):
...     def TryGetValue(self, key, value):
...         if key == "yes":
...             value.Value = 100.1 # set the *out* parameter
...             return True
...         else:
...             value.Value = 0.0  # set the *out* parameter
...             return False
...     # Other methods of IDictionary not overriden for brevity
...
>>> d = MyDictionary()
>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language
>>> tryGetValue = clr.GetClrType(StrFloatDictionary).GetMethod("TryGetValue")
>>> args = System.Array[object](["yes", 0.0])
>>> tryGetValue.Invoke(d, args)
True
>>> args[1]
100.1

Generic methods

When you override a generic method, the type parameters get passed in as arguments. Consider the following generic method declaration:

// csc /t:library /out:convert.dll convert.cs
public interface IMyConvertible {
    T1 Convert<T1, T2>(T2 arg);
}

The following code overrides the generic method Convert:

>>> import clr
>>> clr.AddReference("convert.dll")
>>> import System
>>> import IMyConvertible
>>>
>>> class MyConvertible(IMyConvertible):
...     def Convert(self, t2, T1, T2):
...         return T1(t2)
>>>
>>> o = MyConvertible()
>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language
>>> type_params = System.Array[System.Type]([str, float])
>>> convert = clr.GetClrType(IMyConvertible).GetMethod("Convert")
>>> convert_of_str_float = convert.MakeGenericMethod(type_params)
>>> args = System.Array[object]([100.1])
>>> convert_of_str_float.Invoke(o, args)
'100.1'

Note

Generic method receive information about the method signature being invoked, whereas normal method overloads do not. The reason is that .NET does not allow normal method overloads to differ by the return type, and it is usually possible to determine the argument types based on the argument values. However, with generic methods, one of the type parameters may only be used as the return type. In that case, there is no way to determine the type paramter.

Calling from Python

When you call a method from Python, and the method overrides a .NET method from a base type, the call is performed as a regular Python call. The arguments do not undergo conversion, and neither are they modified in any way like being wrapped with clr.Reference. Thus, the call may need to be written differently than if the method was overriden by another language. For example, trying to call TryGetValue on the MyDictionary type from the overriding-ref-args section as shown below results in a TypeError, whereas a similar call works with System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary[str, float]:

>>> result, value = d.TryGetValue("yes")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: TryGetValue() takes exactly 3 arguments (2 given)

Overriding properties

.NET properties are backed by a pair of .NET methods for reading and writing the property. The C# compiler automatically names them as get_ and set_. However, .NET itself does not require any specific naming pattern for these methods, and the names are stored in the the metadata associated with the property definition. The names can be accessed using the GetGetMethod and GetSetMethods of the System.Reflection.PropertyInfo class:

>>> import clr
>>> import System
>>> StringCollection = System.Collections.Generic.ICollection[str]
>>> prop_info = clr.GetClrType(StringCollection).GetProperty("Count")
>>> prop_info.GetGetMethod().Name
'get_Count'
>>> prop_info.GetSetMethod() # None because this is a read-only property
>>>

Overriding a virtual property requires defining a Python method with the same names as the underlying getter or setter .NET method:

>>>
>>> class MyCollection(StringCollection):
...    def get_Count(self):
...        return 100
...    # Other methods of ICollection not overriden for brevity
>>>
>>> c = MyCollection()
>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language
>>> prop_info.GetGetMethod().Invoke(c, None)
100

Overiding events

Events have underlying methods which can be obtained using EventInfo.GetAddMethod and EventInfo.GetRemoveMethod

>>> from System.ComponentModel import IComponent
>>> import clr
>>> event_info = clr.GetClrType(IComponent).GetEvent("Disposed")
>>> event_info.GetAddMethod().Name
'add_Disposed'
>>> event_info.GetRemoveMethod().Name
'remove_Disposed'

To override events, you need to define methods with the name of the underlying methods:

>>> class MyComponent(IComponent):
...     def __init__(self):
...         self.dispose_handlers = []
...     def Dispose(self):
...         for handler in self.dispose_handlers:
...             handler(self, EventArgs())
...
...     def add_Disposed(self, value):
...         self.dispose_handlers.append(value)
...     def remove_Disposed(self, value):
...         self.dispose_handlers.remove(value)
...     # Other methods of IComponent not implemented for brevity
>>>
>>> c = MyComponent()
>>> def callback(sender, event_args):
...     print event_args
>>> args = System.Array[object]((System.EventHandler(callback),))
>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language
>>> event_info.GetAddMethod().Invoke(c, args)
>>>
>>> c.Dispose() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<System.EventArgs object at ... [System.EventArgs]>

Calling base constructor

.NET constructors can be overloaded. To call a specific base type constructor overload, you need to define a new method (not init) and call new on the .NET base type. The following example shows how a sub-type of System.Exception choses the base constructor overload to call based on the arguments it receives:

>>> import System
>>> class MyException(System.Exception):
...     def __new__(cls, *args):
...        # This could be implemented as:
...        #     return System.Exception.__new__(cls, *args)
...        # but is more verbose just to make a point
...        if len(args) == 0:
...            e = System.Exception.__new__(cls)
...        elif len(args) == 1:
...            message = args[0]
...            e = System.Exception.__new__(cls, message)
...        elif len(args) == 2:
...            message, inner_exception = args
...            if hasattr(inner_exception, "clsException"):
...               inner_exception = inner_exception.clsException
...            e = System.Exception.__new__(cls, message, inner_exception)
...        return e
>>> e = MyException("some message", IOError())

Accessing protected members of base types

Normally, IronPython does not allow access to protected members (unless you are using private-binding). For example, accessing MemberwiseClone causes a TypeError since it is a protected method:

>>> import clr
>>> import System
>>> o = System.Object()
>>> o.MemberwiseClone()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: cannot access protected member MemberwiseClone without a python subclass of object

IronPython does allow Python sub-types to access protected members of .NET base types. However, Python does not enforce any accessibility rules. Also, methods can be added and removed dynamically from a class. Hence, IronPython does not attempt to guard access to protected members of .NET sub-types. Instead, it always makes the protected members available just like public members:

>>> class MyClass(System.Object):
...     pass
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> o.MemberwiseClone() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<MyClass object at ...>

Declaring .NET types

Relationship of classes in Python code and normal .NET types

A class definition in Python does not map directly to a unique .NET type. This is because the semantics of classes is different between Python and .NET. For example, in Python it is possible to change the base types just by assigning to the bases attribute on the type object. However, the same is not possible with .NET types. Hence, IronPython implements Python classes without mapping them directly to .NET types. IronPython does use some .NET type for the objects, but its members do not match the Python attributes at all. Instead, the Python class is stored in a .NET field called .class, and Python instance attributes are stored in a dictionary that is stored in a .NET field called .dict [7]

>>> import clr
>>> class MyClass(object):
...     pass
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> o.GetType().FullName #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'IronPython.NewTypes.System.Object_...'
>>> [field.Name for field in o.GetType().GetFields()]
['.class', '.dict', '.slots_and_weakref']
>>> o.GetType().GetField(".class").GetValue(o) == MyClass
True
>>> class MyClass2(MyClass):
...    pass
>>> o2 = MyClass2()
>>> o.GetType() == o2.GetType()
True

Also see Type-system unification (type and System.Type)

[7] These field names are implementation details, and could change.

clrtype

It is sometimes required to have control over the .NET type generated for the Python class. This is because some .NET APIs expect the user to define a .NET type with certain attributes and members. For example, to define a pinvoke method, the user is required to define a .NET type with a .NET method marked with DllImportAttribute , and where the signature of the .NET method exactly describes the target platform method.

Starting with IronPython 2.6, IronPython supports a low-level hook which allows customization of the .NET type corresponding to a Python class. If the metaclass of a Python class has an attribute called clrtype, the attribute is called to generate a .NET type. This allows the user to control the the details of the generated .NET type. However, this is a low-level hook, and the user is expected to build on top of it.

The ClrType sample available in the IronPython website shows how to build on top of the clrtype hook.

Accessing Python code from other .NET code

Statically-typed languages like C# and VB.Net can be compiled into an assembly that can then be used by other .NET code. However, IronPython code is executed dynamically using ipy.exe. If you want to run Python code from other .NET code, there are a number of ways of doing it.

Using the DLR Hosting APIs

The DLR Hosting APIs allow a .NET application to embed DLR languages like IronPython and IronRuby, load and execute Python and Ruby code, and access objects created by the Python or Ruby code.

Compiling Python code into an assembly

The pyc sample can be used to compile IronPython code into an assembly. The sample builds on top of clr-CompileModules. The assembly can then be loaded and executed using Python-ImportModule. However, note that the MSIL in the assembly is not CLS-compliant and cannot be directly accessed from other .NET languages.

dynamic

Starting with .NET 4.0, C# and VB.Net support access to IronPython objects using the dynamic keyword. This enables cleaner access to IronPython objects. Note that you need to use the hosting-apis to load IronPython code and get the root object out of it.

Integration of Python and .NET features

  • Type system integration.
  • See “Type-system unification (type and System.Type)”
  • Also see extensions-to-python-types and extensions-to-dotnet-types
  • List comprehension works with any .NET type that implements IList
  • with works with with any System.Collections.IEnumerable or System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable
  • pickle and ISerializable
  • docon .NET types and members:
  • doc uses XML comments if available. XML comment files are installed if TODO. As a result, help can be used:
>>> help(System.Collections.BitArray.Set) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Help on method_descriptor:
Set(...)
    Set(self, int index, bool value)
                    Sets the bit at a specific
     position in the System.Collections.BitArray to
     the specified value.
<BLANKLINE>
    index:
                    The zero-based index of the
     bit to set.
<BLANKLINE>
    value:
                    The Boolean value to assign
     to the bit.
  • If XML comment files are not available, IronPython generates documentation by reflecting on the type or member:
>>> help(System.Collections.Generic.List.Enumerator.Current) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Help on getset descriptor System.Collections.Generic in mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089.Enumerator.Current:
<BLANKLINE>
Current
    Get: T Current(self)

Extensions to Python types

import clr exposes extra functionality on some Python types to make .NET features accessible:

  • methodobjects of any builtin or .NET types:
  • instance method
  • Overloads(t1 [, t2…])
  • typeobjects
  • instance method
  • getitem(t1 [, t2…]) - creates a generic instantiation

Extensions to .NET types

IronPython also adds extensions to .NET types to make them more Pythonic. The following instance methods are exposed on .NET objects (and .NET classes where explicitly mentioned):

  • Types with op_Implicit
  • TODO
  • Types with op_Explicit
  • TODO
  • Types inheriting from a .NET class or interface
.NET base-type Synthesized Python method(s)
System.Object all methods of object eg. class, str, hash, setattr
System.IDisposable enter, exit
System.Collections.IEnumerator next
System.Collections.ICollection System.Collections.Generic.ICollection len
System.Collections.IEnumerable System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable System.Collections.IEnumerator System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerator iter
System.IFormattable format
System.Collections.IDictionary System.Collections.Generic.IDictionary<TKey, TValue> System.Collections.Generic.ICollection System.Collections.Generic.IList System.Collections.IEnumerable System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable System.Collections.IEnumerator System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerator contains
System.Array Class methods:Indexing of the type object with a type object to access a specific array type__new__(l) where l is IList (or supports getitem?)getitem, setitem, slice
System.Delegate Class method : new(type, function_or_bound_method)call
System.Enum orTODO ?
  • Types with a .NET operator method name
.NET operator method Synthesized Python method
op_Addition, Add add
Compare cmp
get_ [8] getitem
set_ [9] setitem
[8] where the type also has a property , and a DefaultMemberAttribute for
[9] where the type also has a property , and a DefaultMemberAttribute for

Equality and hashing

TODO - This is currently just copied from IronRuby, and is known to be incorrect

Object equality and hashing are fundamental properties of objects. The Python API for comparing and hashing objects is eq (and ne) and hash respectively. The CLR APIs are System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode respectively. IronPython does an automatic mapping between the two concepts so that Python objects can be compared and hashed from non-Python .NET code, and eq and hash are available in Python code for non-Python objects as well.

When Python code calls eq and hash

  • If the object is a Python object, the default implementations of eq and hash get called. The default implementations call System.Object.ReferenceEquals and System.Runtime.CompileServices.RuntimeHelpers.GetHashCode respectively.
  • If the object is a CLR object, System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode respectively get called on the .NET object.
  • If the object is a Python subclass object inheriting from a CLR class, the CLR’s class’s implementation of System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode will get called if the Python subclass does not define eq and hash. If the Python subclass defines eq and hash, those will be called instead.

When static MSIL code calls System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode

  • If the object is a Python objects, the Python object will direct the call to eq and hash. If the Python object has implementations for these methods, they will be called. Otherwise, the default implementation mentioned above gets called.
  • If the object is a Python subclass object inheriting from a CLR class, the CLR’s class’s implementation of System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode will get called if the Python subclass does not define eq and hash. If the Python subclass defines eq and hash, those will be called instead.

Hashing of mutable objects

The CLR expects that System.Object.GetHashCode always returns the same value for a given object. If this invariant is not maintained, using the object as a key in a System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary<K,V> will misbehave. Python allows hash to return different results, and relies on the user to deal with the scenario of using the object as a key in a Hash. The mapping above between the Python and CLR concepts of equality and hashing means that CLR code that deals with Python objects has to be aware of the issue. If static MSIL code uses a Python object as a the key in a Dictionary<K,V>, unexpected behavior might happen.

To reduce the chances of this happenning when using common Python types, IronPython does not map hash to GetHashCode for Array and Hash. For other Python classes, the user can provide separate implementations for eq and Equals, and hash and GetHashCode if the Python class is mutable but also needs to be usable as a key in a Dictionary<K,V>.

System.Object.ToString, repr and str

ToString on Python objects

Calling ToString on Python objects calls the default System.Object.ToString implementation, even if the Python type defines str:

>>> class MyClass(object):
...     def __str__(self):
...         return "__str__ result"
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language
>>> o.GetType().GetMethod("ToString").Invoke(o, None) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'IronPython.NewTypes.System.Object_...'

repr/str on .NET objects

All Python user types have repr and str:

>>> class MyClass(object):
...     pass
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> o.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'<MyClass object at ...>'
>>> o.__str__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'IronPython.NewTypes.System.Object_...'
>>> str(o) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'<MyClass object at ...>'

For .NET types which do not override ToString, IronPython provides repr and str methods which behave similar to those of Python user types [10]:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray
>>> ba = BitArray(5)
>>> ba.ToString() # BitArray inherts System.Object.ToString()
'System.Collections.BitArray'
>>> ba.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'<System.Collections.BitArray object at ... [System.Collections.BitArray]>'
>>> ba.__str__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'<System.Collections.BitArray object at ... [System.Collections.BitArray]>'

For .NET types which do override ToString, IronPython includes the result of ToString in repr, and maps ToString directly to str:

>>> e = System.Exception()
>>> e.ToString()
"System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown."
>>> e.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
"<System.Exception object at ... [System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown.]>"
>>> e.__str__() #doctest:
"System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown."

For Python types that override ToString, str is mapped to the ToString override:

>>> class MyClass(object):
...     def ToString(self):
...         return "ToString implemented in Python"
>>> o = MyClass()
>>> o.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'<MyClass object at ...>'
>>> o.__str__()
'ToString implemented in Python'
>>> str(o) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS
'<MyClass object at ...>'
[10] There is some inconsistency in handling of str that is tracked by http://ironpython.codeplex.com/WorkItem/View.aspx?WorkItemId=24973

OleAutomation and COM interop

IronPython supports accessing OleAutomation objects (COM objects which support dispinterfaces).

IronPython does not support the win32ole library, but Python code using win32ole can run on IronPython with just a few modifications.

Creating a COM object

Different languages have different ways to create a COM object. VBScript and VBA have a method called CreateObject to create an OleAut object. JScript has a method called TODO. There are multiple ways of doing the same in IronPython.

  1. The first approach is to use System.Type.GetTypeFromProgID and System.Activator.CreateInstance . This method works with any registered COM object:
>>> import System
>>> t = System.Type.GetTypeFromProgID("Excel.Application")
>>> excel = System.Activator.CreateInstance(t)
>>> wb = excel.Workbooks.Add()
>>> excel.Quit()
  1. The second approach is to use clr.AddReferenceToTypeLibrary to load the type library (if it is available) of the COM object. The advantage is that you can use the type library to access other named values like constants:
>>> import System
>>> excelTypeLibGuid = System.Guid("00020813-0000-0000-C000-000000000046")
>>> import clr
>>> clr.AddReferenceToTypeLibrary(excelTypeLibGuid)
>>> from Excel import Application
>>> excel = Application()
>>> wb = excel.Workbooks.Add()
>>> excel.Quit()
  1. Finally, you can also use the interop assembly. This can be generated using the tlbimp.exe tool. The only advantage of this approach was that this was the approach recommeded for IronPython 1. If you have code using this approach that you developed for IronPython 1, it will continue to work:
>>> import clr
>>> clr.AddReference("Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel")
>>> from Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel import ApplicationClass
>>> excel = ApplicationClass()
>>> wb = excel.Workbooks.Add()
>>> excel.Quit()

Using COM objects

One you have access to a COM object, it can be used like any other objects. Properties, methods, default indexers and events all work as expected.

Properties

There is one important detail worth pointing out. IronPython tries to use the type library of the OleAut object if it can be found, in order to do name resolution while accessing methods or properties. The reason for this is that the IDispatch interface does not make much of a distinction between properties and method calls. This is because of Visual Basic 6 semantics where “excel.Quit” and “excel.Quit()” have the exact same semantics. However, IronPython has a strong distinction between properties and methods, and methods are first class objects. For IronPython to know whether “excel.Quit” should invoke the method Quit, or just return a callable object, it needs to inspect the typelib. If a typelib is not available, IronPython assumes that it is a method. So if a OleAut object has a property called “prop” but it has no typelib, you would need to write “p = obj.prop()” in IronPython to read the property value.

Methods with out parameters

Calling a method with “out” (or in-out) parameters requires explicitly passing in an instance of “clr.Reference”, if you want to get the updated value from the method call. Note that COM methods with out parameters are not considered Automation-friendly [11]. JScript does not support out parameters at all. If you do run into a COM component which has out parameters, having to use “clr.Reference” is a reasonable workaround:

>>> import clr
>>> from System import Type, Activator
>>> command_type = Type.GetTypeFromProgID("ADODB.Command")
>>> command = Activator.CreateInstance(command_type)
>>> records_affected = clr.Reference[int]()
>>> command.Execute(records_affected, None, None) #doctest: +SKIP
>>> records_affected.Value
0

Another workaround is to leverage the inteorp assembly by using the unbound class instance method syntax of “outParamAsReturnValue = InteropAssemblyNamespace.IComInterface(comObject)”.

[11] Note that the Office APIs in particular do have “VARIANT*” parameters, but these methods do not update the value of the VARIANT. The only reason they were defined with “VARIANT*” parameters was for performance since passing a pointer to a VARIANT is faster than pushing all the 4 DWORDs of the VARIANT onto the stack. So you can just treat such parameters as “in” parameters.

Accessing the type library

The type library has names of constants. You can use clr.AddReferenceToTypeLibrary to load the type library.

Non-automation COM objects

IronPython does not fully support COM objects which do not support dispinterfaces since they appear likey proxy objects [12]. You can use the unbound class method syntax to access them.

[12] This was supported in IronPython 1, but the support was dropped in version 2.

Miscellaneous

Security model

When running Python code using ipy.exe, IronPython behaves like Python and does not do any sand-boxing. All scripts execute with the permissions of the user. As a result, running Python code downloaded from the Internet for example could be potentially be dangerous.

However, ipy.exe is just one manifiestation of IronPython. IronPython can also be used in other scenarios like embedded in an application. All the IronPython assemblies are security-transparent. As a result, IronPython code can be run in a sand-box and the host can control the security priviledges to be granted to the Python code. This is one of the benefits of IronPython building on top of .NET.

Execution model and call frames

IronPython code can be executed by any of the following techniques:

  1. Interpretation
  2. Compiling on the fly using DynamicMethod
  3. Compiling on the fly using DynamicMethod
  4. Ahead-of-time compilation to an assembly on disk using ipyc
  5. A combination of the above - ie. a method might initially be interpreted, and can later be compiled once it has been called a number of times.

As a result, call frames of IronPython code are not like frames of statically typed langauges like C# and VB.Net. .NET code using APIs like those listed below need to think about how it will deal with IronPython code:

  • StackTrace.new
  • GetExecutingAssembly
  • Exception.ToString

Accessing non-public members

It is sometimes useful to access private members of an object. For example, while writing unit tests for .NET code in IronPython or when using the interactive command line to observe the innner workings of some object. ipy.exe supports this via the -X:PrivateBinding` command-line option. It can also be enabled in hosting scenarios via the TODO property ; this requires IronPython to be executing with FullTrust.

Mapping between Python builtin types and .NET types

IronPython is an implementation of the Python language on top of .NET. As such, IronPython uses various .NET types to implement Python types. Usually, you do not have to think about this. However, you may sometimes have to know about it.

Python type .NET type
object System.Object
int System.Int32
long System.Numeric.BigInteger [13]
float System.Double
str, unicode System.String
bool System.Boolean
[13] This is true only in CLR 4. In previous versions of the CLR, long is implemented by IronPython itself.

import clr and builtin types

Since some Python builtin types are implemented as .NET types, the question arises whether the types work like Python types or like .NET types. The answer is that by default, the types work like Python types. However, if a module executes import clr, the types work like both Python types and like .NET types. For example, by default, object’ does not have the System.Object method called GetHashCode:

>>> hasattr(object, "__hash__")
True
>>> # Note that this assumes that "import clr" has not yet been executed
>>> hasattr(object, "GetHashCode") #doctest: +SKIP
False

However, once you do import clr, object has both hash as well as GetHashCode:

>>> import clr
>>> hasattr(object, "__hash__")
True
>>> hasattr(object, "GetHashCode")
True

LINQ

Language-integrated Query (LINQ) is a set of features that was added in .NET 3.5. Since it is a scenario rather than a specific feature, we will first compare which of the scenarios work with IronPython:

  • LINQ-to-objects
    Python’s list comprehension provides similar functionality, and is more Pythonic. Hence, it is recommended to use list comprehension itself.
  • DLinq - This is currently not supported.

Feature by feature comparison

LINQ consists of a number of language and .NET features, and IronPython has differing levels of support for the different features:

  • C# and VB.NET lambda function - Python supports lambda functions already.
  • Anonymous types - Python has tuples which can be used like anonymous types.
  • Extension methods - See
  • Generic method type parameter inference - See
  • Expression trees - This is not supported. This is the main reason DLinq does not work.

Appendix - Type conversion rules

Note that some Python types are implemented as .NET types and no conversion is required in such cases. See builtin-type-mapping for the mapping.

Python argument type .NET method parameter type
int System.Byte, System.SByte, System.UInt16, System.Int16
User object with int method Same as int
str or unicode of size 1 System.Char
User object with str method Same as str
float System.Float
tuple with T-typed elements System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable or System.Collections.Generic.IList
function, method System.Delegate and any of its sub-classes
dict with K-typed keys and V-typed values System.Collections.Generic.IDictionary<K,V>
type System.Type

Appendix - Detailed method overload resolution rules

TODO: This is old information

Roughly equivalent to VB 11.8.1 with additional level of preferred narrowing conversions

  • Start with the set of all accessible members
  • Keep only those members for which the argument types can be assigned to the parameter types by a widening conversion
  • If there is one or more member in the set find the best member
  • If there is one best member then call it
  • If there are multiple best members then throw ambiguous
  • Add in those members for which the argument types can be assigned to the parameter types by either a preferred narrowing or a widening conversion
  • If there is one applicable member then call it
  • If there is more than one applicable member then throw ambiguous
  • Add in those members for which the argument types can be assigned to the parameter types by any narrowing or a widening conversion
  • If there is one applicable member then call it
  • If there is more than one applicable member then throw ambiguous
  • Otherwise throw no match

Applicable Members By Number of Arguments – Phase 1

  • The number of arguments is identical to the number of parameters
  • The number of arguments is less than the number of parameters, but all parameters without an argument are optional – have a non-DbNull default value.
  • The method includes a parameter array and the params-expanded form of the method is applicable to the arguments
  • The params-expanded form is constructed by replacing the parameter array in the declaration with zero or more value parameters of the element type of the parameter array such that the number of arguments matches the number of parameters in the expanded form
  • The method includes byref parameters and the byref-reduced form of the method is applicable to the arguments
  • The byref-reduced form is constructed by removing all out parameters from the list and replacing all ref parameters with their target type. The return information for such a match will be provided in a tuple of return values.

Applicable Members By Type Of Arguments – Phase 2

  • If a conversion of the given type exists from the argument object to the type of the parameter for every argument then the method is applicable
  • For ref or out parameters, the argument must be an instance of the appropriate Reference class – unless the byref-reduced form of the method is being used

Better Member (same as C# 7.4.2.2)

Parameter Types : Given an argument list A with a set of types {A1, A1, …, An} and type applicable parameter lists P and Q with types {P1, P2, …, Pn} and {Q1, Q2, …, Qn} P is a better member than Q if

  • For each argument, the conversion from Ax to Px is not worse than the conversion from Ax to Qx, and
  • For at least one argument, the conversion from Ax to Px is better than the conversion from Ax to Qx

Parameter Modifications : The method that uses the minimal conversions from the original method is considered the better match. The better member is the one that matches the earliest rule in the list of conversions for applicable methods. If both members use the same rules, then the method that converts the fewest of its parameters is considered best. For example, if multiple params methods have identical expanded forms, then the method with the most parameters prior to params-expanded form will be selected

Static vs. instance methods : When comparing a static method and an instance method that are both applicable, then the method that matches the calling convention is considered better. If the method is called unbound on the type object then the static method is preferred; however, if the method is called bound to an instance than the instance method will be preferred.

Explicitly implemented interface methods: Methods implemented as public methods on a class are considered better than methods that are private on the declaring class which explicitly implement an interface method.

Generic methods: Non-generic methods are considered better than generic methods.

Better Conversion (same as C# 7.4.2.3)

  • If T1 == T2 then neither conversion is better
  • If S is T1 then C1 is the better conversion (and vice-versa)
  • If a conversion from T1 to T2 exists, and no conversion from T2 to T1 exists, then C1 is the better conversion (and vice versa)
  • Conversion to a signed numeric type is preferred over conversion to a non-signed type of equal or greater size (this means that sbyte is preferred over byte)

Special conversion rule for ExtensibleFoo: An ExtensibleFoo has a conversion to a type whenever there is an appropriate conversion from Foo to that type.

Implicit Conversions

  • Implicit numeric conversions (C# 6.1.2)
  • Implicit reference conversions (C# 6.1.4) == Type.IsAssignableFrom
  • null -> Nullable
  • COM object to any interface type
  • User-defined implicit conversions (C# 6.1.7)
  • Conversion from DynamicType -> Type

Narrowing Conversions (see VB 8.9 but much more restrictive for Python) are conversions that cannot be proved to always succeed, conversions that are known to possibly lose information, and conversions across domains of types sufficiently different to merit narrowing notation. The following conversions are classified as narrowing conversions:

Preferred Narrowing Conversions

  • BigInteger -> Int64 – because this is how Python represents numbers larger than 32 bits
  • IList -> IList
  • IEnumerator -> IEnumerator
  • IDictionary<object,object> -> IDictionary<K,V>

Narrowing Conversions

  • Bool -> int
  • Narrowing conversions of numeric types when overflow doesn’t occur
  • String(length == 1) -> char and Char -> string(length == 1)
  • Generic Python protocols to CLS types
  • Callable (or anything?) -> Delegate
  • Object (iterable?) -> IEnumerator?
  • int to int, float, complex
  • Troubling conversions planning to keep
  • Object -> bool (nonzero)
  • Double -> int – this is standard Python behavior, albeit deprecated behavior
  • Tuple -> Array

All of the below will require explicit conversions

  • Enum to numeric type – require explicit conversions instead
  • From numeric types to char (excluded by C#)
  • Dict -> Hashtable
  • List -> Array, List and ArrayList
  • Tuple -> List and ArrayList

Rules for going the other direction when C# methods are overridden by Python or delegates are implemented on the Python side:

  • This change alters our rules for how params and by ref parameters are handled for both overridden methods and delegates.
  1. by ref (ref or out) parameters are always passed to Python as an instance of clr.Reference. The Value property on these can be used to get and set the underlying value and on return from the method this will be propogated back to the caller.
  2. params parameters are ignored in these cases and the underlying array is passed to the Python function instead of splitting out all of the args.
  • The principle behind this change is to present the most direct reflection of the CLS signature to the Python programmer when they are doing something where the signature could be ambiguous. For calling methods with by ref parameters we support both explicit Reference objects and the implicit skipped parameters. When overriding we want to support the most direct signature to remove ambiguity. Similarly for params methods we support both calling the method with an explicit array of args or with n-args. To remove the ambiguity when overriding we only support the explicit array.
  • I’m quite happy with this principle in general. The one part that sucks for me is that these methods are now not callable from Python in the non-explict forms any more. For example, if I have a method void Foo(params object[] args) then I will override it with a Python method Foo(args) and not Foo(*args). This means that the CLS base type’s method can be called as o.Foo(1,2,3) but the Python subclass will have to be called as o.Foo( (1,2,3) ). This is somewhat ugly, but I can’t come up with any other relatively simple and clear option here and I think that because overriding overloaded methods can get quite complicated we should err on the side of simplicity.


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