readability-lxml 源码解析(一)

简介: readability-lxml 源码解析(一)

browser.py

def open_in_browser(html):
    """
    Open the HTML document in a web browser, saving it to a temporary
    file to open it.  Note that this does not delete the file after
    use.  This is mainly meant for debugging.
    """
    import os
    import webbrowser
    import tempfile
    # 创建 HTML 临时文件
    handle, fn = tempfile.mkstemp(suffix=".html")
    # 打开 HTML
    f = os.fdopen(handle, "wb")
    # 写入 HTML 文本
    try:
        f.write(b"<meta charset='UTF-8' />")
        f.write(html.encode("utf-8"))
    finally:
        # we leak the file itself here, but we should at least close it
        f.close()
    # 拼接文件的 URL
    url = "file://" + fn.replace(os.path.sep, "/")
    # 让浏览器打开
    webbrowser.open(url)
    return url

cleaner.py

# strip out a set of nuisance html attributes that can mess up rendering in RSS feeds
import re
from lxml.html.clean import Cleaner
# 不良属性
bad_attrs = ["width", "height", "style", "[-a-z]*color", "background[-a-z]*", "on*"]
# 匹配单引号包围的文本
single_quoted = "'[^']+'"
# 匹配双引号包围的文本
double_quoted = '"[^"]+"'
# 匹配非空格和标签结构字符
non_space = "[^ \"'>]+"
# 匹配带有不良属性的标签
htmlstrip = re.compile(
    "<"  # open
    "([^>]+) "  # prefix
    "(?:%s) *" % ("|".join(bad_attrs),)
    + "= *(?:%s|%s|%s)"  # undesirable attributes
    % (non_space, single_quoted, double_quoted)
    + "([^>]*)"  # value  # postfix
    ">",  # end
    re.I,
)
def clean_attributes(html):
    # 如果发现了不良属性
    while htmlstrip.search(html):
        # 那就把它移除
        html = htmlstrip.sub("<\\1\\2>", html)
    # 直到没有指定属性为止
    return html
def normalize_spaces(s):
    # 如果`s`为空返回空串
    if not s:
        return ""
    # 将连续的空白字符`\s+`替换为单个空格`\x20`并返回
    return " ".join(s.split())
# 调用 lxml 库的`Cleaner`创建标签格式化工具
html_cleaner = Cleaner(
    # 移除`<script>`标签
    scripts=True,
    # 移除`onXXX`属性
    javascript=True,
    # 移除注释节点
    comments=True,
    # 移除`<style>`标签`
    style=True,
    # 移除`<link>`标签
    links=True,
    # 不移除`<meta>`标签
    meta=False,
    # 不添加`nofollow`属性
    add_nofollow=False,
    # 不排版`<html> <head> <title>`
    page_structure=False,
    # 移除命令节点
    processing_instructions=True,
    # 不移除`<embed>`标签
    embedded=False,
    # 不溢出`<iframe>`标签
    frames=False,
    # 不移除`<form>`标签及控件标签
    forms=False,
    # 不移除'blink', 'marquee'标签
    annoying_tags=False,
    # 没有自定义的移除标签
    remove_tags=None,
    # 不移除未知标签
    remove_unknown_tags=False,
    # 不移除未知属性
    safe_attrs_only=False,
)

debug.py

import re
# FIXME: use with caution, can leak memory
uids = {}
uids_document = None
# 获取节点的描述文本
def describe_node(node):
    global uids
    if node is None:
        return ""
    # 如果节点没有名称
    # 返回占位符
    if not hasattr(node, "tag"):
        return "[%s]" % type(node)
    name = node.tag
    # 获取节点 ID 或者类名,转成选择器形式
    # 附加在名称之后
    if node.get("id", ""):
        name += "#" + node.get("id")
    if node.get("class", "").strip():
        name += "." + ".".join(node.get("class").split())
    # 如果节点是 DIV,并且具有 ID 或者类名
    # 从描述中移除 DIV
    if name[:4] in ["div#", "div."]:
        name = name[3:]
    # 如果名称是以下这四个
    if name in ["tr", "td", "div", "p"]:
        # 给节点分配一个自增的 UID,并缓存
        uid = uids.get(node)
        if uid is None:
            uid = uids[node] = len(uids) + 1
        # 在描述后面添加 UID
        name += "{%02d}" % uid
    return name
# 获取节点的描述文本,带有指定数量的父元素
def describe(node, depth=1):
    global uids, uids_document
    # 判断`uids_document`是否是根节点
    # 如果不是,清空`uids`和它
    doc = node.getroottree().getroot()
    if doc != uids_document:
        uids = {}
        uids_document = doc
    # return repr(NodeRepr(node))
    parent = ""
    # 判断深度是否为 0
    if depth and node.getparent() is not None:
        # 递归获取父元素的描述文本 
        parent = describe(node.getparent(), depth=depth - 1) + ">"
    # 将父元素描述和当前节点描述拼接
    return parent + describe_node(node)
RE_COLLAPSE_WHITESPACES = re.compile(r"\s+", re.U)
# 获取节点的简短内容
def text_content(elem, length=40):
    # 折叠空白字符,并移除所有 \r
    content = RE_COLLAPSE_WHITESPACES.sub(" ", elem.text_content().replace("\r", ""))
    # 如果内容长度小鱼限制,直接返回
    if len(content) < length:
        return content
    # 否则阶段并加省略号
    return content[:length] + "..."

encoding.py

import re
try:
    import cchardet
except ImportError:
    import chardet
import sys
# 匹配三个可能包含编码的标签
# `<meta charset>` `<meta content>` 和 `<?xml ?>`
RE_CHARSET = re.compile(r'<meta.*?charset=["\']*(.+?)["\'>]', flags=re.I)
RE_PRAGMA = re.compile(r'<meta.*?content=["\']*;?charset=(.+?)["\'>]', flags=re.I)
RE_XML = re.compile(r'^<\?xml.*?encoding=["\']*(.+?)["\'>]')
CHARSETS = {
    "big5": "big5hkscs",
    "gb2312": "gb18030",
    "ascii": "utf-8",
    "maccyrillic": "cp1251",
    "win1251": "cp1251",
    "win-1251": "cp1251",
    "windows-1251": "cp1251",
}
# 通过查表,将输入编码替换成它的超集
def fix_charset(encoding):
    """Overrides encoding when charset declaration
       or charset determination is a subset of a larger
       charset.  Created because of issues with Chinese websites"""
    encoding = encoding.lower()
    return CHARSETS.get(encoding, encoding)
def get_encoding(page):
    # Regex for XML and HTML Meta charset declaration
    # 获取所有包含编码的标签
    declared_encodings = (
        RE_CHARSET.findall(page) + RE_PRAGMA.findall(page) + RE_XML.findall(page)
    )
    # Try any declared encodings
    for declared_encoding in declared_encodings:
        try:
            # Python3 only
            # 如果是 Python3,将字节串转字符串
            if sys.version_info[0] == 3:
                # declared_encoding will actually be bytes but .decode() only
                # accepts `str` type. Decode blindly with ascii because no one should
                # ever use non-ascii characters in the name of an encoding.
                declared_encoding = declared_encoding.decode("ascii", "replace")
            encoding = fix_charset(declared_encoding)
            # Now let's decode the page
            page.decode(encoding)
            # It worked!
            return encoding
        except UnicodeDecodeError:
            pass
    # Fallback to chardet if declared encodings fail
    # Remove all HTML tags, and leave only text for chardet
    # 如果编码没有声明,尝试用 chardet 猜测
    # 移除所有标签
    text = re.sub(r'(\s*</?[^>]*>)+\s*', ' ', page).strip()
    # 如果长度小鱼 10,无法猜测,返回默认编码 UTF8
    enc = 'utf-8'
    if len(text) < 10:
        return enc  # can't guess
    # 猜测编码
    res = chardet.detect(text)
    # 如果猜测失败,设为 UTF8
    enc = res["encoding"] or "utf-8"
    # print '->', enc, "%.2f" % res['confidence']
    # 修复编码名称
    enc = fix_charset(enc)
    return enc
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